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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
Bureau of Extension of the Uni
versity of North Carolina.
JANUARY 20, 1915 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. I, NO. 9
Editorial Boardt B.C. Branson, J. O. deR.
Hamilton, L. R. Wilson, Z! V. Jndd, S, R.
Bntered as second-cla^s matter November 14,
1914, at the postofflce at Chapel Hill, N.C.,
under the act of August 24,1913.
CAROLINA CLUB NOTES
The gfimiiiest purpose of tlie Danisli
t'armer is, as he says, to get hia legs un
der Ills own table. Ninety-four in every
Imudred ])anisli farmers own thu farms
They know that real freedom, under
any form of government, is sourced in
iiome and farm ovvnershij); that the
iandle.ss and homeless are on the way to
economic^ serfdom, whatever flag flies
over their lieads.
The Land is the Man
The fiercest feehng oE our Teuton fore
fathers was their lust for land. Ooiuinon
proverbs in the early days were, The
Land’s the Mant No land, no man;
Who owns tlie land owns tlie iuan; The
landowner is lord; and so on and on.
Till this good day, it is an insult or a
mark of ignorance, to address an English
landowner as Mister. It must be Edward
Moseley, Es(]uire, if you please.
Lost: A Racial Instinct
More than 63,000 white farmers in
Nortli Carolina are tenants and renters,
landless and homeless. And this in a
coinnionwealth that contains more than
twenty million uncultivated acres.
Counting our tenants and renters,
■n'hite and black, in villages, towns, and
cities as well as in our country regions.
iiumber with their families, all told,
And 650,000 of them are white. Like
■door Dante, they spend their days and
night going up and down another man’s
Forty-one Counties Above the
The per-acre yield of the United State-s
in 1914, the ten i)rincipai cro]»s considerr
ed, was $16.44.
In the census year, forty-one counties
of North Carolina were above this a\’er-
Our power to produce crop wealth is
amazing. Our power to retain it is fee
ble. Our per capita wealth in the farm
regions of North Carolina is only 1322.
In the United ytates.it is $994; in Ilh-
nois, $2,655; in Iowa, |3,3S6.
It is well nigh iinijossible to retain in a
community the cotton and tobacco wealth
])roduced under a farm-teiiancy, supply-
Cotton Manufacture in North
111 1914 North Carolina had 3,770,316
active -spindles and consumed 906,177
bales of cotton in her mills.
North Clarolina leads the South in the
\’alue of manufactured cotton goods, and
-in the (juantity of raw cotton consumed.
Indeed in this last particular, she ranks
next to Massachusetts, the leading cotton
mill state in the union.
Last year North Carolina raised 935,-
000 bales of cotton and consumed all but
28,823 bales in her f>wn mills.
Great Cotton Spinning Counties
in North Carolina
Number of spindles in each county is
1. Gaston 507,192
2. Cabarrus, 281,532
3. Mecklenburg, 267,800
4. Guilford, , 213,868
5. Durham, 162,404
6. Rockingham, 159,986
7. Alamance, 140,592
8. Rutherford, 138,169
9. Richmond, 127,047
10. Stanly, 104,296
—1914 Federal Census Bulletin.
How They Do It in Alleghany
Around 120,000 lbs. of turkeys, worth
3)19,200 to the producei’s were shipped
out of Alleghany County this fall to the
Baltimore, Philadelphia, Richmond and
■Washington- markets, says Jlr. J. F.
OUTLINE FOR DEBATE ON CHILD LABOR
The development of North Carolina, as
■well as that of any other state, depends
on the health and intelligence of its peo
ple; and the foundations of health and
intelligence must be laid during child
A question always worth the 'consider
ation of those interested in educating or
in getting educated is, how is North Caroli
na pro-i'iding opportunity for her children
to become healthy and intelligent men
.and w'omen? Does she oi)en a free way
for their development, or does she stunt
the growth of body and mind by allowing
them to work in mills and factories?
