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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, January 20, 1915, Image 1

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The news in this publica tion is released for the press on the date indicated below. No credit need be given. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the Bureau of Extension of the Uni versity of North Carolina. JANUARY 20, 1915 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. I, NO. 9 Editorial Boardt B.C. Branson, J. O. deR. Hamilton, L. R. Wilson, Z! V. Jndd, S, R. Winters. Bntered as second-cla^s matter November 14, 1914, at the postofflce at Chapel Hill, N.C., under the act of August 24,1913. CAROLINA CLUB NOTES Home-Owning Farmers The gfimiiiest purpose of tlie Danisli t'armer is, as he says, to get hia legs un der Ills own table. Ninety-four in every Imudred ])anisli farmers own thu farms they cultivate. They know that real freedom, under any form of government, is sourced in iiome and farm ovvnershij); that the and homeless are on the way to economic^ serfdom, whatever flag flies over their lieads. The Land is the Man The fiercest feehng oE our Teuton fore fathers was their lust for land. Ooiuinon proverbs in the early days were, The Land’s the Mant No land, no man; Who owns tlie land owns tlie iuan; The landowner is lord; and so on and on. Till this good day, it is an insult or a mark of ignorance, to address an English landowner as Mister. It must be Edward Moseley, Es(]uire, if you please. Lost: A Racial Instinct More than 63,000 white farmers in Nortli Carolina are tenants and renters, landless and homeless. And this in a coinnionwealth that contains more than twenty million uncultivated acres. Counting our tenants and renters, ■n'hite and black, in villages, towns, and cities as well as in our country regions. iiumber with their families, all told, 1,136,000 peo'ple. And 650,000 of them are white. Like ■door Dante, they spend their days and night going up and down another man’s stairs. Forty-one Counties Above the Average The per-acre yield of the United State-s in 1914, the ten i)rincipai cro]»s considerr ed, was $16.44. In the census year, forty-one counties of North Carolina were above this a\’er- age. Our power to produce crop wealth is amazing. Our power to retain it is fee ble. Our per capita wealth in the farm regions of North Carolina is only 1322. In the United is $994; in Ilh- nois, $2,655; in Iowa, |3,3S6. It is well nigh iinijossible to retain in a community the cotton and tobacco wealth ])roduced under a farm-teiiancy, supply- merchant system. Cotton Manufacture in North Carolina 111 1914 North Carolina had 3,770,316 active -spindles and consumed 906,177 bales of cotton in her mills. North Clarolina leads the South in the \’alue of manufactured cotton goods, and -in the (juantity of raw cotton consumed. Indeed in this last particular, she ranks next to Massachusetts, the leading cotton mill state in the union. Last year North Carolina raised 935,- 000 bales of cotton and consumed all but 28,823 bales in her f>wn mills. Great Cotton Spinning Counties in North Carolina Number of spindles in each county is as follows: 1. Gaston 507,192 2. Cabarrus, 281,532 3. Mecklenburg, 267,800 4. Guilford, , 213,868 5. Durham, 162,404 6. Rockingham, 159,986 7. Alamance, 140,592 8. Rutherford, 138,169 9. Richmond, 127,047 10. Stanly, 104,296 —1914 Federal Census Bulletin. How They Do It in Alleghany Around 120,000 lbs. of turkeys, worth 3)19,200 to the producei’s were shipped out of Alleghany County this fall to the Baltimore, Philadelphia, Richmond and ■Washington- markets, says Jlr. J. F. OUTLINE FOR DEBATE ON CHILD LABOR The development of North Carolina, as ■well as that of any other state, depends on the health and intelligence of its peo ple; and the foundations of health and intelligence must be laid during child hood. A question always worth the 'consider ation of those interested in educating or in getting educated is, how is North Caroli na pro-i'iding opportunity for her children to become healthy and intelligent men .and w'omen? Does she oi)en a free way for their development, or does she stunt the growth of body and mind by allowing them to work in mills and factories? Brought into the form of a debate viuery, the question is: ‘'Re.solved, That Korth Carolina should enact a law' pro- Jii biting