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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, May 19, 1915, Image 1

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The news in this publica tion is released for the press on the date indicated below. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the University of North Carolina for its Bureau of Extension. MAY 19, 1915 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. I, NO. 26 Editorial iai Buardt E. C. BranHon, J. G. deK. Hamilton, L. R. Wiison, Z. V. Judd, .S, K. Winters, L. A. Williams. as si-co Kl-class matter November 1-i, 1914, at the i.ostoffife at Ohapel Hill,' N. C., niid.T the act of AuKUst 24, lfll2 NORTH CAROLINA CLUB STUDIES Inherited Pauperism In ViiU'iaiRl, N, .1., il has been toiind possible to link up by means ol faiuily liistories, oiU‘-lhii-cl of the inmates of New .lersey's criminal and |)an|>cr insvi- :tutioiis with two notorious families. A ^laiH'e at llie recovd book of tli' Court of Wardens from 1832 to 1855. shows that tlie [laiiiM'i-s wlio in days cost Orange around a thousand dol lars a year are still laying somethinjr like the same burden on the county to-day for the support of their descendants. Worthful Young Citizens Nine of^ 44 (Jorn Club boys in Oraiifie fiad reports for the 1914 season as folli.iws: .lack II. Ilof'aii, 97.23 bu. per aci'e. cost I’S cent.s per bu.; ]>. Me. (.’rabtn'e. 82 bu.. cost 45 cejits [ler bu., •Johnston, 76.66 bu., cost 34 cents; Tbouias (Canada. 72 bu.. cost 17 cents; Frank \\^ilker, 65 liu. 47 cents; Frank Maddry, 57 bu., 37 cents; Walter r. b’erry, 5:ibn.. cost 53 cents; ..lohn Sartin, 45 bu., cost 35 cents; ami Willie Ilofran, 32 bn., cost 35 cents. THE CROP-LIEN AND ITS SISTER-EVILS ()n(‘i)f the Carolina Club studies this year is the Cro|i l.ien and its related subjects (1) Dt'usitiesof Ne^ro }>opulation (2) Xegro farm ownership (3) Farm ten ancy, white and black (4) Sinjr|(> cash- crop systems, and (5) the time-credit of the supjily-mei'chanls. - While hunting down the orif;in of the Crop Lien, and mapping tlie extent anl intcnsilie.9 ol it Uie Lbii\ersity students have run into uuiny surprises; into many things new lo them although familiar enough to [heir forefathers. Slavery in I860 I'or instam-e, in the 1S60 census il aj>- pears that the .slave-iioiders iti Nortli Carolina at that time mmd)ered 34,700. They owned 331,000 sla\es. Nine-tentlis \llen of the white ])opiilation, 21 year.s of age and older, and nearly three-fourths of the white farm owners held no slaves. Altogether 13,500 slave-holders had from one to three .slaves eacli; mainly as house hold servants, cooks, maids, butlers, dri-vei-s, gardenei-s, and t:he like. Onlv ('le\en owned from 200 to 300 each ; and The average yield [ler acre was.64.44 only four owned from 300 to 500 each. bu. and .the .36 1-2 ceut.s. average cost The First Community Building ()ne of the lirst coimnunity buildings in this country was opened by the Boanl • of Trade at Washington C^mnty. I’a.. on October 24, 1914. purpose of the building is to furnish a general meeting place for town and country peo|ile and to' bring them in closer touch. In the gen(“ral m«'eting room on the first lloor are telephoiu’ facilities, maga zine and writing tal>les. .sets of all avail able I'^trmers’ Bulletins, The F.xpc'rinient |H'r liu. \\as ^ four largest slaye-holdings were in I Kladen, Chowan, Orange, and Stokes. = I Nobody in North Carolina owned more than 500 slaves. Only one planter in the entire South owned a thousand or lufire I slaves. 1 Tln're were si.ime slave-holders in every I one of the .S6 counties; fewest in Wataii- I ga. :’)Li and in Wake. 10,195. Nearly one-half of the .slave.s in ^\'ake were owned or held in Kaleigh. THE TWENTIETH CENTU RY UNIVERSITY President E. K. Graham The .American state univei'sity of th(> twentieth century is an organism of the productive state, striving to ex press in tangible realities the a.spii’a- tions of present democracy, as it ad justs itself to the liherations of a now humanism. A Center of Democracy The incarnalioii of'the gri'at anti- leudal power of conjinerce was in(>\ i- tabje, not oidy tc- lircak the bonds oi ancient ol>sessions. but to open ihrongh its niat‘rial might railways, steamslii]! lines, canals, telegraph and telc{)hone .systt’nis. good roads, .school houses and libraries, as avenues to liberation, in its d(‘\'ek>pment it cr(‘- ated its own abnormal standards and tyrannies, aial b(‘came so obst'sst^l with material lre('dom that ei(nality .seemed a contradiction and coo]K'ration the vision of a dreamer. fts life was inilividualislic. coinpartinental, and freely competitive. Its ideal was etiiciency ; it,s criterion, dividends; but present democracy, if it has not yet focn.sed the light of the new center toward which it moves, is steadily il- luniiuau'il by il. A Unifying, Uplifting Agency Democracy has come to mean more than an aggregate of vocations, gronp- chI for the pur])ost^ ol nuiterial exploi tation. The whole 41brt c*f th(' pi‘o- ductive state is to tmify its life, not casting out material goinl, but inter preting the using of it in it.s .symmetri cal upbuilding. LETTER SERIES NO. 28 The largest number of planters owning slaves lived in (iranville county. 