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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Publiehed weefcly by the
Univercity of North Carolina
for its Bureau of Elxtension.
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
KditorUl Board! B. C. Branson, J. G. deK, Hamilton, L. B, Wilson, L. A. -WaUanis, R. H. Thornton.
VOL. H, NO. 3
Sutered as second-class matter November 14. iOU, at the postofflce at Chapel Hill, N. 0.. under the act of Angnst 24,1918.
NORTH CAROLINA CLUB STUDIES
THINGS TO BE PROUD OF IN
FEDERAL PENSIONS IN
rriie F«derai Pensions disbursed to | 1. Rockingliam, au enterprising,
^Idters, widows and dependents during | busy, beautiful little capital city, witli 10
cotton mills in it and clustered around it,
;the year ending July 1, 1915 was $165,
:518, 266. ft is nearly seven million dol
lars less than the year before. So reads
A recent report of the Federal Pension
representing an investment of .?2,000,-
2. A high grade mill population.
They are stable, law-abiding, useful citi-
A SELF-SUPPORTING ACRI-
Bradford Knapp, Farm Demonstration
'We have a good thing in the South, if
'w^e will only go to work and make agri-
The plan of the Federal Department of
Agriculture is to foster home gardens, to
•encourage thrift by teaching people to
«an fruit and vegetables for home use as
they do in every thrifty community, to
have farmers grow their own corn, oats,
liay, peas, beans, potatoes, and some
ssane or sorghum for syrup, and to pro-
'duce their own meat supply from a rea-
■•sonable industry in poultry, hogs, and
Of course this would require some re
duction of the cotton acreage, unless
•more acres w'ere taken up; but under
4his plan we would establish a live-stock
industry sufficient to utilize the waste
•Sand. On every farm there is waste land
which could be made productive with
This is purely a business proposition,
hnt one that has been sadly neglected in
i-aU our Southern territory.
The BanKers Can Do It
Tlie Bankers have the power, in my
judgment, to institute a safe, sound, self-
supporting agriculture in the South if
rthey will do it. The key to the whole
;:situation lies in the hands of the bankers
Jind credit merchants of the South.
ili bankers and credit merchants of
tlie South still fail to lend their construc
tive backing to the estabhshment of self-
supporting agriculture, and are still going
I “O nna"ke their loans and finance the agri-
- 'ulture of the South as a one-cro]> agri-
aculture, then we are going to have a one-
crop agriculture until such time as hu
man nature breaks and we have a revo-
. lution which will overthrow the present
jTheJarmer Not To Blame
Can you blame the farmer, especially
the little farmer or tenant, if he does
not follow the advice of agriculturists and
’ »loes not diversify, when he well knows that
.when he goes to the small banker or sup-
i^ly TTiercbant of the South the basis of
iiis credit is fixed on the number of acres
of the onft cash-crop that he is going to
I want to tell you now there is nothmg
imore important, nothing, more helpful,
you can do than to help the Southern
.farmer find reasonable markets for local-
!’y grown produce other than the one
isash-crop of the community.
Tlie only class of farming we support,
Mays an Iowa banker, is diversified farm
ing and in order to have diversified farm
ing you must have live stock. The most
•of our loans are for live stock. I Ijelieve
that this system X)f farming is the only
•successful one, because it means employ-
Maent the whole year; while with a one-
“rop system farmers are employed for only
a, few montlis of the year and for the bal
ance of the year are idle, and it does not
r^m to me that being idle would help
The Number of Federal pensioners liv- i zens far above the average in mill towns,
ing in Southern states and the sums they ; 3. The first moonlight school in North
received last year may be interesting to j Carolina, 3 years old and still in opera-
Ition, under the direction of Mr. L. .J.
Bell, superintendent of the city schools.
4. A lieautiful school building in
Rockingham and a most excellent school
5. The orop-yielding power of Rich
mond soils, $25.64 per acre in the census
other counties of the state, and 7 of the 8
banner agricultural counties of the Unit
6. The small per cent of farm mort-
^ges in 1910, only 11 per cent among
white farm owners, and only 14 per cent
among negro farm owners. In this par
ticular, Richmond outranks 80 counties
of the state.
7. The improvW public roads; 263
miles or 60 per cent of the total public
roads mileage. Further improvements in
1914 raise tliis per cent to 90 or more.
In goods roads Richmond ranks among
the first half-dozen counties of the State.