all children under fourteen years of age from working in any null, factory, or manufacturing plant.” Affirmative Arguments I. Child labor results in mental and physical retaliation and incomplete de- Telopment, for . -A No time for play, one of the chief ■agents of development is given. B ^"ery little, if any, time is given for school. The work is fre(iuently carried on in badly lighted unsanitary buildings. II. Cliild labor defeats the very object ■of its employment, for A It tends to industrial deterioration, lor in retarding the physical and mental growth of the child, it prevents him from becoming a skilled laborer. III. Child labor is cheap lalior, and ccheap labor tends to poverty, for A The total income of a family work- iiiig in an industry that regularly eni- pkrys child labor is. almost always less itlian tliat of a family working in an in- idnatry that employs only adults. T\'. Child labor is detrimental to so ciety in general, for A It promotes crime, for working children contribute a much larger pro portion of delinquents than do non-work ing children. B It embitters the spirit of the child, for as it hinders his highest develop ment as a citizen, it fills him with hatred of those whom he considers responsible. V. It is contended that some forms of manufacture are dependent upon child labor; but though child labor may be an economy and a convenience it cannot be a necessity to any form of legitimate man ufacture. ^'I. It is contended that the child of the widow or the needy child sliould be allowed to work; but on the contrary, such children should be given special protection so that their possibilities for future maintenance may not he limited. Negative Arguments I. Society absolutely needs child labor in some forms of legitimatt^ manufacture, for A C!hildren are better fitted for some occupations than adults. II. Blany parents who are unable to work or who cannot earn enough to sup port their-families, need the help of their children. III. Under present educational condi tions, North Carolina is better with chiUl labor than without it, for A At present the compulsory school law does not apply to cliildren between twelve and fourteen years of age, and ■even if it did, it would affect them four months-in the year; and the children are much better ofi' employed in the factories than idle and out of school. IV. The proposed law does not do more than toucli the edge of the child labor question, for A It prohibits child labor in “any mill, factory, or manufacturing plant,” and thus does not extend its so-called I^rotection over the thousands of child labor workers on the farms. B The number of children employel in mills, factories and manufacturing plants is small compared with those em ployed on farms, for out of a total of 84,279 engaged in gainful pur suits, 74,080 are engaged in agriculture. V. Children in mill communities are much better off than those who are em ployed in agricultural vsork, for A North Carolina mill owners have adopted the practice of providing sani tary homes, and thus the proportion of those adversely' affected through work must be small. ROBERT EDWARD LEE \\'hen the future historian shall come to survey the character of Lee, he u ill find it rising like a huge inouiv- tain above the undulating plain of humanity, and must lift his eyes high toward heaven to catch its summit. He possessed every virtue of other great commanders without their vices. 11(“ was a foe without hate, a friend without treachery, a soldier witliout ,oppressim. and a victim without mur muring. He »as ;i public officer without vices, a [H’ivate citizen without wrong, a neighbor without reproach, a Chris tian without hypocrisy, and a man without guile. He was Caesar without his ambi tion, Frederick without his tyranny, Napoleon without his selfishness, and AVashington without his reward. 