The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, March 22, 1916, Image 1
t- 1 the UNIV£RSItY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER The neWs-fiii''ihis' publica tion is released jor .the press on the date indicated below. Published weekly by the University of North Carolina for its Bureau ol Extension. • • MARCH 22,1916 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. n, NO. 17 Kditorial Boardi K. C. Braiiaon, J. O. deK. Hamilton, L. K. Wilson I A Wiin u u ^ —— TTimams. K. H. Ihorntou, } M. M iS irtrMi aa soooud-claSB matter Novembw 14, 19U, at the piwtofBoe at Ohapel Hill, N.C., aiider thBant of Aasfust 24,1918 MORE AUTOMOBILE FACTS Jvearly 900,000 Qjotor (.'aw Wfi'f luanu- liictured ill the United States in 1915, or more than lour times liie iminber turned out in 1911-. 0£ tliis irtiiuher, only 50,369 were com- inercial veliicleM. The rest were passenger cars. These .statements occur in The Mol or Age, Feb. 17. Motor Car Horsepowers Still Ahead Estimating the horsepowers of our 21,- ' 084 motors in North Carolina, on Jan. 1, i 1916, at 25 each, which i.s the power of | the five-passenger Ford, we have 527,100 i horsepowers in our automobiles. The 1915 Keport of our Labor Connnis- j sioner shows that the total horsepowers | U8el in our textile mills, furniture facto-' rie^, and miscellanefms plants wen' on- j iy 459,307. ottier diseases leaves a larger proi)ortion of weak or defective hearts to give way in iiiiildle tile and (>ld ag(‘. But it is in greater ineaeiire due to the over-eating, ov('r-drinking. over-playing, and over working in general the faster living of niivdern society. DURHAM QUINT CHAMPIONS The Durliani high .school basketball ™^.am won the championship of North XJarolina in a final game played in the gymnasium of the State University on Friday, March 10, their opponents being the \\’inston-S;i.lem high school team, •and the score standintr: Durham 21, AVinston-Saleni 20. Previp.ns to .'this the Durham team had won the l?§3teni cllailipionship and the AV'inston-Salem team ,l(ad woirthe West- ern-chai»pionsliip... A £!ii_p will be award- fed ^he ■ V I'innef^ to c'onnfiejiiorate their lyinuing-theciiAniplbughip. ’ - . This contest ,\va94he.§econd aunual“on£ , ;v t4:> be staged' by the' University committee ’ on high school’athletics. Winston-Salem -von the championship last year. HIGH SCHOOL DEBATES The High School Debating I'nion con tinues to gather interest and momentum aa the dates for tho mammoth contests pproach. In all sections of the State students are busy getting their arguments 'in final form and rounding up their speeches in j)roper shape. The people of more than 300 North "'arolina communities on March 31 will ’have the opportunity of hearing the re sults of several months concentrated ef fort on the part of more than 1200 young students. Largo and enthusiastic audi ences will, no doubt, greet the sjieakers when they clash upon tlie subject of the "nlargement of the Navy. The debates, too, will have a decided educational value as the youthful debaters have left no stone unturned in their efi'orts to gather nil the facts in the case. THE SCOURGE OF MALARtA The Medical- Department of the Uni versity of Missouri has recently prepared for distribution Medical Bulletin No. 28 on the I’revention of Malaria. It is estimated that in the I'nited States there are 1,500,000 cases of this disease annually with 12,000 deaths. 'With each life valued at §i5,000 this im mediate loss becomes $60,000,000 a year, without considering the value of the time lost by each patient nor the money spent for treatment by those who do not die. It half of this amount were spent an- mually for prevention, this disease would [become almost unknown within a decade. LOWER AND HIGHER DEATH RATES Bome interesting figures appear in a recent Bulletin of the Federal Census Bu reau. Between 1904 and 1914 the death rat« from tuberculosis in the United States fell from 200.7 to 146.8 per hundred ' thousand. - From 1900 to 1914 the death rate from infantile diarrhoea fell from 1133.2 to 79.4, while typhoid deaths in the ' same period dropped from 35.9 to 15.4, I and diphtheria deaths from 43.3 to 17.9, On the other hand deaths from heart disease have increased from 123.1 per I hundred thousand in 1900 to 158.8 in 1914. This places heart disea.se highest J in the list of all causes of death, the un enviable position held from time imme morial by tuberculosis. This result is partly due to the fact that the saving of many younger lives from A STRANGE RELIGION The other Sunday night in the Chapel Hill MethodLsf Church Hev. Walter Pat ten, the pastor, laid upon the Christian conscience of hus people the subject of Public Health. Dr. L. H. Webb also spoke