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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
Bureau of Extension of the Uni
versity of North Carolina.
JANUARY 27, 1915
HILL, N. C.
VOL. I, NO. 10
EdUorial Boardi E, C, Branson, J. G. deR. Hamilton, L. K, Wilson, Z, V, .Tndd,
■>, R. Winters.
Enterefl as .second-class matter November 14,1914, at the postofiice at Chapel Hill,
N. C., under the a^*t of Augiist 24, 1912.
CAROLINA CLUB NOTES
The Mother of Honey
Atiick is tlie niatlier of Jioiiey, says an
■old-time EiiKlisli proverb. Muck is the
■coiiiinon word in Knglaiul for manure.
It is fairly common for English fanners
to put ten tons of manure, and a half ton
of coneentrak'd fertiliiiers on a single
jicre, say tor root cu'ops of all sorts. ,-\nd
they (■i>iiimoiily get from 25 to 35 tons of
b''tj, mangolds, and the like, from an
.aert—ocea.sionally from 45 to 50 tons.
Tlie usual measure of ])rosi>erity among
iermau farmers in the Black Kore.(t is
the size of the nuicli heap.
Mark Twain’s account of the manure
pile heiress in his Trantp Abroad is enjoy
able Imnior; but it is also a significant
‘onnnent iiiioii the hanl conunon-sense
of the oUl world farmers.
North Carolina and Texas
The average annual cash outlay for
food, fuel and oil in Ga.ston county,
Aorth Carolina, was $76 (kt faoiily; iji
McLennan county, Texas, it wa.s $254, or
more than three time.s as nmch.
The (ia.ston county fanner produces
his farm more foixi, and has more free
fuel from his woodlot.
The contrast in cash outlay per family
! wa.-i as follows:
(raston county. >h'Ijenna county,
iS'. ('. Texas.
Food $71.2S $213.47
Wood 1.71 15.17
Oil 3.10 7.58
Farming in North tiaroliiia is done upon
astonishingly small cash capital; so. act
ually and relatively.
W'hat a paracii.se of opiiortninty our
iState oflers the energetic, capable, thrifty,
home-seeking fanners of America I
liiiier Haggard’s book on Rural Den
mark ought to be in the home of every
Denmark has about the same popula
tion as Nortii Carolina; is about a third
:as large; rai.ses food crops worth arotnid
two huiKired million dollars a year; and
expfu ts a hundred million dollars worth
of buttt'r, eggs, and bacon annually.
farmed a,s Denmark is, Xorth Carolina
could hold witliin her borders and feed
the population of all the Atlantic states
froi!) Delaware to Florida.
Every barn in Denmark has its liquid
iimuir(> tank. And a net profit of JilS.OO
anacre, or siiiuething likt> that amount,
^ North Carolina and Iowa
I But the tiiost amazing contrast apjiears
I when North (laroliua is put alongside
j Iowa, the greatest f«id producing st.at^
I in the nuddle west.
j The average ainiual cash outlay [>er
I farm family (51 fandlioa) in Iowa was
1 Montgomery Co. (xaaton (!o.
j Iowa. N. ('.
The ex|)lanation lies in the fact that
North C^arolina has a longer growing sea
son for vegetables, and in otir greater cou-
j sumption of sweet potatoes, cane syrup,
buttermilk and other foods conunon in
Southern farm homes.
~North Carolina Heads the List
How Southern farmers keep soul and
body together while prfxiucing, in an av
erage year, a billion dollar cotton crop is
shown in detail in a recent bulletin of the
i’ederal department of agriculture.
For instance, in a typical farm , com
munity in Gaston county, North Caro-
Hina, the value of the food, fuel and shel
ter enjoyed by 55 families averaged $505
per family for''the year.
Of this amount only $76 represented
cash spent for food, fuel, and oil.
Moi'c than four-tifths of the food con-
*umed (S2.3 pt*r cent) came direct from
the farm, the garden, the orchard, the
cow, the pigs and poultry around the
Gaston is a typical (otton growing
county, mind you, ami these farmers
■were owners and tenants, white and
black. Nearly three-tiftlis of the crop
wealth from year to year (59 ]>er cent)
in this county is produced by cotton
But think of financing a farm family
for a whole year, with a cash outlay of
•only $76 for food and shelter, warmth
and liglit. '
Similar studies were made of some
:fifty farm families in nine other states,
and North (iarolina makes By far the
best showing of them all. Thus the
amounts s|>ent per family for footi, fuel
and light, not produced on the farm,
were as follows:
North Carolina $76, Georgia $110, Ohio
$156, WiscHinsin $173, Vermont $177,
KansJis $17S, Iowa $183. New York $210,
Pennsyhania $225, Texas $254.
