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DECEMBER 22, 1915
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
University of North Carolina
tor its Bureau of Elxtension.
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
VOL. H, NO. 6
Editorial Boardii B. C. Branson, J. G. deR, Hamilton, L. K Wil«on, L. A. WUbams, R. H. Thorutou, G. M. McKie. £!a&«red as Hecond-cla.5f^ matter November 14, 1914, at the posfcoffi^e at Chapei HUl, N. C., under the act of Angnst 1912
NORTH CAROLINA CLUB STUDIES
Twenty-nine hundred Canning Club
Oirls in 37 counties of North Carolina
have put up 633,000 tins and jars of fnrita
and vegetables—tomatoe.?. string beans,
' 8oup mixtureM, (jeachea, cherries, pre
serves, jams and the like.
The value of the club productts this year
is $104,000; the profits §75,000 ; and the
average proHts per member $39.90.
A great record for Mrs. McKimmon
and her girls!
Nine new counties begin the club work
next year. Some of them made a late
beginning this year—Orange among them,
under Miss Cassidey who made such a
great record in Sampson.
The saving of waste iu time or material
marks the difference between crudeness
' and culture in any business whatsoever.
4sixty bushels per acre
Mr. T. E. Brown w’ho directs the Corn
Clubs thinks that tbe average yield of his
3550 boys thia year will be around 60
bushels to the acre.
The grown-ups have averaged barely 20
bushels to the acre in North Carolina.
If tliey had done as well as the boys,
we should have 182,000,000 bushels of
home-raised corn; or enough for home
(Consumption and a hundred million
bushels more to market abroad or, better
still, to feed our livestock.
f. The development of livestock farming
depends first of all on surpluses of grain,
hay, and forage; a fact worth consider-
PRIMARY PROBLEMS OF
It is important for a growing city (1)
to be the center of a well-developed food-
producing region; and (2) to keep the
„_ost of living at the lowest possible level
by solving the local market problem; by
c!ftwhich we mean, bringing together city
onsumers anji nearby producers of bread-
stuffs, so that the consumer gets more for
his money and the farmer more for his
Atlanta is a case in point. For years
he production of food and feed supplies
m Fulton and the adjoining counties has
een a dwindling farm enterprise. At-
anta has no city market. A little while
go an investigation by Federal experts
showed that Atlanta was one of the four
most expensive cities in the United States
to live in.
Atlanta Slows Down
,\8 might have been expected, the 1914
ensus of manufactures shows tliat indus-
rial enterprise in Atlanta has had hard
sledding these last five years. The liigh
ost of living has led to a demand for
higher wages, to labor unrest, and
chronic strike moods in factory opera-
ives. In consequence, since 1909 the
number of industrial establislunents has
decreased 12.2 per cent, the persons
ngaged in manufacture has increased less
than 3 per cent, and the value of products
only 25.2 per (*nt. It is a slow gait—
Every developing industrial center in
orth (“larolina can afford to study these
primary problems of progress.
FARM CO-OPERATION IN
The other night Mr. L. I’. Gwaltney,
Jr., of Alexander county, passed in re
view for The North Carolina Club the
subject of Co-operative Farm Knterprise
in North Carolina. The discussion cover
ed a wide and iuterestiug field of State
Dr. T. N. Carver, expert economic ad
viser of the Federal Department of Agri-
«ulture, found 6,388 co-operative enter
prises in the United States in 1914, mainly
in the middle West, as follows: 336
cheese factories, 2,165 creameries, 2,020
elevators, and 1,867 mutual insurance
companies—these last being weU distribu
ted throughout the North as well as the
Our own State appears in this report to
the small extent of two creameries.
Nevertheless, the farmers of North Caro
lina have made a creditable beginning in
1. For instance, in 1912 there were 718
telephone systems in North Carolina,
109,000 miles of wire, and 65,000 tele
phones. Some 650 of these were country
telephone systems, owned and operated
privately by groups of farmeiH. They
had in use around 35,000 miles of wire,
and some 20,000 telephones. There are
1,200 country ’phones on co-operative
lines in Orange county alone.