upon Preventable Diseast>,s and Po.stponahle Deaths. Two stanzas of Rescue the Perishing of>ened the services and two stanzas of the same .song w'e.re sung in conclusion. On our way home, a good old brother said, “That wius a strange sort of religion we heard about tonight. I’ve been going to church for 50 years, and I never heard anything like thatlx’fore—not in a church anyway. And I’ve sung Rescue the Perishing many a time, hut 1 never thought it had anything to do with 75 lit tle graves in our Orange[county cemetc'ries filled witli little children who died mainly from fly-borne diseases last summer. I didn’t know before that ntost of them died becau.se we were ignorant and stupid and careless. I reckon Rescue the I'erish- ing does mean sick children as well as dying sotils.” • ' ' “Whyltlien,’’ aaid we, ‘‘do you call it a.stranjje religion?’' ^ lli^,answer was ilhnninating. ‘‘Well,V ^id..|ie,:'.'“J“'ne\'er Could gefha'ppy and slloiit under that kind, of.preaching. I just got mad - and made up my^mind to start.cleaning, up Mondaj^uiDrning; and if 'fny^ieighbpjs ^don^t (.1 the jam e» tl li n I’m going to raise Cain. That sort of re ligion doiTt~make”Ihe Te^ good, but I want to hear more about such things; and in the church, too.” All of which is worth thinking about. What do you think about it? Is it the business of the church to be concerned about saving lives as well as saving souls? HOME-SEEKERS FLOCK SOUTHWARD Florida and four southwestern states, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Tex as, have increased in population 1,558,- 000 since 1910. North Carolina needs these ,A_mericanized farmers from the Middle West, but they arc settling ii\ largest numbers elsewhere in the South. And it is mainly because the resources and advantages of these five .-.tates are a familiar story in the north central states. Everybody in this region knows about Florida, Oklahoma, I.ouisiana, .Vrkansas, and Pan Handle Texas. No stat‘s have teen better advertised, not even Califor nia; but these home-seekers hardly know that North Carolina is on the map. Mr. Forrester, secretary of the State Publicity Bureau, is busy putting North Carolina on the map; but he needs $50,- 000 instead of irS.OOO for this large pur pose. But They Go Elsewhere Ranked in the order of increase in pop ulation since 1910, the Southern states stand as follows, as shown by a recent Census Bureau estimate; om NEXT GREAT EFFORT I verily U>lieve tliat the next great organized etlbrt for the advancement of agriculture and the preservation of a thriving and contented country )>opulation must Ik* (iirected toward the upbuilding of the cotintry school. Work of this sort is in line with the highest purpose ob government, and upon its successful accomplishment must re.st the continuel success of our wonderful experiment in democracy. —Senator .1, W. Wadswortli, New York. UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION LETTER SERIES NO. 66 State banks was oflly $35,998,000 and their total a.ssets wer|> only $128,572,000. Well Developed Farm States The prosp(>rity of Kansas is based di rectly on her agriculture. Aside from the smelting and refining of zinc, her in dustries are mainly agricultural. She ranks second in the I'nion in slaughter ing and meat packing, and in Hour and grist mill products. The Kansas farmers are not crop farmers mainly; 55 per cent of their farm income is derived from the sale of livestock and livestock ))roducts. Her per capita wealth in 1912, all property whatsoever considered, was $2,652. She is richer than New York State by $26 per inhabitant, ami richer than Massachusetts'.by $847 per inhabit ant. Safe Agriculture and General Prosperity Next to the riclie-St state in the Union is Iowa-,, anotliefe, 1\'ell-developed farm state' Her per ca|>j& wealth in 1912 was ■$3,539. ‘In NortlrCarolina\ve are crop farmers merely or mainly. Two-thirds of our farm income arises from the sale of crops alone; and our per c.ai.iita wealth in 1912 was only $794, all property conjjidered. Mississippi alone ranked lower. well-balanced agriculture, embracing crops, livestock, and livestock industries, is the safest basis for general prosperity. Kansas and Iowa are good illustrations of this fundamental fact. OUR CITY SCHOOLS A Delayed Recognition We have been slow in North Carolina in recognizing tw(.» facts of first import ance for the welfare of our eity r-'cbi-xtl.s. There has been too tittle realization of the true funi^tion of the superintendent, and there has f>eeii' t/io little stress on the need of proper professional qualificatioiis for teachers. The Superintendent The prof>erly eipiipped city superintend ent is a professional man. He is an ex pert, and should fiave both adefpiate