1 fe was obedient to authority as a ser vant. and royal in authority as a true king. He ^ as gentle as a woman in life, modest and [jureas a virgin in thought, w'atchful as a Roman vestal in duty, submissive to law as Socrates, and grand in battle as Aehilles. —Benjamin Harvey Hill. UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION LETTER SERIES NO. 11 Ilackler to the .UNIVERSITY NEWS LETTER. Here is a net profit of $10,630 to 342 turkey raisers in Allegliany—a neat little sum for the Christmas stockings. It is live-stock farming that makes Alleghany thej'ichest farm county, in per capita wealth, in North C!arolina. Rural Credits and Rural Statesmen In the fortjf-third Congress, 1873 to 1875, sixty-one per ’ent of the members were lawyers, sixteen per cent were en gaged in commercial and manufacturing pursuits, and seven per cent were engaged in farming, says iNIr. ,J. O. Dysart of the Caldwell County Club. But the farmers fai the present Con gress are still fewer; one in the Senate and about twelvu in the House, says IMr. S. H. Hobbs of Sampson County—say a baker’s dozen all told, or less than four per cent of our Congressmen. The need for rural credit laws is in creasing. The need is indeed critical in the Soutli; but the number of rural states men is steadily decreasing. State High School Costs The average cost per pupil in our pub lic State-aided high schools for the year 1913-’14 was $26.47. The range of cost was from $11.52 in Franklin County to $52.63 in Jackson. There surely must be inefficient administration somewhere to cause such divergence as this. THE RIGHTS OF THE MULTI TUDE The people of North Carohna have a right to know about their University. The December number of the Univer sity Record gives them a chance to know what it is their right to know. Here is an exhibit of the year’s work- every detail of every department of it; a plain, simple, nn\ arnished tale of what the University is, and what it purposes to do. If you do not have it, send a post card request and it will be sent you promptly. ON^HORT COMMONS The State Universities of the South had for instruction and maintenance, per stu dent per year, (1912-13) the following amounts: Florida $550; Georgia $353; Louisiana i|336; Virginia $335; Texas $268; Oklaho ma $254; IMississippi $245; Tennessee $239; Alabama $238; South Carolina $222, and North Carolina $192. Short Commons in North Carolina. These figures are based on Bulletin No. 571, Federal Bureau of Education. INCREASING USEFULNESS The University is daily extending its campus limits and carrying college train ing to an ever increasing number of stu dents. At the present time twenty-five weekly lessons on college subjects are being sent out from the Correspondence Study Divis ion of the Bureau of Extension. The popular subjects are English, Latin, History, Mathematics, Greek, Ger man, Education, Economics, Rural Eco nomics and Sociology. Country-Life Clubs in Granville The work of Miss Mary G. Shotwell, rural supervisor in Granville County, in organizing Country Life Clubs, should l)e known by e\'ery rural teacher in the State. A copy of the Constitution and By-laws of this organization has just been received by the ITNI\"ERSITY NEWS LETTER. \^'rite for a copy and read for yourself. Says Miss Shotwell: “This bulletin is offered to the teachers in the. hope tJiat it may promote the progress and interests of tlie school and comminiity. Let ns do more fop the country boys and girls than •‘keep order' and ‘hear recitations.’ Objects of Organization “Sec. 1. To arouse interest in educa tion and to insist upon the importance of every child’s being in school every day of the term. “Sec. 2. To encourage the study of agriculture anl tri cultivate among the boys and girls a lo^'e for the farm and the country home. “Sec. 3. To make the school the cen ter of the community by furnishing wholesome and instructive anuisements^ to improve the physical and intellectual environment of our fu,ture citizens.” Activities “Sec. 1. All local and county agricul tural contests, such as corn and tomato- ' growing, cooking, sewing, poultry raising, etc., shall engage the active interest of the club “Sec. 2. The society shall arrange for public meetings some time during the year, to which all the people of the com munity shall be invited.” Special Day Programs Miss Sliotweli has included in the bul letin several very valuable programs for special days, for example: CSitennial of Star-Spaiigk^d Banner: 1. Occasion of writing song. 2. “Old Glory”—origin of tune. 3. Brief account of celel)ration in Bal timore. 4. Song—Star-Spangled Banner. Health: 1. Song. 2. The house fly as a spreader of dis eases. 3. Ventilation of bedroom. 4. W’hy we have colds. 5. The greatest source of disease in this comnumity. (Address by a physician.) Agricultural and Rural Life Day. (Write U. S. Burea of Education for Ed ucation Bulletin No.; 43 for material for program:) I—1. Song—America. 