2. The Farmer.^ Mutual Fire Insurance
Association with headquarters in Raleigh
has nearly 20,000 members, who carry
insurance amounting to $17,570,000 at an
average cost of $3.60 per thousand; in
Catiiwba county it is only fl.SO (ler
in addition to another association of
this sort with headquarters in Rocky
Mount, there are Farmers Mutual Fire
Insurance companies in Gaston, Meck
lenburg, Rowan, and Union counties car
rying insurance on three and a third mil
lion dollars wortli of farm property,
Farmers Union Enterprises
‘3, The Farmers Union in North Caro
lina is the best organized, the most active,
and the most influential Union in the
United States; and their co-operative en
terprises number fifty or so—mainly
warehouses, merchandise stores, fertilizer
concerns and the like. The total invest
ment in these enterprises is $207,775, and
they did business in 1914 amounting to
$1,042,500, They handled $375',000 worth
of fertilizers alone.
4, Catawba county leads the State in
farm co-operation. Five years ago the
farmers invested $1,500 in a creamery.
Last year it did a business of $245,505 in
butter, poultry, and eggs. A thousand
co-operating farmers sold through this
agency 228,700 dozen eggs, and 6()0,000
pounds of butter for the year ending with
June 1914, They got from one to four
cents more for their eggs per dozen, and
nearly twice as much as before for their
butter. Another group of 150 farmers
sold 125 car loads of sweet potatoes last
season and received $2.67 per crate clear
of all expenses. The farmers of this
county also have a mutual fire insurance
company and a land and loan association,
while their wives are organized into tw'o
active clubs of United Farm Women.
The Co-operative Warehouse in Newton
did a busines? of $25,000 last year.
5, Catawba successes in farm co-ope
ration have been followed by creameries
in Union and Iredell, at Monroe and
Mooresville; and by four cheese factories
in Watauga, Ashe, and Alleghany. Noth
ing succeeds like success, and we may
look for wonderful development along all
these lines in this region of the State in
the next ten years.
Our 425 silos, 3,000 cream separators, 13
creameries, and 5 cheese factories are not
large totals for a state with 254,000 farms
and 605,000 farmers- But they are a
wonderful start toward dairy farming;
and dairy farmers soon learn that share-
profits are double profits. Later on they
will take share-profits orno profits at all;
or so the Iowa and Minnesota farmers are
North Carolina Leads in Pro
6, So far, sixteen states have given
legislative support to co-operative enter
prise ; but the laws passed by our last
legislature on this subject are pronounced
to be the best of* them all. They cover
(1) Co-operative Enterprise (2) Co-oper
ative Credit Societies, and (3) 1,/and and
Loan Associations. On December 9th the
first Rural Credit Society in North Caro
lina was organized under these laws—at
Lowe’s Grove in Durham county. And
now another group of Durham farmers
are getting ready to form a credit society.
They are likely to succeed, beca,use they
are organizing under the guidance of Mr.
John Sprunt Hill of Durham and Mr. W.
R. Camp, the State Superintendent of
The CurritucK Farmers
7, The farmers of Currituck have this
year sold their sweet potatoes co-opera
tively like the farmers of the Eastern
Shore of Virginia; and they have learned
that profits can be secured only by busi
ness-like market methods. The Curri-
tu ck crop is around 100,000 barrels a
CULTURE AND DEMOC
Dr. Wm. L. Poteat.
Culture would come too high, if it in
volved the compromise of democracy.
For what is democrat^y? In Etymolo
gy it is the rule of the people. But
equal participation in government,
manh(X)d suffrage, and majority rule
are not lemocracy itself so much as
the mef^hanism of demwracy.