The Food Bill in Gaston
l.ittle as the Gaston County farm fam
ily spent in cash for food in 1913, ajid it
was only $71.2.s for the year, it means a
total for the 2,S59 farm families of the
cotuity, amotmtingto $203,789.
But 5,377 families in the county are not
farm families. They are consumers not
producers of farm products. Supj)osing
that they live as well as the farmers, they
must buy fooi amountitig to .$2,161,000 a
That is to say, the tola! of/pantry sup
plies that must be bought and j)aid for in
cash in the county amounts to two and
one-third million dollars. 'J'he amount
of food and feed raised in the county was
barely more than one-half this amount.
In other words, more than Ja million
dollars must be sent out of the county
every year for pantry 'supplies alone. If
the fetvl that must be bought for domes
tic animals be counted in, the bill for im
ported feed and food sttitts is two and a
third million dollars.
If this amoimt of money, or even one-
half of it, were spent for home-raised food
and feed stuff’s, the farm weiilth of the
county wottld be more than doubUKi in
the next six years.
'XJaston Cotinty Farm Life
TJjmn an average, the farm-produced
food on the 483 farms in the t*^n states
was 63 per cent of the food consimied by
each family. But in Gaston coimty,
North Carolina, was 82.S jier cent!
North CaroMna makes a ^>^^ttw showing
than Iowa in hoine-raisel gnx^eries, be-
■cause the Iowa farmer sells his wheat,
icorn, and milk, and buys flour, meal
amd butti*r from the store.
But it is still common in North Caro
lina for the farmer to have his wheat and
corn ground for toll at a nearby mill;
■while his butter is made almost entirely
»n ‘his own home.
The ditt’erences api>ear in the following
■contrast of foods furnished by the farm
in the two states:
Iowa N. C.
Groceries, 1.6 per ct. 2.4 per ct.
Animal products95.7 per ct. 97.3 per ct.
Fruits 55.5 per ct. 98.0 per ct.
Vegetables 47.4 per ct. 96.1 per ct.
A DISTINGXTISHED VISITOR
iSliss Ernestine Noa, Lookout Mottn-
tain, Tenn.: the Tennessee representative
on the American tlommission studying
Rural Credits abroad in 1913; member of
the Tennessee Stat(“ Highway Commis
sion, president of the Chattanooga E(]ua]
Suffrage League, a speaker in demand be
fore boards of trade and popular audi-
enc&s from Pensacola to (Chicago, and a
tireless, competent student of the big,.
American country-life problem.
For four weeks she will be at work
upon economic and social problems in the
laboratory headquarters of the North
Carolina Club in the University of North
Miss Niia and her mother are at the
home of Mr. E. C. Branson, head of the
department of Rural Economics and So-
BIG PXJBOSES ON THE HILL
Mr. John Nolan, of Boston, the most
distinguished landscape architect in
America gave an illustrated lecture last
week to the Community CUib and the
citizens of Chapel Hill, upon The City
He was the guest of the Connnunity
Club. These good women have on foot
a generous, big beautification plan for
our little University City.
Henry 'W. Grady
The soil that |>roduces cotton invites
the grainsr and grasses, the orchard
and the vitic. C-lover. corn, cotton,
wheat, and barley thrive iu the same
hu-losure; tiic peach, the apple, the
apricot, and the Sil>erian crab iu the
same orchard, llerds and flocks graze
ten months every year in the mead
ows o\er whi'li wititer.is hut a pa.ss-
ing breath, atid in which spring and
auttmni meet in suintner’s heart. Su
gar-cane and oiits, rice and potatO(»s.
are extremes that cotne together tinder
To raise cotton and send its princely
r‘ve,ni1es to the west for snppli(*s, and
to the east for ustiry, would be mis-
fortuiK' if S(iil and climate forced such
a cttrse. When both invite independ
ence. to remain in slavery is a crime.
To mortgage our farms in Bostt)!! for
motley with which to buy meat atid
bread from western cribs and smoke-
hottses, is folly ttnspeakalile.
UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
LETTER SERIES NO. 12
LIKE BIG SPIDERS
It is nearly impossible to be .seitsitive
and settsible at the same titue.
When the Battker-Farnier admits into
its colutnns the paragraph we quote be
low. it is safe to say that tlie editor counts
upon bankers havitig thick, serviceable
“Show tiic commttnities that are un-
progre.ssi ve, atnl in the same tiumber of
instiinces 1 will show you that it is be-
caitse the local batikers sit like big spi
ders behind their wickets—grasping every
lollar they can lay their hands on—cold
factxl and ready to chill to death every
new projiHl’t wliich cosi ihem a few shek
els—httgging to themselves the swj'et ttuc-
tioii that they are con.servative liankers—
too nai'row to realizu that the growth of
their institution depends upon sane and
whol('.sotne efi'orts uhicli will make their
comnumities bigger, better, stronger and
more stifKcieiit tmto themselves.’’
New High School Course
A itew cour.se has fn-^en addefl to the
program (>f studies in the Belmont High
School in Gaston ('ounty. They call it
The Clarion but really it is a course in
jottnialisin. It takes the form of a little
four-page paper, edited ajid published by
the students. AVhat excellent work of
this sort can be done by high .school stu
dents is well exemplified iti this little pa
The make-ttp would do cretlit to many
elitors of an older growtli. Well-l)alanced i
material, good F^nglish. wide range of in- i
terests, pointed elitorials, good press:
work, all go to make it one of the best
school papers that has come to our attcn- !
tion. It is newsy, witty, serious, and |
filled withnuitters of community interest.
A single number, for instance, carries
the following items: Basketball games,
with a picture of the girls’ basketball
teatn, debating conte.st? senior play, local
items arotmd town and in school, a letter
from an alttmna, five editorials directly
related to si-liool activities, a pot>m by a
former facttlty member, an article (m the
declamation contest at Trinity, anil a col
lection of newspaper luttnor. All this
together with a page and a half of adver-
Possibilities in Such Work
Tlie next step ought to be the installa
tion of a print shop iji the school so the
NOT LIKE BIG SPIDERS
The Fiz'st Natiimal Bank at I.X‘xington,
N. C., is ottering to buy three car loads
of bogs, sell them to the farmers of Da-
vid.son at cost and take the farmers’ notes
for a year, says the (fastonia Gazette.
Here is eft'ectiv(* advertising, good bus
iness, and constructive community states
This sort of note acce[)ted by the bank
ers is somewhat better than tlie other
kind of note we blow upon our editorial
FIRST IN NORTH CAROLINA
Harnett, first to establish a moonlight
school for illiterate adults.—Leaflet
School. ^li.ss Bessie Knight.
JlcDowell, first to require all teachers to
hold a certificatt' showing completion
of a four-year accredited high .school
course in certain subjects.—.lanuary,
^\'ake, first to haw a Teachers’ Mutual
Aid Society within its borders.—Ral
eigh teachers, January, 1915.
Nash, first in the |)er cent of vaccinate!
school children.—9S per cent.
Guilford, first in total number of students
enrolkni in public state-aided high
schools for 1913-14.—310,
Burke, first in per cent of attendance on
state-aidtd. high .schools for 1913-14.
—93.2 per cent.
Wake', fir.st in total amount raised for the
support of stat»-aidel high .schools
Jackson, first in average expenditure per
pupil in state-aided high schools for
Jackson, also ranked first in this respect
in 1907-08, the first year these schools
Guilford, first to have a whole-time
health officer.-Dr. Ross, February,
Sampson, first to have a county super
visor.—Miss Lulu M. Cassidey.
Wayne, fii'st to have a county conunence-
Halifax, first to register a student in the
Correspondence Study Courses at the
U ni versity. —1914.
students may be able to do all the work
of getting out the j>aper and incidentally
be learning a valuable trade. However,
the present cu-gan serves to st'cun' school
loyalty, an appreciation of the necessity
f6r gof>d English, interest on the part of the
community, and the ability to tell an in
teresting incident in an inten'sting way.
A Simpler Plan in Pender
Down at Point Caswell, Pender (!oiiuly,
a similar though simpler means of .secur
ing these same results in the eleinenUtry
school is in operation. The principal lias
a Dauss Duplicator. On this there are
made duplicate copies of tlie little one- ■
page wi'ekly, the original liaving been
made on the tyjx^writer. Officially the
paper is known as Caswell School News.