1,006. Largest Slave Populations The 21,000 slave holding plantei's and Stiitiou Bulletins of the .State, and blanks ' fai» largest munbers in the upon which ap])lication may be made for j tobacco growing counties from .Stokes those desired by individuals. Another | *"''^^"^■’(1 along the \ irginia line, and in large room on the first Hoor is suitable i cotton growing region of eastern for lunciieons, illustrated lectures, and ^'^orth Carolina; all told in some 41 apple shows, demon- local corn sIk.iws stration meetings, etc. On the second Uoor arj two lar-ge I'est roonis for wx>nien. Those in charge of I cotton and l^bacco by large slave gangs the enterprise hoiie to be able to ein.i>loj' ' under ov(>rseers most profitable, a Woman attemiaut and provide her with | . J'l 41 counties, when the war was facilities for caring foi-small children of counties in the areas nanu'd. Here the lands were gently rolling or level, the plantations large. ani the cultivation of visiting shop|iers. Tlii' building also '•contains ollic(>s for the board and agri cultural liureau. Hack of. the building is a lutchhig irronnd. witli ami>le space for 50 teams, 'willi a good brick walk lo the building. Oomitry jieoi)le can hitch their teams, leave their wrai>s, arrange aj>pointments by tele|)hjne. etc., and then go about ■their duties in town. —The Fedi'ral News LetliT. The Rowan Community Build ing The handsome buikliug in Salisbury, ■devoted ejKiUiaively to community uses and purposes, bouses the County Dem onstration .Vgent, the Public Library, the Agricultural Fair Association, the -Sali.sbury Merchants' Association, the Rowan Historical Association, the Salis bury Indu.strial Chib, the Salisbury Civic dub, the Daughters of the Confederacy, the Daughters of the American Kevohi- tion. ft contains rest rooins with conven iences for the women and children of the •county. The auditorium is ta.stefully ■*>utlitted for ;>ublic meetings and enter tainments, and is to be u.sed V>y the town .-and country citizens alike. Stanley to the Fore A two-story building is being erected 'in Alteniarle, Stanley county, for county- wide use and service. 11 is the second structure of this sort in the South, the Rowan Community Build ing being the first. It is the third in tire United States, the firet being in Pennsyl vania. I'he gigantic water power plant on the ■^'adkin, the mills and facitories of Albe marle, the Industrial Institute and the ammal County Fair have given Stanley a large place in the pjiblic eye of late years. Dismissing the County Farm Demon strator the other day looks as though "Stanley had slipped a cog somehow. over were landless black laboiVrs and white landlords. It was a situation of lau(^ poverty and labor penu ry. Pinching ]ieccssily cjflled for capital. The supply-rncrchants furnished it, pro tected by lien and growing cro[is, gools, and chattels. 'I’hcrc was literally no other way of escape in many or nxist of these 41 counties. The Crop Lien and Its Results Tlie 13 counties of the State having negro majoritio's in 1910 are in this re gion. Ill 19 of these counties farm ten ants. white and black, outnumber the owners who cultivate their own farms; in 8 counties nearly two to one ; in Edge- contbe nearly three to one. In 7 of these counties, 3,746 negroes own 237,000 acres of farm land. Their farms average about 63 acres apiece. In 1910 negro farm owners were more than two-tifths, 42 jier cent, of all the farm owners of these seven counties; in Hali fax county tliey were 49 per cent and in Warren 52 per cent of them all. Where the Evil is Least In brief, wliere slave populations were densest in 1860, the problein of the crop lien is now greatest. In 46 counties be fore the war, mainly in middle and W'est- ern North Carolina, three-fourths or more of the farmers owned no slaves. The passing of slavery left scarcely a shadow upon the business life of these counties. They^were largely self-tinaii- cing farmers before and are largely so now. But in the cotton and tobacco counties then and now lieavy negro populations linger. For instance in Bertie, Halifax, and AVarren, negro populations today range from 59 per cent to 65 per cent of the totals, as in 1860. Farm-tenancy, absentee-landlordism, and the crop -lien became established institutions in eastern Carolina, and tliey tend toward indefinite increase in most of tliese 41 counties. Favors Negro Farm Ownership It is a state of |things favorable to the negroes. They can acquire property up- HEADSA NEW EPOCH Dr. Fdward Kiiider (iraham. iuaugii- rated as tenth [ircsidenl of the University of North Carolina. alr(>ady has taken up the work so well begun by his predeces sors. His tiguie is flung across the pages of .