The essence of ilemocracy is the
spirit of fraternity and justic*. It can
not be dcceiv('d by disguises of prece
dent and tradition, of circumstance
and ceremony. It counts the individ
ual human spirit so precious and go
regal that its accidents of birth and
position are insignificant. It was bom
into tlie modern world iu the now defi
nition of man iu tbe teaching of Jeeas
and its development througli the
Christian centurie* is their shining dis
The general straggle for freedom
against despotism in all its forms has
been universal and irresistible, jkm-
sessing, as De Tocqueville says^ all the
characteristics of a divine decree.
Next after religion, it is our dearest
possession. We cannot afford to sac
rifice it on the altar of culture.
year, and it is worth protecting by co
Salemburg, a Model
8. Organized effort at Salemburg, a
country community in Sampson county,
hascentered upon sanitation, better school
facilities, attractive homes, home culture,
and community law and order. The suc
cess of these efforts has made Salemburg
famous far and wide. It is a form of co
operation that ought to be duplicated in
a thousand communities in North Caro
Says the Insurance Commissioner for
North Carolina: In Ameri('a we |burn
twelve schoolhouses and two colleges
every week. In tl>e United States, a'fire
occurs every day in some school. Fre
quently the lives of our children are sav
ed simply because the fire occurs while
the school is not in session.
When we build new schoolhouses in
North Carolina are we taking sufficient
caution to protect the children from
fires? Are our school buildings fire
proof? Write Mr, James R. Young at
Raleigh and let him help you plan your
buildings so as to save the kiddies.
THE WORK STARTED
Miss H, Celeste Hankel, Assistant
County Superintendent of Iredell writes
that there has been organized at tbe
Harmony High School an open air
school. The Duilding is a pavilion used
for camp-meeting purposes.
The teacher of the class is enthusiastic
in praise of the plan and feels sure that
great good has already been accomplished.
Later the plan is to have the Domestic
Science class furnish hot milk and cocoa
to the children below normal health.
Success to the plan! May we have
more of them!
ANOTHER SCHOOL RALLY
Ivy Township Rally Day was a rousing
success on Thanksgiving Day at Bar-
nardsville. The exercises began at 10:00
A. M, and lasted until late that night.
The speakers discussed adult illiteracy,
comniunity co-operation, good roads,
sanitation and hygiene, boys’ and girls’
club work. The Barnardsville and Dill
ingham schools debated the question of
A Greatly Increased Navy for the United
States, and the Barnardsville High School
presented a play in the evening for
which a small admission fee was charged.
All in all it was a great big success and
the Principal, H, C. Miller writes en
thusiastically of the occasion and the in-
creastid interest aroused in the commun
ity for the schools of that section.
Let the good work go on!
UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
LETTER SERIES NO 56
CHRISTMAS IN THE SCHOOLS
At this season of the year, l>oys, girls,
teachers, and parents are eagerly count
ing the weeks, days, and hours that lie
between them and the great holiday of
the j’eAr. A.s the good
Christmas Day Draws Ni^h
there comes on with it to many people
a strong ]esire to slacken their pace for
tlie time being and live au almost entire
ly disorganiztid life til! New Year's.
Some Teachers Get Restless
possibly, and tx)k forward to the ciose
of school rather than to the details of the
work to he ac/-omplishel before the clos
Some Parents Get Careless
possibly, and take a child from school
to help the father at his work or the
mother in her household duties. And
when they do take a (-hild away with this
purpose they apologize to themselves for
their act with the thought that a few days
out of school makes no real difference.
Some Pupils Get Tired
and beg parents to let them stop till
Christmas bec.ause so many others have
stopped and the last week or two does
Not Amount To Much
And so under all these distracting in-
fluenca'f the best, results are not obtained.
This thotigh ip
No Good Reason
for letting pupils leave their .school
work. The last week of a school term is
the best week of the whole terra, and if
it is not the l>est week somebody is to
be blamed for it. The la.«t week is
The Great Rallying Point
of the session, and school committeemen,
teachers, pupils, and parents should work
to make the days between now and
Christmas full of the very best results,
The Best School in the State
must have many points of excellence to
merit tliat good name, but it ought to be
that all of our best schools should have
their l)«Bt record for attendance in the
month of December. What school com
mittee would let the school close the last
of every month on the ground that very
little good was ever done the last week
and still pay a full month’s salary? What
farmer stops plowing the last few days
before he lays by his crop and gives as
his reason that the last few day’s work is
never worth much? How many of our
schools will take for their slogan. No
Absences Now Till Christmas?