8. The wonderful recovery of the
county during the last census period,
during which the population increased 24
per cent, the total taxable property 96
per cent, and the Ttbtal farm w^ealth 156
per cent: in marked contrast with the
twelfth census period during which more
than a third of the population moved
out of the county and the property values
9. The unusually large number of col
lege bred men and women who are mind
ed to know where Richmond leads, where
she lags,and the way out; and to lead in
solving community problems of progress.
This spirit was inspiringly evident the
other night in tlie annual University
A long string of thirty-five automobiles
brought 151 farmers from their meeting
in Durham to the University week before
They came as guests. They went away
with a large sense of proprietorsliip and
pride in their partnership' in the State
Three hundred and two young men
from farm homes, their own and their
neighbors’ sons, quickly made them feel
that they were at home and not on a
President (iraham’s welcome gave them
a bird’s-eye view of the University and
its State-wide purposes and work. And
the-vision they got of this institution,
left out of account no man or woman of
any vocation or calling whatsoever.
They dined with the students and facul
ty in Swain Hall, and were served by stu-
,l,$nt waiters, some 40 of the 200 Tar Heel
boys who are working out their salvation
here, not with fear and trembling, but
with a sturdy pluck aiid pride that wins
universal respect and applause.
“I never saw anything like this Ijefore
in all my life, said Hon. Charles C. Bar
rett, the President of the National Farm
ers Union, referring to the attitude of the.
farmers to ward the State University.
COTTON—A CROWN AND
In The News and Observer, November
16th, Richard H. Edwards, editor of the
Manufacturer’s Record, had a full page
article on Cotton Culture in the South:
Origin, Causes, Consequences.
Thoughtful people everywhere will read
that article, file it away, re-read it often,
and think on it, hard and long.
If you belong to the thinking class in
North Carolina, write for it.
The Professor Says
The Uttle fellow was right when he
said, ’Tain’t fair! Teacher tells us to
close our books, and then she opens hers
Some teachers are stagnant pools;
others are living fountains.
The highest ultimate prosperity to
the South will jcome not from high
prices of cotton, though high prices
always bring temporary prosperity,
but from the gradual lessening of the
South's dependence on cotton and an
increase of the South’s attention to
the raising of larger diversified crops
and of live stock, for which this sec
tion is so splendidly equipped by nat"
May tlie day be hastened when cot
ton .-^hall be dethroned as king in
thought as in trade and in commerce,
and when it shall be made a servant,
blessing the South as a servant, where
it cursed it as a king.
Then this section will look back and
rejoice that through intich tribulation
it has reached the Promised Land of
diversified agriculture; for with diver-
»ifled agriculture in its broadest a?Qse
will come the widest diversity of eco
nomic thought, educational advan*‘e-
ment and abounding wealth.
UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
LETTER SERIES NO 53
MENACING PROBLEMS IN
Some of the fundameiital problems
calling for solution in RicbmoBd are as
1. Illiteracy, Nearly one-tenth of the
white voters and more than one-fifth 'vf
tlie mill operatives are iStiterate.
2. Increaising farm tenancy and^ ab
sentee landlordism. Fifty-seven ijer cent
of the farms are cultivated by tenants, a®
increase of 5.4 per cent in tea^ years. Ex--
cessive tenancy means flecreasing home-
raised food and feed supplies,- and in
creasing difficulty in solving country
church and country school problems.
3. A distressingly low per cent of
white school attendance, of children be
tween 6 and 14 years of age, 61.8 per
cent. Seventy-four counties made a^ bet
ter showing. The negro ratio was-64.5
per cent. Tliese are 1910 censiis-fig
4. The money sent out of the county
in 1910 for imported food and feed sup
plies, 11,283,000. Sixty counties made a
better showing. In three years it exceeds
the wealth accumulated by the farmers of
the county in 131 years.
5. The feeble wealth-retaining pcuver
of the farm population. Every two years
the wealth the farmers produce nearly
equals the wealth they have saved dur
ing the entire history O'f the county.
6. The small per capita country
wealth, $176; against $560 in Alleghany,
and $994 in the United States. Ninety
counties made a better showing in. the
census year. The per capita taxable
wealth of the entire population was only
$282 in 1910.
7. Bringing into productive use-297,-
000 idle acres or nearly five-sixths of the
county. Here is room for 3,000 nevsTlarni
families, and treble the present farm
The well-being and future prosperity of
Rockingham are dependent upon pros
perity in the surrounding countsy-side—
not upon mills and factories^ banking
and trade alone.