\oith Carolina as no figure has Ix'en silhouctcd in recent years; he comes upon the stage at a time when the state is call ing for leaders not only in the college world, which has .served its day and gen eration well, but is calling for leadership and direction in govermeul, for men to teach who are niiabh' tn pursue scholarshi|i in the class-room—when a whole peo|>le ari' auakeued to their possi bilities in agricuUm-c, in citizen.ship and community service. This is the age that I'residcnt (Ti'aluun will have the pi-ivilege of serving. Thai he will make the University re- sjiousive to the tinci' im|)uls('s and dc'sires of the p('ople of North {.larolina there is not the iloubt. His administra tion already has attracted national atten tion; best of all. it has drawn the peo|)le of the state nearer U) the Uuivei'sity, North Car(jlina has just begun to ftnil itself. Its wTindcrfnl ojiportuuitie.s'- in ediu'ation, in agiiciilture and manufac tures have but starred. The next great development, as the new pi'esideut says, will be in the South. The University along with the other iu.stitutions of North Carolina, botii denominational aiul state, will have a large jiart in shaping the des tinies of this .section-—a nmch larger part than they could possibly have had in the past—-and their eflbrls will be appreciat ed. In this service President Graham wdll take a man’s |)art.—The lialeigh Times. THE COUNTY SCHOOL FAIR fjast fall a umnber of comities held school fairs. In tlie s|)ring forty- odd counties held county commenci'inents, th(“ signiti‘anl ti'aturx' of which, was the : .school exhibit. The worth of these coun- ty school fairs and the exhibits at the comity school commeucemeiitiS lies largely J in j)ointing out and emphasizing the ty]>e of activities which should be undertaken • by these schools. 'I'he pi-izes otf'ei'ed should, ihei'cfore. be for such things as have educational value as well as mility. The following are some of the prizes oH'ered for exhibits at (he .school fair in l.ake County. I'llorida. under the direi’tioii of Miss Flora l>. Hi'own at Tavares. The list will be suggesli\ e lo Noi-th Car- I oliiia teachers for which reason il is here ]irinted. Prize List for Schools Besi lejiort of a School Betternieut .\ssociation for year. Best pei'centage of attendance from tlie opening of the school until the fair. IV'sl e.Khibit of regular school work taken from the daily work, (ireatest iniproveme.nt in .school pro- [leriy l>eginning with the s.'hool year. Highest percentage of contestanls in fail'. Highest iK'rcenlage in .school parade. Best aj)[iearance in the [larade. !. succe.ssful co-operative I’lmltry and I’.gg Socii'ty. List Open to Boys and Girls Best one-half broilers, produced at smallest cost, shown by the l«'st statement of-ex|>enses. supporU'd by atUdavits. Best trio of Rhode Island lieds. 1. Best ten rea.sous for living in Florida. :. Best words for county song. 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 5. 6. 1(1. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 1. 2. 4. .5. 6. 9. !0. 11. 12. Best picturi' ol school and grounds, Best picture ol school room decorat« ed for a special occasion. liest singk' Lake County .scene. Best relief ma|i ol l.ake County. Best eolk'ction of jiine-alj'aw work. Best collection of necklaces made from natise setN'ls. Beads may be used in connection. B(‘sl na|>kin I'ing made from native wofnl. Best collection of frei'-haiid drawings by pupils in first four graik's. Best collection of free-hand pa|H^r cutting by piijiils in first grades. Best collection of free-hand drawing by pupil in 5lh to 8tli grades inclu sive. Best collection of free-hand lrawijig by high .school pupil. ^ Bi'St (‘xhibit of daily work in spelling by pupil in first four grades. S(>ell- iiig, writing and neatness to be considered. Best jiair ol pictures showing the Ix’st ;uid j>o(.)rest stretch of n>ad in the vicinity of the confe.sfant. List for Girls B('st pint of tig )ireserv('s. Best collection fif canned goods made from the common guava. Best scliool hmcli (‘outaining not over live articles. P>est loaf of bread. Best pound of butter. B(‘si chocolate layer cake, not using more than three eggs. Best pair ol henistitcheil pillow castes. Best darning on pair of Best patching on garment of con testant. Best palmetto hut. girl over IwelvCt Best composition on Lake County. Best ipiilt top made entirely by con testant. on the lowest levels of existence; and in seven of these counties they own and cultivate