The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, August 25, 1915, Image 1
The news in this publica tion is released for the press on the date indicated below. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the University of North Carolina for its Bureau of Extension. AUGUST 25,1915 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. Editorial Boardi K. C. Branson, J. G. deR. Hamilton, L. R. Wilson, L,. A. Williams. VOL. I, NO. 40 Bntered'as second-olaas matter November 14, 1914, at the postoffioe at Chape! Hil', N. C. undpr the act of Anp-nst 3!, 191". NORTH CAROLINA CLUB STUDIES i A CALL FOR HELP The edition of tbe University News Let ter is now 7,000. The mails liave brongiit *13 1,500 names since the first of last May, : and new requests come daily. We must keep within our small budget 'allowance for ijrinter’s ink, paper, press work and postage. We are therefore un der the necessity of revising our mailing list. Just now we are concerned about know ing who on our list has time to read the News I^etter. Please drop us a card about it. REFRESHING A paper without a word in, it from W'eek to week about crime and criminals, Oharles Becker, or Harry Thaw. Think on that,-Miy lords and ladies! Instead, every issue is full and running over with items about community oppor tunities, possibilities and enterprises, ■with pointers for the townspeople, and suggestions about crops and profits for the farmers in Wake. Tt is The Wendell Times. Our bonnet j'oes ofl' to Editor Evans. Just now he is preaching the gospel of shade, beauty, and free bounty in fruit and nut-bearing trees along the streets, instead of elms, Carolina poplars and the Hike. Pecans and English walnuts are in very Ifact as beautiful and as hardy as any ■■shade trees we can plant. Why not plant them in our yards and “long our streets? The idea is well worth ampaigning. THE UNIVERSITIES AND PUBLIC SERVICE tiovernor Walsh of Massachusetts has just called together in Boston Aug. 24-7 he second National Conference on Uni- ’versities and Pulilic Service. The subjects named for discussion are jsuggestive. For instance ! 1. University Training and Community Keeds. 2. Law Schools aud Social Justice. 3. Medical Schools aud Public Health. 4. Engineering Courses and Public [Works. .5. Lilieral Arts aud Civic Service. Governor Walsh evidently has tiie no tion that universities ha\'e, or ought to jliave, a direct, definite relation to tlie common weal; that academic culture as an isolated, insulated, dainty something is.an out-of-date, musty, fusty something. 'Ways and means of makiiig' universi ties directly serviceable to the public is th« liurden of discussion in these conferences. t)UR FARM-HOME SURVEY The survey of farm homes in Cliapel Hill and Bingham townships is finished. Mr. l^ugene Sugg, a University student from Bin_gham township, representing the Office of Markets and Rural C)rgani- zation in Washington City, is now mov ing over into Hillsboro and Cedar Grove townships. The intelligence and uniform courtesy ■W'ith which Mr. Sugg has been received in our farm homes speak volumes of praise for Orange county. Not everybody has understood fully what these surveys mean and some few people have been' suspicious; but all told the people of the county are seeing a new iight and catching the spirit of this cam paign for jirogress. Nobody means anything whatsoever but good for Orange county—just that and nothing less. OUR SOIL SURVEY The Federal Government has been gen erously interested in Orange county. Our Senators and Major Steadman, our repre sentative, have lost no chance in Wash- iugton City to serve our people in all the survey work that is now going on in the county. I*r. W. S. Rankin of the State Health Board, and Dr. J. Y. Joyner, our State Superintendent of Public Instruction, have been actively sympathetic and help ful- Dr. B. W. Kilgore, Director of the State Agricultural Experiment Station in Raleigh, promises us a Soil Surv'ey at the earliest possible moment—not later, we hope, than the early fall. Soil surveys are now being made in three North Carolina counties. Twenty- nine such surveys have been finished to date. We are hoping that Major W. A. Gra ham, our Commissioner of Agriculture, and Dr. Kilgore will see fit to give us a soil survey in Orange, at some early date. OUR FARM PRACTICES SURVEY A third survey in Orange county is be ing conducted for the Federal Depart ment of Agriculture by Mr. Fred R. Yoder, a University graduate from Ca tawba county. He is investigating farming as a busi ness ill Orange. In general he is trying to find answers to the questions; Does farming pay in Orange county? What kind of farming pays best and why? What kind of farming pays least and why? His inquiries cover investment, equip ment, cropping systems, livestock, live stock products, markets, credit, and so on. It is a long, complicated study for each farm, and for this reason he cannot hope to interview more than 200 farmers all told. Mr. Yoder reports that the farmers as a rule are keenly interested in this sur vey; more so possibly than in the other surveys. RUNNING WATER IN COUNTRY HOMES So far in our survey of farm homes we have found only two country homes in Orange county equipped with water works, both in Bingliam township; the homes of Mr. Milton Smith, Teer, Route 1, and Mr. Nerius Cates, Hillsboro, Route 2. The U. S. Public Health Service Sur vey reports nine such country homes in the county. We should be glad to have the addresses of them all, with accounts of how they solved this important prob lem. Carrying water from a spring or draw ing water from a well is a back-breaking business, especially hard on the farm wives. The Federal Department of Agriculture estimates that water for drinking, cook ing, washing, house cleaning, and bath ing in a country home averages 30 gal lons a day for each person, from 10 to 13 gallons for