Brought into the form of a debate
viuery, the question is: ‘'Re.solved, That
Korth Carolina should enact a law' pro-
Jii biting all children under fourteen years
of age from working in any null, factory,
or manufacturing plant.”
I. Child labor results in mental and
physical retaliation and incomplete de-
Telopment, for .
-A No time for play, one of the chief
■agents of development is given.
B ^"ery little, if any, time is given for
The work is fre(iuently carried on
in badly lighted unsanitary buildings.
II. Cliild labor defeats the very object
■of its employment, for
A It tends to industrial deterioration,
lor in retarding the physical and mental
growth of the child, it prevents him from
becoming a skilled laborer.
III. Child labor is cheap lalior, and
ccheap labor tends to poverty, for
A The total income of a family work-
iiiig in an industry that regularly eni-
pkrys child labor is. almost always less
itlian tliat of a family working in an in-
idnatry that employs only adults.
T\'. Child labor is detrimental to so
ciety in general, for
A It promotes crime, for working
children contribute a much larger pro
portion of delinquents than do non-work
B It embitters the spirit of the child,
for as it hinders his highest develop
ment as a citizen, it fills him with hatred
of those whom he considers responsible.
V. It is contended that some forms of
manufacture are dependent upon child
labor; but though child labor may be an
economy and a convenience it cannot be
a necessity to any form of legitimate man
^'I. It is contended that the child of
the widow or the needy child sliould be
allowed to work; but on the contrary,
such children should be given special
protection so that their possibilities for
future maintenance may not he limited.
I. Society absolutely needs child labor
in some forms of legitimatt^ manufacture,
A C!hildren are better fitted for some
occupations than adults.
II. Blany parents who are unable to
work or who cannot earn enough to sup
port their-families, need the help of their
III. Under present educational condi
tions, North Carolina is better with chiUl
labor than without it, for
A At present the compulsory school
law does not apply to cliildren between
twelve and fourteen years of age, and
■even if it did, it would affect them four
months-in the year; and the children are
much better ofi' employed in the factories
than idle and out of school.
IV. The proposed law does not do more
than toucli the edge of the child labor
A It prohibits child labor in “any
mill, factory, or manufacturing plant,”
and thus does not extend its so-called
I^rotection over the thousands of child
labor workers on the farms.
B The number of children employel
in mills, factories and manufacturing
plants is small compared with those em
ployed on farms, for out of a total
of 84,279 engaged in gainful pur
suits, 74,080 are engaged in agriculture.
V. Children in mill communities are
much better off than those who are em
ployed in agricultural vsork, for
A North Carolina mill owners have
adopted the practice of providing sani
tary homes, and thus the proportion of
those adversely' affected through work
must be small.
ROBERT EDWARD LEE
\\'hen the future historian shall
come to survey the character of Lee,
he u ill find it rising like a huge inouiv-
tain above the undulating plain of
humanity, and must lift his eyes high
toward heaven to catch its summit.
He possessed every virtue of other
great commanders without their vices.
11(“ was a foe without hate, a friend
without treachery, a soldier witliout
,oppressim. and a victim without mur
He »as ;i public officer without
vices, a [H’ivate citizen without wrong,
a neighbor without reproach, a Chris
tian without hypocrisy, and a man
He was Caesar without his ambi
tion, Frederick without his tyranny,
Napoleon without his selfishness, and
AVashington without his reward.
1 fe was obedient to authority as a ser
vant. and royal in authority as a true
He ^ as gentle as a woman in life,
modest and [jureas a virgin in thought,
w'atchful as a Roman vestal in duty,
submissive to law as Socrates, and
grand in battle as Aehilles.
—Benjamin Harvey Hill.
UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
LETTER SERIES NO. 11
Ilackler to the .UNIVERSITY NEWS
Here is a net profit of $10,630 to 342
turkey raisers in Allegliany—a neat little
sum for the Christmas stockings.
It is live-stock farming that makes
Alleghany thej'ichest farm county, in per
capita wealth, in North C!arolina.