from 30 to 52 percent of all the owmxi farms; in Northampton 30 per cent, Robeson 35 per cent, Richmond and Vance 36 per cent, Hertford 40 per cent, Halifax 49 per cent, ami AN'arren 52 per cent. Tlie crop lien iiad its origin in economic necessity. It tends to disappear as pov erty disappears. As a business system it first aided poverty and now it perpetuates it. Its disappearance can be hastened by legislation that is wise, temperate, and considerate of economic conditions. Ill considered laws on this subject can easily make bad matters worse in 41 counties of the State. In the rest, tlie law or its re peal is of small consequence. Repealing the Crop Lien Law The crop lien system sprang out of dire poverty. It flourishes upon the dire poverty of its victims and sinks them into hopeless economic .serfdom. It lends to decrcast' and disapi>ear whenever and Wherever the cause for it decreases aud disappears. Farm tenancy and crop liens are tlu' foundation .stones ol business in the cotton and tobacco belt counties of the South. Tlu'rc is scarcely a trace of them left in our grain grow ing, hay aud forage, livi“ .stock counties. That is to say, diversified farming aud live stock industries free farmers from the curse of the crop lien by removing the cause for it. TlM're are tifty-uine counlies^in North Carolina that would .scarcely know the law had been repealed. They are the iiiany-ci'0|i, live-stock, -nwner.ship-farm- ing counties. The repeal of the law would^radically alter the economic structui'e of business in our cotton aud lobacco,regious. It would certainly forci' ab.seutee-laud- lords to lake personal charge of their farms and linaiu’C their tenants directly; or sell out. The effect upon laiul values would he swift and certain. But also it would force tenants to bread and meat abundantly in order to lessen the burden upon the landlord. It would tend to the diversification that spells freedom. j suit be increa.seii vajjie in our human j product? Business firms conclude that these elements in administration are [ worth whik-. AVhy not try them in our j bu.siness? WORTHY REPRESENTATIVE ; \ copy of The Training School ( Juartt'r- ' ly, the student and faculty organ of the ; Fast t'arolina Teachers Training School, has just been received by the .School of Ivlucalion eilitors of the I'niversity News Letter. The make-u[)-is excellent, the mat(>rial interesting and apjiropriate. One gains th(> impression that the s[iirit of the insti tution. as typified by this publication, is one of hearty and sympathetic co-opera tion between faculty and student bixly. Lack of space forbids a detailed review of the \’arions contributions. \\'i‘ wish the University .School of Edu'ation had money enough to put forth a similar |>ub- lication. A BUSINESS PROPOSITION A prominent clothing concern adver tised in a recent issue of the Saturday Fvening Post as follows; “Ibicle .Sam’s investigators were much intere.sted in the way ’s Clothes are made. ‘ ‘Especially when they found so few of the workers in those shops were changed from year to year. “Careful training, good surroundings, the most advancexi machines, testing, in spection, and sanitary provisions—all these have heli>ed to put more real value into ’s all-wool clothes for men and young men.” Application Note the factors necessary aud etiicient in producing real value in clothes; con tinuous service, careful training, pleasant aud sanitary surroundings, proper equip ment, examination, inspectional sui)er- vision. If these same factors were provided in our business of education, would the re- HOW ABOUT IT? I’rom a very careful study of illiteracy in South Carolina, made by the State Su])erinteudeut of Kducation there, it ap- (leai's that more than 18 per cent of the enrolled while voters 21 to 29 years of age, in the 1914 election, made their mark! No such data is available for North Oarolina, but we wonder,—aud with fear in our heart.s,—if the Old NorthStatecan .show any bettiT record. We Wonder! (rod hasten the day when no citizen, in this State or any other, will be obliged to cast a vote, n'ad the Bible, or write a Irt'ter. by proxy. TEACHER’S BUREAU The Bureau of Exteiwion of the Uni versity of North Carolina maintains a Teachers’ Bureau, which recommends ; men for positions in school work in re- 8})onse to injuiries from school officials. The Bureau would be glad to register the names of teaching Alumni of the Univer sity. WHiether such men desire a change of position or not, the Bureau would i>e glaI to have their names and records on tile, [t hopes to build up a fairly com plete list Alumni of the University who are in school work. Such a list will be of service to it, and will enable it to be of service to Alumni. Mr. Teaching Alumnus, send us yourname and record!

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