each horse or mule, from 10 to 14 gallons for each cow and from 1 to 3 gallons for each hog. OUR HEALTH SURVEY IN ORANGE The t)range county homes, town and country, visited by the doctors of the U. S. Public Health Service number nearly 3300. The first round in our Camiiaign for better health is finished. The second round of visitation lias begun. The doctors are now trying to get the people of Orange county to do the few simjile things that are necessary to put an end to home-bred typhoid fever, and at the same time to free the county from the scourge of similar intestinal diseases, dysentery, diarrhea, cholera infantum and the like. Sanitary surface closets, a proper dis posal of human body-waste, and screens for the homes are the main matters. In our 3300 homes, tlie doctors found histories of more than a thousand cases of typhoid fever; and Orange in this par ticular shows no worse than other coun ties in the United States. But surely a known state of affairs like this will nerve even the most careless father and mother to prompt action in behalf of the loved ones in the home. The cost? Less than a twentieth of what it costs to put up a lightning rod. Lightning killed only 179 people in all this big country last year; but typhoid fever slew 30,000. DEVELOPING DAIRY IN DUSTRIES The total amount received from farm sales of dairy products in North THE FARMER’S BEST ASSET A little, ill-equipped, one-teacher country school is much better than no school at all; but it remains today in many a rural comnuniity where it has no more business than an oxcart would have as a pleasure vehicle. A string of little, old-fasliioned one- teacher country schools, with a course of studies not at all related to country life, in a rural district where many farmers own automobiles is a scandal ous fraud on country youth. The consolidated country school, graded, well-housed, well-equipped, with adequately paid teachers and a course of study Icnit up with country life, is the farmer’s best a.ssest.—The Saturday Evening Post. Carolina in 1910 was only $1,787,000. It is a small total, barely more than half the farm sales of jioultry and eggs; but it was nearly exactly two and a half times as much as similar sales ten years before. In sixty-five counties the sums received from the sale of dairy products on the farm were more than doubled; in 26 of these counties, the cash receipts were more than trebled; in five of them, more than quadrupled. In three of them there was a five-fold increase; in three others, a six-fold in crease ; in Alexander, a ten-fold increase. In Pender the total farm sales amount ed to only $5,405 ; but it was more than a twenty-fold increase. Mainly these 65 counties were middle and western Nortli Carolina counties,— all but 2.4. Nine counties, all but three in eastern Carolina, suffered decreases, ranging from 7 per cent in Bertie to 99 per cent in Dare. The tide-water counties outstripped the rest of the state during the last census period in swine increases; but middle and western North Carolina counties far out- strippcHi the coastal plain counties in cat tle increases. Creamery routes, cream separators, butter and cheese factories, cattle breed ing associations and beef cattle industries are multiplying rapidly in Western North Carolina, and a brand new chapter in agriculture is here being written for the state. PROGRESS IN COLLEGE EDUCATION - The were 216,493 students in the col leges, universities and technological schools of the United States in 1914, or 14,262 more than in 1913. College students have more than treb led in nunilier in the country-at-large since 1890. In the University of North Carolina during this interval, the numlser of stu dents has increased more than five fold. More Students and Fewer Colleges The colleges, universities, and techno logical schools of the United States in 1914 numbered 569, or 29 fewer than in 1913. Their receipts from all sources during the year reached a total of $120,579,257, or an average of 5'557 per student en rolled. In the University of North Carolina in 1914-15, there were 1019 students and the total receipts from all sources averaged only ?178 per student enrolled; or less than a third the average for the Unit ed States. Twenty«Six Million Dollars in Benefactions Private gifts to the colleges, universi ties, and - technological schools of the country reached the enOrmous sum of 5)26,670,017, or two million dollars more than in 1913. The Emerson Stadium is the notable gift of the year to the University of North Carolina. It is safe to say that 4i»erica believes in education as an instrument of social safety and civic security. THE FAMILY DOLLAR Federal Government experts hav^been studying the cost of living for 13,643 per sons in 2,567 average homes in different parts of the United States. The average yearly income for a family of five was found to be $827.19; the av- UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION LETTER SERIES NO. 40 OUR COUNTRY SCHOOLS The report for 1914-15 of the State Agent for Rural Schools gives a most gratifying account of splendid and ef fective work Along Practical Lines A summary of the v\ork done by the seven rural school supervisors under the direction of the State Agent contains much that compels the reader’s approval. The WorR of the Rural Super visors In these seven counties, in each ■ of which there is a lady school supervisor, there are 66 Demonstration Schools to which the supervisors give special at tention. From a summary of the State Agent’s Report the following is interesting as showing just what work tliese super visors afe"doiiigin these seven counties Along Industrial Lines Total number in the Boys’ Corn Clubs 416 Total number of boys in the Pig Clubs, 253 Total number of girls in cooking classes, 289 Total number of girls in sewing classes, 572 Total number of girls and women in canning clubs, 648 