Rural Credits and Rural
In the fortjf-third Congress, 1873 to
1875, sixty-one per ’ent of the members
were lawyers, sixteen per cent were en
gaged in commercial and manufacturing
pursuits, and seven per cent were engaged
in farming, says iNIr. ,J. O. Dysart of the
Caldwell County Club.
But the farmers fai the present Con
gress are still fewer; one in the Senate
and about twelvu in the House, says IMr.
S. H. Hobbs of Sampson County—say a
baker’s dozen all told, or less than four
per cent of our Congressmen.
The need for rural credit laws is in
creasing. The need is indeed critical in
the Soutli; but the number of rural states
men is steadily decreasing.
State High School Costs
The average cost per pupil in our pub
lic State-aided high schools for the year
1913-’14 was $26.47. The range of cost
was from $11.52 in Franklin County to
$52.63 in Jackson. There surely must be
inefficient administration somewhere to
cause such divergence as this.
THE RIGHTS OF THE MULTI
The people of North Carohna have a
right to know about their University.
The December number of the Univer
sity Record gives them a chance to know
what it is their right to know.
Here is an exhibit of the year’s work-
every detail of every department of it; a
plain, simple, nn\ arnished tale of what
the University is, and what it purposes to
If you do not have it, send a post card
request and it will be sent you promptly.
The State Universities of the South had
for instruction and maintenance, per stu
dent per year, (1912-13) the following
Florida $550; Georgia $353; Louisiana
i|336; Virginia $335; Texas $268; Oklaho
ma $254; IMississippi $245; Tennessee
$239; Alabama $238; South Carolina
$222, and North Carolina $192.
Short Commons in North Carolina.
These figures are based on Bulletin No.
571, Federal Bureau of Education.
The University is daily extending its
campus limits and carrying college train
ing to an ever increasing number of stu
At the present time twenty-five weekly
lessons on college subjects are being sent
out from the Correspondence Study Divis
ion of the Bureau of Extension.
The popular subjects are English,
Latin, History, Mathematics, Greek, Ger
man, Education, Economics, Rural Eco
nomics and Sociology.
Country-Life Clubs in Granville
The work of Miss Mary G. Shotwell,
rural supervisor in Granville County, in
organizing Country Life Clubs, should l)e
known by e\'ery rural teacher in the
State. A copy of the Constitution and
By-laws of this organization has just been
received by the ITNI\"ERSITY NEWS
LETTER. \^'rite for a copy and read for
Says Miss Shotwell: “This bulletin is
offered to the teachers in the. hope tJiat
it may promote the progress and interests
of tlie school and comminiity. Let ns do
more fop the country boys and girls than
•‘keep order' and ‘hear recitations.’
Objects of Organization
“Sec. 1. To arouse interest in educa
tion and to insist upon the importance of
every child’s being in school every day of
“Sec. 2. To encourage the study of
agriculture anl tri cultivate among the
boys and girls a lo^'e for the farm and the
“Sec. 3. To make the school the cen
ter of the community by furnishing
wholesome and instructive anuisements^
to improve the physical and intellectual
environment of our fu,ture citizens.”
“Sec. 1. All local and county agricul
tural contests, such as corn and tomato- '
growing, cooking, sewing, poultry raising,
etc., shall engage the active interest of
“Sec. 2. The society shall arrange for
public meetings some time during the
year, to which all the people of the com
munity shall be invited.”
Special Day Programs
Miss Sliotweli has included in the bul
letin several very valuable programs for
special days, for example:
CSitennial of Star-Spaiigk^d Banner:
1. Occasion of writing song.
2. “Old Glory”—origin of tune.
3. Brief account of celel)ration in Bal
4. Song—Star-Spangled Banner.
2. The house fly as a spreader of dis
3. Ventilation of bedroom.
4. W’hy we have colds.
5. The greatest source of disease in
this comnumity. (Address by a physician.)
Agricultural and Rural Life Day.