The publishers are a business manager,
advanced room reporter, prhnary room re
porter, town reporter,athletics reporter, all
menilx^rs of tlie school. As might be ex-
pecttKl the it(-ms appear under these heads
together with a word to the patrons di
rectly by the principal.
How it Works
The principal w rites:—ft is small but
it gives them practice in writing, in say
ing much in little, and cj-eates interest.
The l>auss Duplicator is inexpensive, al
most any .school can afford (uie and the
returns amply justify the expenditure.
Try it in youi' school and write to us
CAROLINA CLUB DEBATE
A STATE-WIDE DOG LICENSE TAX
In the opinion of the North (Carolina
C!lub the State legislature should adopt a
State-wide dog tax, or so it expresswi it
self Wednesday night after listening to a ;
debate on the qtiestion by four of its!
members. It wasn’t at all certain or |
positive about the matter, however, as
the final vote stood 22 to 16.
The figures and facts employed in the j
debate were all drawn from Professor:
Branson’s “Store-room of Facts Concern
ing North Carolina,” from which comes i
ino.st of the news matter for the UNI
VERSITY NEWS LKrTER which is be-;
ing quoted so widely by the State press. '
The exact (juestion was: “Resolved,
That North Carolina should adopt a
State-wide dog tax for the benefit of the:
public schools.” ]\Iessrs. R. B. House |
of Selma and Clarion Fowler of Durham ,
upheld the affirmative. Mr. C. S. Harris
of !'ulpluir Springs and Mr. S. C. Ilod-
gin of Randleman defended the negative.
The affirmative argued that a dog is
either a luxury or an economic necessity;
if the fonner he ought to be taxed; if the
latter, he can bear the tax. On the other
hand if he is worthless, he is a nuisance
to the State and a tax is the logical solu
If there is to 1» a tax it must be State
wide because the coimty tax is a failure.
Of the twenty counties that have a dog
tax law. Wake cotmty with $515 receives
the highest revenue and Onslow with $1
receives the lowest returns. On the other
hand Mrginia itas adopted the State sys
tem after the failure of the county system
and turns over $90,000 annually to the
.schools of the .State after paying for all
killed sheep and the cost of collecting the
tax. With a similar law South Carolina
gets $60,000, Rhode Island $30,000, and
With an estimated dog supply of 150,-
000 and an assumed tax of 50 cents per
dog, the State could figure on turning
over $60,000 a year to the public schools.
One of the affinnative speakers closed
his speech with the following:
“A yellow cur dog is symbolic of the
economic lassitude of North Carolina.”
The negative argued that if the county
system was a failure so would the State
system be a failure. The tax would fall
on the poor man who is already dispro
portionately taxed. In the opinion of
the negative the people do not want the
The subject for discussion at the next
meeting of the club will l>e “The Fann
er’s share of the Consmuer’s Dollar.”—
The Raleigh Times.
Last'week the students registered in the
Univei-sity numbered an even thousand.
The student body is 114 larger than last
year. It is a marvelous increase, the
hard times con.sidered.
During the year ending ,I tme 30, 1914,
the cotton goods made in the United
States and sold abroad in the markets of
the world, amounted to less than fifty-
two million dollars. That is to say, our
sale of cotton goods in foreign markets is
a mere bagatelle.
Meanwhile we imported sixty-nine mil
lion dollars worth of cotton goods, main
ly from Great Britain, Gennany, France,
and Switzerland. These unpo'rted cotton
goods were dainty mercerized fab
rics, laces, insertions, edgings, embroid
eries,, and lace curtains for the most part,
just such goods as can be produced only
by artistic brains and nimble fingers.
They an» fabrics that can never be made
by clmnsy, ignorant operatives.
The sooner Southern cotton mill owners
start a campaigti for vocational and con-
tiimation schools, the sooner will our
mill business in the South get away from
the coarser cotton products in which the
margin of profit is gradually decreasing,
and move on up into the making of these
finer cotton fabrics in w hich the margin
of profit is wider.
No other business people in the South
can better afford to support public edu
cation, industrial education, every kind
of education that develops taste, inven
tion, intelligence and skill. It is [a sim
ple, sensible, constructive business policy.
The future of Southern cotton manufac
ture is fatally limited by clumsy, un
THE UNIVERSITY NEWS LETTER
will be glad to learn about'and celebrate
progressive movements of this kind in the