Along Cultural and Recreation al Lines A great work has been done by these supervisors in the way of stirring up the children for culture and recreation. Twenty-three schools have music clubs; 615 boys and girls belong to the music clubs. Thirty-seven schools have literary clubs; 1080 boys and girls, men and women are members of the literary clul)s, and better still these various clubs have held 502 meetings during the year. A Splendid Showing is made in the facts and figures of this report and our schools are sure to grow in popular favor the more they reach out tov\ard the delightful and the practical in education. erage expenditures 3i768.54; and the av erage surplus §58.65. It is a Dwindling Dollar Among other interesting details it ap pears that a dollar in 1915 will buy no more food than 80 cents would buy in 1907. That is to say, fifteen leading ar ticles of food have increased in price an average of 25 per cent in eight years. Pantry supplies considered, a thousand dollar salary today is just what an $800 salary was in 1907. What the Family Dollar Pays for In the homes under investigation, av erage typical American homes, the family dollar was spent as follows: Food 35.5 cents Rent and payment on homes.. .14.2 cents Clothing 13 0 cents Miscellaneous 5.4 cents Fuel and light 4.8 cents Furniture and utensils 3.1 cents Liquor and tobacco 2.8 cents Insurance 2.5 cents Sickness and death 2.4 cents Church, lodge, etc 2.3 cents Amusements 1.5 cents Newspapers, magazines, etc 1.0 cents .Surplus 7.0 cents It is interesting to note that in 2,567 average American homes more money went for amusements, newspapers and magazines than went to support both the church and the lodge. Liquor and to bacco were also a larger detail. Also that this little margin of 7 surplus cents in the dollar explains the seven billion dollars on savings account in banks of all sorts in the United States. GETTING CLOSER TO THE PEOPLE The students in the colleges and uni versities of America are a little more than two to every 1000 of population. In North Carolina, they are less than 5000 all told. At the University they numbered last year 1019; but in various forms of Exten sion Service we were able to reach some thing like 200,000 people. We are trying to put the men and the resources of the University freely at the ser\'ice of the State; trying to make our campus reach to the borders of North (Carolina in every direction. Whatever benefit the University may have conferred in these efforts, the bene fit it has received is unmistable. It is far more important for the University to know about the peoj^le of North Carolina, their puzzles and problems, than for the people of North Carolina to know about the University. We have learned that the University is called to minister and not to be ministered unto. Forms of Extension Service 1. The Information Bureau has an swered more than 2,000 inquiries about every conceivable subject. 2. The Loan Library has sent out 1600 books and pamphlets. 3. The High School Debating Union of the Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies here involved 250 high schools all over the state, 1000 debaters, and audiences mmil)ering all told between 50,000 and 75,000 people. Twenty-five hundred cop ies of the Del >ate Bulletin were sent out along with 1500 pamphlets and docu ments on debate subjects. 4. The Summer School, the Good Roads Institute, the Rural Life and the High School Conferences reached 1000 teach ers, county officials, ministt^rs and school officers. 5. The Correspondence Courses and Suumier studies for college credits served 240 aspiring students. 6. The new department of Rural Eco nomics and Sociology is subjecting the state to close scrutinity and analysis, county by county. During the year just closed, 117 important economic and so cial subjects have been threshed out and the information is in the flies of the North Carolina Club at the University ready for the press and the people of the state. These studies vere listed in The Uni versity News Letter May 26 and August 11. They follow the lines of thought in dicated in the Syllabus of Home-County Club Studies and the Community Service Week Bulletin, both of which were edited and compiled by members of the Univer sity Extension Bureau. 7. The University News Letter goes weekly to 7,0U0 readers; to people in ev ery county and almost every community in North Carolina. It goes without charge to anybody that writes for it. This little sheet is not yet a year old, but already it evidences the fact that the University is thinking not first and most about itself, but first and most about North Carolina. 8. The Extension Ijecture Bureau has reached 40,000 people with 140 lectures and addresses by various members of the faculty during the year. From every window on the campus of the University hangs out a kindly lamp of learning for the millions in North Caro lina who cannot enter college walls. THE STATE PRESS One hundred ninety-six North Carolina dailies, weeklies and semi-weeklies come regularly into the office of the University News Letter. And they are read, every one of them, in our hunt for signs of progress, for sto ries of initiative, achievement, and devel opment in the state. lU no state of the Union do the papers of all sorts give more space to Education, Agriculture, and Public Health. Once upon a time Education was a subject left to the school journals. Agri culture to the farm weeklies, and Public Health to a little corner in the medical magazines. Now our North Carohna papers are filled with these subjects in every issue. The editors of the general public press give liberal time, attention and space to schools, farming and sanitation. The part our editors are playing in state development along these lines is the best comment possible ujron the ability and generous citizenship of the newspa per fraternity in North Carolina.