(Write U. S. Burea of Education for Ed
ucation Bulletin No.; 43 for material for
2. Repeart in concert, ’'The Country
3. Ancient knowledge of cooking.
4. Origin of food plants.
5. Effect of invention on agriculture.
6. Name three'tliings that the follow'-
ing men have contributed to agriculture:
George AA’ashington, Seaman Knapp,
Luther Burbank, James 'Wilson.
2. Improved machinery as labor sav
3. Boys corn clubs.
4. How to increase average yield of
5. How to make farm life happier for
farm women. (By farmer’s wife.)
6. Good roads.
7. Rural telephone, mail delivery and
Ifow to improve the rural school.
This is suggested in order to give the
people oi the community an opportunity
of helping each other. Let each member
tell some one thing Chat he or she can do,
for instance; make cake, soap, beaten
liiscuit, v\'hat to do with sick cattle, etc. -
The aim here should be to uti
lize the traveling experiences of the
comniunity. If none of the children have
traveled let them tell where they would
like to go. By use of maps the program
may be made a valuable geography- les
2. AVhere I spent my vacation.
3. My first visit to a great city.
4. My trip to the west.
5. An ocean voyage.
A number of other very valuable pro
grams were outhned.
IMiss Shotwell states that there are now
some fifteen Clul>s in the County, and
gives an interesting account of the work
of tw'o of them.
THE SCHOOL FAIR IDEA IN
THE UNIVERSITY NEAVS LETTER
takes pleasure in calling attention to a
very attractive Bulletin for the County
Commencement in A'ance County. This
Bulletin was prepared by Miss Lillian B.
Gilbert, Rural Supervisor.
* It is a very valuable handbook for the
teachers in making preparation for the
County C(jmmencement. It sets out the
value of the county commencement and
devotes much space ' to the ex
hibitions of-agricultural and domestic
This Bulletin is another evidence of the
fine activities of A'ance County under the
superintendency of Mr. Eugene M. Rol
teresting articles, some of them dealing
directly with the snpervisional work of
the county schools.
The publication is gotten up in a very
attractive form and Supt. matthews de
serves credit or this new development in
county school supervision.
LAST IN INCOME, FIRST
The University of North Carolina had
for support $76 per student per year less
than Texas; $108 less than the average
for Southern Universities; and $143 less
than Virginia in 1912-13.
Nevertheless the University of North
Carolina was ranked by the' Federal Bu
reau of Education in 1912 in the first di
vision of the first rank of American Uni
versities as a whole-along with Vander
bilt,. AHrginia and Texas in the South. ,
OUR FIRST MOONLIGHT
Harnett County has struck the first
blow against illiteracy in North Carolina
with a moonlight - school.
About ten miles west of Lillington the
Leaflet school has a .session every Wed
The day teacher. Miss Bessie Knight,
gives her services without charge and
serves about twenty-five men and women
in their struggle to .secure the l)les»ings
of an education.
The aim of the school will be, “to sup
ply deficiences in the practical education
of the people”.
TM’enty-five prisoners from the illiter
acy army have surrendered. The war will
continue, without destruction of life and
property, until the entire forces of the
enemy have been captured.
AVhat county will be next to enUst its
forces for liberty in this year of freedom?
THE SAMPSON COUNTY
THE UNIVERSITY NEAA'S LETTER
has just received a copy of the Sampson
County School Record. Supt. Blatthews
has discovered a novel way of communi
cating with the people of his County on
The Record is to be published monthly
by the County Board of Education. The
December issue contains a number of in-
WHAT IT COSTS TO RAISE
The investigations of 862 Federal crop
reporters in 1910 upon the cost of cotton
production show (1) an average per-acre
cost of $20.35 (2) and average per-acre
yield of 247 lbs. of lint cotton and (3) an
average cost of 8.24 cents per lb.
The cost of })roduction was lowest in
Alabama 7.92 cents per lb. and highest
in Texas 8.59 cents per lb.
The cost of producing cotton has in
creased upon an average 3 per cent a.
year since the investigations of 1896.