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the university of north CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
University of North Carolina
for its Bureau of Extension.
MAY 5, 1915
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
VOL. I, NO. 24
Editorial U*arl: E. 0. Bianson, »
. a. deli. Hamiltmi, L. R. Wilson. Z, V. Judd, .S R. Winters, L. A. Williams. Ki.iterfd «s soc-oiK.l-elas.^ matter
S-nveinlxT 14. t!in, at tiie pii^tomce at Chapel Hill, N. C., under t.lieaot of Auj,'ust 24, tfll2.
NORTH CAROLINA CLUB STUDIES
TOILING WHITE WOMEN AND
()uc liuiKli'od and lliirty liiousmut i Mr. S.
■wliitf girls and wcmieti in North ('aroliiia ■ Teiiii‘6sco
WHO SUPPORTS OTHER
1. ht'ViUilt, a nu'iiiher of tlie
Clul) in tlio Univer-.sity of
tii(‘ rensUM year, or nearly one-1'ourth I North Guroliiia, is making a detailed
II 10 years old and older, were earning j study ol' a recent Census Bureau liulU'tin.
bri'ad l>y the sweat of their brows, | National and State lievenues and l^x-
outside the home and home occu|iations. I ])enditnres 1913 and 190.'!.
.'^onie of the interesting things he has
run upon in fhis bulletin ar> as follows:
1. Two states, Connecticut and Dela
ware, levit“d no general i)ro]>erty ta.\ foi'
ho.siery and knitting mills; 988 in cigar ^ state support iiji 1912; and thirty-.'ieven
am! tobacco factories and ' 577 of them i stales—eight of them in the youth—
Hver> und(;r 16 years of age; 631 were l('\ied iu> j>oll tax. '
imusicians and music teacher.-!; 5,765
IHow They Earn Their Bread
'iTwenty-six ■ thousand of them were en-
■gaged in manufacture and mycbanical
pursuit-i; 19,070 were at work in cotton.
were school teachers; 3,715 were clerks,
saleswomen, bookkeepi'rs, cashiers, etc. ;
1,911 \yere teleplKjue operators, steno
graphers, and typewriters; 1,098 were
factory .severs and sewing machine oper
ators; 947 were milliners; and 4,574
were (bessmakers, aful seamstresses out
side of factories.
Sanitary, wholesome conditions and
.surroundings for the indoof' girls and
women who toil make an irresistilile ap- decrea.sed the number of taxpayers or (3)
peal to the humanity in us. j (]|.|i Imve lightened the burden of taxes
JMr. G. 11. Cooper of the Kowaii ( oun- j they pay are, as a rule, states in the well
2. Three other states, Pennsylvania,
Calilornia. and ^’ermont, raised less then !
a tenth of iheir state revenues fi'om the.se,
two sources; four other states, We.st '
Virginia, Ne\\ >'ork, Ohio and Massa-
clnisetts, rai.sed less than a fourth; while
14 niored raise a half or le.ss of tlieir state
r(‘venu(‘s in the.se two ways.
3. The states (1) that have abantloned |
thes(' forms of taxation or ( 2 ) that have
ty Club has been slndying. the figures
upon occupational deaths of white females
given in the 1913-14 He[>ort i.if the North
(Carolina State Board of Health.
How Consumption Slays Them
The per cents of txital deaths of white
females in Nortli ('arolina in certain speci-
• tieil occujiations, causeil by tuberculosis
• of the lungs in 191H, were as follows:
.A verage, below named oc-
-upations 22.S per I’ent
(,'igai- and tobacco workers 66.6 p(>r cent
Mill and factoi’y operative's
(textile I 65.0 per cent
Musicians and music teachers 50.0 per't^U
Teachers in school 50.0 per cent
Housewives .44.0 per cent
.Stenographers and typewrit- ■
era 33.3 ]ier cent
Dressmakers and seams
tresses 26.6 per cent
No occupation stated 1.S.2 per cent
The mill owners are not wholly un
concerned and inactive. On the con
trary, some of tliem are making vigorous
• assaults upon mill village diseases and
death rates. Witness the etl'ective ac
tivities of the mill authorities at Roanoke
Falls and the generons concern of the
■Cones in Greensboi'o; and pei hajis many
• others of whom we do not know.
But the fearfully excessive leath rates
from tuberculosis iiulicated in the fore-
gohig tigures are a challenge to the hu
manity of business people, housewives
and husbands, school authorities, mill
anfl factf)ry owners alike.