CORN PRODUCTION IN THE SOUTH IN I9I5
Six-Year Increase in the U. S., 17 per cent; in the South,
45 per cent; in North Carolina, 73 per cent.
Per A. Bu.
8 North Carolina
ONSLOW: A SLEEPING GIANT
VVe have just returneil from a most
enjoyable visit to Onslow county. The
folks down there surely know' how to
entertain in royal fashion. We never
ate such an oyster roast nor such crack-
lin’bread as they have iu Jacksonville,
It was hard work to get away soon enough
to get back in time for church on Sunday.
It is a fine homey sort of folks one finds
A Sleeping Giant
No one can estimate Onslow’s possibil
ities. It is like a sleeping giant, not yet
awakened to realize what it can do.
Acres upon acres of good farming land
lying waste, nnles of good river front for
eight-foot boats, plenty of good fishing
ground, millions of feet of lumber, num
berless cords of fire wood. Nobody knows
what the per capita wealth of the coun
ty would be if she would develop her
Roads and Schools
The folks are beginning to believe in
good I'oads and are justly proud of the
few miles of sand-clay roads they now
have. Ten years ought to see every main
thoroughfare of Onslow a first class road.
The school districts are rapidly con
structing new and up-to-date achool-
houses. Cedar Lane and Bacon Neck
have consolidated and, aided by the per
sonal loan of a public spirited citizen of
the county, have built a beautiful new
building, Jacksonville, under the ex
cellent principal, I. M. Bailey, has added
a new wing to its fine brick building and
other districts are making like progress.
Work to Be Done
There is still much to be done. A more
united sentiment for public improve
ments, a more lively interest in com
munity welfare, a more determined
effort to bring Onslow to the fore would
help lift the county out of the position of
a commonplace coastal county. It has
the resources, it has the potential wealth.
It needs more folks and folks who will
help her to realize her possibilities. It
has some such folks and itjneeda more.
THE FIRST IN ORANGE
Superintendent S. P. Lockhart of
Orange county is stirring up things edu
cational this year. With the aid of Miss
Lulu M. Cassidey, Rural Supervisor, he
has organized a series of township meet
ings to be held in each of the, townships
sometime during the year. This work is
being done in the thought that the
teachers will benefit by coming together
occassionally in smaller groups than in
the regular county meeting.
On December 4th the first township
meeting under this plan was held at the
Carrboro school in Chapel Hill Town
ship. Mr. E. C. Brogden of the State
Department was present and added
much to the interest of the meeting.
Representatives from the University
School of Education were present to aid
as they might. The Carrboro school gave
a model type opening exercise, and the
plans for County Commencement and
the qualifications of a standard teacher
and a standard school kept the meeting
Several of the district committeemen
and one member of the County Board of
Education were present; and one school,
the Merritt, had all the teachers and the
entire committee present—a 100 per cent
At luuch time Mr. Ray, of Carrboro,
invited all the lady teachers to eat at his
table and other citizens took care of the
men teachers, proving the warm hospi
tality of the community and its interest
in Orange county schools. It was a good
meeting and means much to the town
ship and county.
Wouldn’t it be fine if we could make
the average term of schools for the state
150 days instead of leas than one hundred
as it is now?
THE PROFESSOR SAYS
Play is as necessary for children as
food. An insufficient amount or an im
proper kind of either retards develop
Some folks tell us that teachers are
bom, not made. Perhaps so, but one
thing is sure; they are not bom ready
Two dangerous weapons in the teach
er’s power are the hickory switch and the
sarcastic remark. One cuts the ffesh, the
other scars the 'soul. Few teachers can
use either safely.