2. Repeart in concert, ’'The Country Boys' Creed.’’ 3. Ancient knowledge of cooking. 4. Origin of food plants. 5. Effect of invention on agriculture. 6. Name three'tliings that the follow'- ing men have contributed to agriculture: George AA’ashington, Seaman Knapp, Luther Burbank, James 'Wilson. II.—1. Song. 2. Improved machinery as labor sav ers. 3. Boys corn clubs. 4. How to increase average yield of corn. 5. How to make farm life happier for farm women. (By farmer’s wife.) 6. Good roads. 7. Rural telephone, mail delivery and parcels post. Ifow to improve the rural school. Helpful Hints This is suggested in order to give the people oi the community an opportunity of helping each other. Let each member tell some one thing Chat he or she can do, for instance; make cake, soap, beaten liiscuit, v\'hat to do with sick cattle, etc. - Travel The aim here should be to uti lize the traveling experiences of the comniunity. If none of the children have traveled let them tell where they would like to go. By use of maps the program may be made a valuable geography- les son. 1. Song. 2. AVhere I spent my vacation. 3. My first visit to a great city. 4. My trip to the west. 5. An ocean voyage. A number of other very valuable pro grams were outhned. IMiss Shotwell states that there are now some fifteen Clul>s in the County, and gives an interesting account of the work of tw'o of them. THE SCHOOL FAIR IDEA IN VANCE COUNTY THE UNIVERSITY NEAVS LETTER takes pleasure in calling attention to a very attractive Bulletin for the County Commencement in A'ance County. This Bulletin was prepared by Miss Lillian B. Gilbert, Rural Supervisor. * It is a very valuable handbook for the teachers in making preparation for the County C(jmmencement. It sets out the value of the county commencement and devotes much space ' to the ex hibitions of-agricultural and domestic science work. This Bulletin is another evidence of the fine activities of A'ance County under the superintendency of Mr. Eugene M. Rol lins. teresting articles, some of them dealing directly with the snpervisional work of the county schools. The publication is gotten up in a very attractive form and Supt. matthews de serves credit or this new development in county school supervision. LAST IN INCOME, FIRST IN RANK The University of North Carolina had for support $76 per student per year less than Texas; $108 less than the average for Southern Universities; and $143 less than Virginia in 1912-13. Nevertheless the University of North Carolina was ranked by the' Federal Bu reau of Education in 1912 in the first di vision of the first rank of American Uni versities as a whole-along with Vander bilt,. AHrginia and Texas in the South. , OUR FIRST MOONLIGHT SCHOOL Harnett County has struck the first blow against illiteracy in North Carolina with a moonlight - school. About ten miles west of Lillington the Leaflet school has a .session every Wed nesday night. The day teacher. Miss Bessie Knight, gives her services without charge and serves about twenty-five men and women in their struggle to .secure the l)les»ings of an education. The aim of the school will be, “to sup ply deficiences in the practical education of the people”. TM’enty-five prisoners from the illiter acy army have surrendered. The war will continue, without destruction of life and property, until the entire forces of the enemy have been captured. AVhat county will be next to enUst its forces for liberty in this year of freedom? THE SAMPSON COUNTY SCHOOL RECORD THE UNIVERSITY NEAA'S LETTER has just received a copy of the Sampson County School Record. Supt. Blatthews has discovered a novel way of communi cating with the people of his County on school matters. The Record is to be published monthly by the County Board of Education. The December issue contains a number of in- WHAT IT COSTS TO RAISE COTTON The investigations of 862 Federal crop reporters in 1910 upon the cost of cotton production show (1) an average per-acre cost of $20.35 (2) and average per-acre yield of 247 lbs. of lint cotton and (3) an average cost of 8.24 cents per lb. The cost of })roduction was lowest in Alabama 7.92 cents per lb. and highest in Texas 8.59 cents per lb. The cost of producing cotton has in creased upon an average 3 per cent a. year since the investigations of 1896.

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