Around o7U!-eigth of all tiu' deaths
among the whites of both .sexes in the
registration cities of^ North CJarolina in
1913- were causeii by tuberculosis in its
•various forms; but one-third of. the fe
male stenographers and typewriters,
nearly one-half of the housewives, exactly
one-half of the musicians and teachers,
.and two-thirds of the cotton and tobacco
•operativeji who died in fhe.se cities in
.1913 die) of tuberculosis of the lungs
It is api)alling and calls for attention.
developed industrial, commercial sec
tions of the country. In these states the
basis of state taxation is changing fjom
|)ersons to businesses; becau.s(' industries
and biisinesst's iit thes(' states ai-e rich
and )irosperous, and presumably are
ln-tter able to support the state.
4. Twenty-tive staltw, all but two in
.the Midille West, the Rocky Mountains
and the South, depend mainly on the
general property tax; that is to say. upon
taxes paid by the largest number of
jteople, rich and poor alike, upon the
basis of ]>roperty owned. In other words,
in those states w’here industries ami com
merce are less wi'll developed, the pi,>licy
is to encourage their il(!velo[imenl by
laying light burdens of taxation upon
General Property Tax Receipts
For State Purpo,se,s, 1912.
S. II. DeV.VULT, University of X. C.
President E. K. Graham
In 1875. when- ihe I'niversity of
North Carolina began its life o\cr
again, the w hole South was bankrui)!.
In these fortv years of maK'rial n'-
building. it too. has escaped fnim an
cient olisessions not a few. and has
won, in patience ami foi-iitude undci-
the austere (li,scipline of a fierce, nn-
i'()Ual struggle. iK>t only the spiritual
compensations Ilf ihe stm.ijgie, bul ma-
tiu'ial libi.‘ratinn '^that is ni.it a promise
/hut an immediati' reality.
-\nd while thr. South isundi'rlhv
thrill of the ju-osperitv within its
grasp, it is not ]irimar’ily bec:uist' in
the past ten yeai-s its bank de)iosits
and the cajiitid invi'sted in its manu
factures have inerea.sed ten fold, that
hall of the nation's c-'^ports originate
in its port.s, that a world treasure hid
den in its oil. gas, coal, iron, water
power. and agriculture nuikes certain
the fact that the next great expansion
in national life « ill be here, and. that
lu're will he ''the focusing jiointofthc
worlds coinmej'ci'." 'fhe summons
that imts the eager and projihetic lone
in southern life toiUiyuis the conscious-
nc.-;s lhat here nndei' circumstances
pregnant w iih ha[ipy desiiny men w ill
make once more the experiment of
translating prosperity in leinis of a
The Call to Leadership
It is to leadershiji in this supreme
adventure of democratic common
wealth bnildiug that the universities
of the South are called, and their real
4chiev(MU(‘nts depend upon the sun'
intelligence, sympathy, and power,
with which they perform tiicii- vital
function, and make aul hoi ital i\ e an
swer til Ihe compelling i|neslion of i he
peo|ile as to whal, if anything, in the
wav of clear- guidance Ihey havi‘to
WHO SUPPORTS NORTH CAR-
“Fvery person private and corporate
-who owns any unexeinpted property of
.any sort w'hatsoe.ver; and all male polls
■over 21 years of age and under fifty, who
are not exempted by reason of j)o\'erty or
All such property pays forty-seven and
;two-thirds c'ents on the hundred dollars
worth of property, and all such polls pay
•fl.43 each to support the state. Some
iproperties, businesses, and i)ersons also
:pay other taxes; but nearly three-tifths
■ of our total state revenue in 1912 came
rfrom the general property tax and polls.
Manifestly the general property tax
.and the poll tax are forms of taxation in
tended to lay the burden of state sup-
,port equably on the largest nuniber of
.-shoulders. These are the forms of tax
ation that reach the largest number of
Percent of the total.
(California 7 ^ ^'ealth.”
THE UNIVERSITY AND ITS
I'ecidcdly the best appreciation The
Ob.server has seen of the new regime at'
the I'-nivei'sity of North Carohna is the
editorial reference Th(> New York Post
gi\es ti.i ihe recent inaugural of J^resident
Edward K. Graham, an event that “calls
altf'ntion to the notable progress of-that
oldest of State universities in making
ii.sc'lf an efficient servant of the Oomniou-
West Virginia 11
New York 12
Rhode Island 27
Ni.irth Dakota 38
]\laine ....'. 49
South Dakota 49
('olorado. .■ 57
Nebraska ._ 58
North Carolina .• 59
low a 59
New Hampshire 60
New Jersey 64
New Mexico 66
South Carolina 68
Georgia 69 j
Utah, .- 69 I
Arkansas ....79 i
Arizona ....... .81 i
Michigan 85 !