THE DRILL LESSON
The drill lesson is an exercise which
has for its purpose the formation of a
specific habit. Usually several such les-
.son.s are required, and in some caseB
many. The successful drill lesson must
conform to the psychology and principles
underlying habit-formation. It must
first, insure that every pupil understands
exactly what is to be done, and that his
attention is focused on just that thing.
It must, second, provide for attentive
repetition of the ta.=ik until it can be done
automatically. fVom these general laws
there follow certain practical suggestions.
Drill Should Be Concentrated
Do not try to *'oVer too much in the
drill It'sson. fn t’roni two to
four 01' five new wordi? a day are enoitgb.
Concentrate. Be to take np on
ly a Siniall bit ol new drMi material each
day, whether in teaching the fnndamen-
t-al« of arithmetic, or J^atinv ot* Knglish
composition . Focus the drill
flold frequent reviews. Reiuefssber
thj# habits are fortned by repetition, bukI
that without rer^fcition they rapidly ’K»-
j amount ot time divided into one or two
I longer periods. Drill siibjects should come
I five days in every week.
Do not be satistiel to go through the
motions of a drill. Require constant
attention from every member of the class.
Watch for mistakes and correct them the
first time they occur. A wrong habit
once st^irtcd grows continually harder to
Look For a Motive
In order to secure constant attendoM
and interest, provide a motive for success.
In spelling, for example, (tppeal ta rival
ry. Ho-ld contests in which sections of
the class are matched against each other,
or cla.s.s mafched against class. In some
subjects you may set a st^andan? which
the individiia;! mtwt reath, and excuse
him from further drill in' that sabject
when he reaches it. Vary your appeals.
Do nor expect all studWts to responds to
the saflEise incentive.
Mast inj^rtant of all, ne'^^er be .satis->
fied with haSf ^way results. Keep up your
drill imtil the dawi lia.« formed' sJsp habit.
out. fJeviews sl?!iu)d hm more freqiient ^ Test this by »king yourself whettier it
in the Itabit subjeefe-thai? in subjects liks'
history ct geography or'liTerature,
Short and Drills
Make yo-sr drill lessons* short and fre
quent . Ten or fifteen mihutes every day
in the week •^voted to dr«ll yn .“rpelling
sw synt^ix is far better she same
9t»s become mec%iiicaI. So loflgiis the
needs to 'thiShk about how to-per
form the habit, it i^ia» not been learned.
Hahiit subjects shoniW be learned Hntil
the'appointed tasks caiii' performediaa
mecha^iicaJly as you recite the alpha
bet, Then, even if yoE* coverles.s ground,
the fins*!', results will be'’better:
SCHOOL INSPECTION STARTS
The work of medical school inspection
begins Monday, Nov. 15, in Alamance
county. The Stale Board of Health, is
co-operation with the County Board of
Education, will have the work in charge,
and Dr. T. M. Jordan, of Raleigh, will
be the medical inspector. For three
months Dr. Jordan will give his entire
time to visiting the 57 white schools, ex
amining and reporting the special de
fects of school children, and teaching
health and health conditions to the school
and the community.
On November 29, the same system of
work starts in Northampton county. Dr.
A. C. Bulla, of Asheboro, will be the
physician in charge. Dr. Bulla has re
cently returned from Philadelphia where
he took special training in the Philadel
phia schools under Dr. Chas. S. Cornell.
Several other counties have made appli
cation to the State Board of Health for
this feature of health work. Their appli
cations are now pending.
—State Board of Health.
e?EN AIR SCHOOLS NEEDED
“¥>pen air schc«fe Imve t» be a j
real' necessity,” sawl a inerr!Jer oi 3be i
State*Educational E>!^f>artment yegtsrifeis.
©hlir recently,” sk'M'he, “t.^ere have-
conie-fioi our attentioK a number of iis-,
stances'©if real need fosr such a csBittiha;' '
tion of! liealth improveisaent and sehoot,
work as- tfne open air schools arc especial
ly desindfed and are ablrtogive. Mese'i
cases, for the most part, '^ure childreK'who'l
are not up to normal in Jiealth and who I
yet insist on getting an education. l?iey j
have brigilt minds and ia a numbw--of;
instances lead their classes as long: as-
they are p&ysically able, but' in a fSw
months- they grow thin and pale, i6ee
weight,-become nervous anil tiave to-be-:
kept at home-. |
Cripples Too !