—Figures based on a recent Census
The Post says the work of Mr. Graham,
as dean and acting president, has beeii
for nearly 10 years an example to other
Southern institutions of the same sort.
While the activities of the University have
follow'ed the general lines laid down in
Middle Western eilucation, they have in
some ways been or-iginal. Night schools
have been established for negroes, cor
respondence courses for industrial work
ers, Summer-school courses for public
school teachers, rural-life conferences for
those interested in the improvement of
rural conditions, and road-instilutes for
the-, builders of a jjennanent system of
county and State highways. Package-
libraries reach nearly 500 communities,
and a series of extension bulletins has
been scattered broadcast to interest the
State in' questions relating to school,
home, and city and State government.
The “community service week” initiated
by the University has now been made an
oflicial State event.
In his inaugural President Graham in
dicated that the extension service would
be given .increased attention, and already
a special bureau has been proviiled to
carry it on. What has been done thus
far lias been upon an income probably
le.ss than one-tenth that, of the Universi
ties of. Illinois or Wisconsin.
In other Southern States—Georgia,
Alabama, Florida, Mi.ssissippi—there is a
field as wide as in North Carolina; their
under-nourished State universities should
find inspiration ^in the work of their
neighbor.—The Charlotte Observer.
LETTER SERIES NO. 26
THE FORWARD LOOK
\\'ide-awake County Superintendents,
for ihe next few weeks, will he lfii-iking
over ihe Held to see wherein ih(‘ .schools
! in tiicii- r'especli\'e counties may be irn-
; pr-o\ed Ibis next yi'ar.
; malter- \ety much needing attention
all over- the'State is rural school sanita-
: tion. .\ (ilan has be.'ii worked out in a
number- of states which has worked t-c-
markably well and is r'e|)orted by Supt.
l-'ianci.- (i. niiv^s .of Illinois in a recent
bulletin of the 1'. S. lliueau of Kducation
A Plan Outlined ^
,\ brief outliiK* of the plan is presented
herewith; every intei-i'sted Sujierintend-
ent shi.iuld semi ti Washington, D. ('.,
tor- liulletin 191.'i. No 5. which ti-eats fully
of the details.
'I'ar-il and oulbuililings : I
1. .\rn[>le jilaygroiind.
2. lood atipi'oaches to ihe hou.se.
3. Two well-kept, wirlely .separaled
4. ('onvenieut fuel hou.ses. ^
1, lloii.se well built, in good repair-77
2. (iood foundation.
3. Well lighted.
4 Attr-actiye interior decorations,
I 5. (rood blackboai’ds—somesiiitable
j for- small childrvn.
6. Heated w ith jacketed stove in the,
coi ner, or ha.-^c'rnent frunac‘which bring,s
clean air in fbr-oiigb the furnace and re
moves foul air fi-oni the r'oom.
7. Floor and interior clean and
•^. Desks suitable for- i-hildn'ii of all
ag(\s, |»i-operly placed.
9, Sanitary water siqiplj'.
In order- to secure the snperioi-di)iloma
the following addilional requirements
must be met :
1. Playgroirnds al least one-half acre
:uid ke|)l in good condition. '
2. Somi' ti'eesand shrubs.
,):i. Well or cislt'rn and sanitary
1. Se]iar-ate cloakrooms for boys anil
2. highted fr-oni one side or from
iiic Side and the r-ear.
lleateil with basement or- room
'nrnace, which brings in pnr-(> and re
moves foul air.
During the last biennial period 810[new
r-irral schoolhouses ha\c been built in
Nor-ill Cai’olina—606 white and 204 color--
(>d, al a cost of S.Sll, 407.77. This means
an aver-age of mor-> than one r ural school-
hoiisc for ever-y day in the year- and in
cluding tiu' city schoolhouses built the
average l uns (-onsider-ably over one per-
day. This pace of buililing al leasi one
new .schoolhou.se for every daj' in the
year accor-ding to appr-oved [ilans of mod
ern school architectnr-(- prepai-i'dby most
i-ompeteiit architects under the siipei-
visionol'ihe State Deparimeni ofjKdii-
catii.in and distr ibuted from the oJlic(> of
the Stale Super-iutcndent of I’irhlic In
struction. has been mainlained for the
past twelve yi'ar.—a total of 4,475 new
.schoolhouses having bi'cn bnilt during
this time—in 4,383 days. This also means
that three-tifths of all the si-hoolhoiises in
this State have been built ani'w oi- rebuilt
within the last twelve years. — Ri'pori of
State Superuitendent, 1912-14, p. 9.
GUILFORD SETS THE PACE
The whole-time county health otlicer
has come to stay in our- educational .sys
tem. Ills work is so noieworlhy that the
r. S. (lovernmeni is calling atteiition
A recenl cir-cnlar- letter- from thi> I’. S.
ISurearr of Kducatinnat Washington, D.
I>., sets forth the plan of health super
vision of school children as conducted by
Dr. W. M. .loiK's in /uilfoi-d county,
(xuilford is seti.ing a pace for Ihe other
(-omities of the State.
PROSPERITY FOR ALL
The. columns of the 140 exchanges re
ceived by the Uuiver-.sity News Letter are I it to be left lo pi-ivaU' initiative or-secular
filled with the reports of County com-I philanthrophy '.'
TRAINED COMMUNITY NURSES
In Goldsboro and Statesville the good
w:om(>n of the Clubs, aided by the city
councils, have traiiu'd nurses busy all the
lime in the homes of the poor andneedy,
(-aring for Ihe sick and helpless, giving
limel}' lessons to young mothers, and
loriking after iiroper sanitation, disinfec
tion, and i.solation.
Ill what other citii's of the state are
tra'ined nurses em]>loyed for- community
What prosper-ous church keeps trained
nurses busy upon errands of mercyIs
it proper work for the (-hurch, or ought
University of North Carolina
The Summer School for
Teachers—June 15—July 30
Write now for rooms to
N. W. WALKER. - Supt
menceinentvS all over the Stat(>. In the
brief space allotted to us we can only call
attention to the fact and rejoice with the
several counties at the increasing pow'er
of the public schools in our body politic.
Wake county furnishes an instance of
what is going on all over the State*. Its
school propei'ty in ten yeai-s has increased
in value from $36,000 to |300,000, teach-, jjjg person,
ers from 181 to 288 and i)upils from 8,500 ; foreigners in
to 12,000. There are 65 special districts
in the county and $80,000 has been voted
in bonds for new buildings, with two
more districts about to vote on bond is
The chief of the department of mine.s
of a western State points out that when
an Italian, Hungarian, Slav or Pole is
injured a sum of money, ranging from
fifty to five hundred or even one thous
and dollars, is almost alw'ays found on
The University School of Education has
just received a part of the dialogue used
in tthe pageant given at [the Granville
The plan wa.s conceiveil fand executed
by Mrs. .Tallies Y. Paris of Oxford, and
Miss Mary Shotwell, Supervisor of Rural
Schools in Granville county. The dia
logues were written almost entirely by
the various teachers of the schools thus
giving an individuality to the unified
Only the Colonial period in the history
of the State was attempted since the plan
is to continue this type of work at future
Such work is exceedingly valuable. It
aroiiseji jmpils and teachers, it stimulates
communities, it teaches ease, grace, cor
rect speech and ability to follow directions,
as \\ell as historical fact. W'e shall find
our country grip
their nickels tightly and hoard their
It is a lesson, we need to learn in the
South. New Hampshire had more mon
ey in lier Savings Banks in 1913 than
our Southern states all put together.
Strange to say, there is not a single
Mutual Savings Bank in the entire South.
Our savings banks are joint stoc^k, not
SPEAKS FOR MULTITUDES
I Red your letter With Much Pleasure
consuming your State N 0 and Suround-
in secsion AVill you Plese rite to !\Ie con
suming What Per Chance there is in
your Country for a Pore IMan What
Could farming land Be Bought at Per
acre or Could Rent a farm Resonable I
am a S C Man and all Cotton dont Suet
Me I want to get With good Peepul and
W'here I Can Make Corne and Wheet &
Sucdi lak and Would like \ery Much to
oane little home of My oaii any Inferma-
tion on this Line Will Be hily apreach-
eted By Me I am about 40 years old With
a Wife and 8 Children here Slaven for
... , , the land holders Making all Cotton I am
use tor these dialogues in our work here jugt a hard Working Sober Man
in the School of Education. I Yours very truly