‘Then tliere an.- the cripples,- thcse’f
with curvature oi tlie spine, with lao8'!
feet, or scame othe-r defect,—it seems thafej
they too. silould be included. Snnshine'|
and fresh' air are- so good for' so many.!
things tlMWiit seecas such a pit^notto letr
all the tats have- it that nee^l-it. Arwi;-
you woiii'd' be smip.rised,” he declarodv
how many that wonld be. ifi- looking:
over a selloolrooiar of boys and girls, .I!^e
wanted, to pick ®u.t as many as a dozens
and g?.!'« - them: sueh treatiseat—:
study, play, i»«urisliment, fdis- iBi tSvs»i
fresh air and uader the care of soHie^)«>di;
teaclw-doctor^.—and see how Sliey-.g.rG>is!,;
how TBpidly they begin to take-aa,gl«.w-1
ing Saces, increase in weight asid-iaean-!
whiie do bett»B sehool work thaa they i
ha'se- ever de«*- before. ’' i
S«re to Come
la conciosion, this man wita.t&e fresh
air ideals saiid rather hopefalls*,;—‘^It is
only a msSter ol time when will have
open air schools for our tubeeoular school
children. We are up againsi that prob
lem now, and it seems to m#’ that there’s
no otlxa: way to solve it] t^n to have!a.
school where children suffering from ta-
bexculosis can go, take &e cure and ia
the meantime improve liheir minds, ^
reality it would be nothing short of a
sanatorium with the school featut!»-ad
ded, and that is juat wh«,t they need aad
what we want am\ snust have.”'-.^tR,te
Board of Health.
I>ast yeaWvsoo copi(',soi iBe-balletiu for
Corres[)ond»iice Division University
Extension printed and dSfrtributed.
By the niidd'S*- of October of this year the
total edition > wvts exhausted aud a new
bulletin has prepared.
This year’s * balletin is nov,v-ceady and
will be sent free to any upon
application to tJie Bureau of ®stension.
Already the -s' fmve been distiributed
OTer 750 copies of. this bulletin ^hin and
without the s-tate; Have yst*-- r?ceived
yonr copy ?
Last year the*. Hertford graded: school
u«Jer the dirtietion of Prineipal L. B.
Crawford held ftsuecessful fleld?daiy.
This year cn EHotober 29ti« > the plan
wsui again carriel, out with e*.*en- greater
stM^cess than las^^sar.
On November-5th* Arbor l>Ay-esercises
“we-re held in the aaditorium foli®wed by
ai basket-ball game between:, the girls of
the Hertford 'agl? school an-S."ot?he girls ot
Bhe Elizabeth CSty high schoel, ,
We did nat'^leam hoM' the. game came
oat, but VV& axe- snre such secaaions will
kelp niightiijviiii making HiEtford a bet
ter,county i.a.\whiieh'to live..
A SCHOOL PIG
Harmony High School, over in Ire
dell, R. H. Lankford, Principal, has a
school pig. The porker was purchased by
each pupil contributing 5 cents to the pur
chase fund and is fed the waste from din
This comes mighty near making a silk
purse from a sow's ear.
Bulletin-, Noi. 12, The Tf^ajliing of Coun
ty Geogisphy^ by Prof,.M. C. S. Noble
is ready foE- distribution
Its fw-jpose is clearly stated bv-Dean
Noble,—fco.give methods and sug^tions
to thos5 teachers wliUs'wisli to tea>h their
pupils, tftifr geography of their cou.«^ty.
OrMxge county is iaken as a basis and
upon.lta features i&- constructed an out-,
line and resume, which may, be adapted,
for- ijse in any coonty of the gsate.
■pean Noble %asmade valuable cosi-
t*it>ution to the study of, local resoujrcea
a©d, needs. Teacher, superintendents
I giiipils, and ^e citizens Sntei^eeted. ija local
: problems i«ill find tVie pajjiphlet inter
esting an4 instructive-..
Write, to the Bureau of Extension foi-
a free e®py.
A MODERN SCHOOL
Notice haa come to the University News
Iietter that Mr. J, D, McVean of Qran--i
ville county is'condueting a school for the
purpose of teaching hoys how to judge
Truly a modern type of school and wor^
thy of extensive emulation.
The selfish|]unconcern of literates is as
bad for a community as the apathetic un»
concem*of illiterates, or worse.