pow er and definite n“-ponsibility. The shaping of the educational nolicies of the schools should Ix' in his hands. He i.s a l>otterjnilgeof pro[ier courses of study, the pro|ier iiualifications and distribu tion ol teachiuL' tVirce. and so on. than any laymen or group of laymen can be. To make him the plaything of petty pol itics is fundamentally immoral, a betray al of trust. If there isme element of our ^ civilization that must be kept free from ' [lolitical influences, it is th(> school. The School Board A inore insidious, but a more common danger to our schools is that which arises when the school board assumes functions which )irop.erly belong to the superin- ; tendent. A man prominent in >du(^a- : tional work in the staf^ voiced this ; thought when he .uaid “1 ho[>f' the time I is going to conje when a .superintendent ' can stop thinking about how he is going ; to work his school board arul l>egin t^^ I think about running his schools.” The I statement of is course too general. .Many ; of our superintendents are not in such a false position. But too many of them are. An Illustration Ref^ently, for examjile, the superintend ent of one of our city systems rec«ived a letter from a teacher inqiriring what qual ifications were nece.ssary fora place in his S' hool system. He replied, briefly and truly, ‘' Fottr votes at a school board meet ing." His school board, we may add, is composecl of seven members. Is there any c.onceivabie I'eason why a scho')i board shoulr! be considered a better judge of the iualifications of tea;hers than the sufH'rinte-ndent? If lie knows his busi ness, the boarrl should rtigard its function in the .selection of teachers as simply to ratify or veto nominations made by the superinh'ndent himself. He should fix their (lualifications, and make all nomina tions. If the scl ool board has not conli- (lence enough in the ability of the 8u[>er- intendent to trsist his judgment in these matters, it is their business to engage someone whom they can trust. PER CAPITA WEALTH OF THE STATES, 1912 1915 Federal Census Bulletin; Per Capita Wealth in The United States, $1965 Rank StaU' Per Ct. Inc. 1 Oklahoma 32.8 2 Florida 18.7 3 Texas 14 4 Arkansa.s 10.5 5 Louisiana 10.4 6 Georgia 9.4 7 Alabama 9.1 8 North Carolina 8.9 9 Mississippi '8.6 10 South Carolina 7.3 11 Virginia 6.3 12 Tennessee 4.7 13 Kentucky 4. A RICH FARM STATE The cash on deposit in. the Kansas banks, says the Kansas state treasurer, amounts to $223,205,000, or $132 per in habitant, counting men, women, and children. At this rate North Carolina would have $317,000,000 in cash in her banks. As it was, on June 30, 1914, the volume of cash in our 75 national banks and 355 SOUTH CAROLINA MOVES UP In the census year, more than two- thirds of the total crop values in South Carolina w(‘re pnxluced by cotton alone, and her bill for imported food supplies was $95,000,000. The same year her cot ton and cotton seed were vvorth $96,380,- 000—or just a little more than her pan try and farm supply bill, j For long years the state has been buy- j ing staple food supplies with cotton mon- j ey; but in 1910 the per capita farm wealth j of her country population was only $337; against $995 in the United States, $829 in Oklahoma and $3539 in Iowa, both of : which are food producing sta*'0s. with sur- ^ pluses to market abroad. A Twenty-Seven Million Increase But last year wa.s epoch-making in South Carolina. Recent reports of the Federal Agricultural Department show that the state has gained $5,574,000 in livestock and $21,848,000 in food crops since the census year—a total gain of $27,000,000 in five years. On January 1, 1916, the farmers owned 14,000 more milk cow’s and other cattle than in 1910, nearly 20,000 more horses and mules, and 252,000 more swinel The six-year increases in food crops were as follows; hay and forage, 99,000 tons or 54 per cent; potatoes, 2,600,000 bushels or 51 per cent; oats, 4,229,000 bushels or 74 percent; corn 14,686,000 bushels or 70 per cent; wheat 2,119,000 bushels or 683 per cent. These figures were worked^x>ut by Mr. E. Watson, one of the score or more South Carolina students in the University of North Carolina. It is a great record! South Carolina has gone a long way toward establishing a self-feeding farm system. North Carolina and Virginia Do Still Better North Carolina with a $49,000,000 in crease in food crops and livestock did Hank States Per Capita Rank States Per Capita 1 Nevada .$5,038 25 Ohio $1,817 2 Iowa 3,539 26 Massachusetts 1.805 3 North Dakota 3,374 27 West Virginia 1,800 4 California 3,2.S4 28 Missouri 1,752 5 Nebraska H,110 29 Rhode Island 1,709 6 ■Montana 2,834 30 Idaho 1,680 7 Colorado 2,785 31 Texas 1,679 8 Oregon 2,661 32 Maryland 1,651 9 Illinois 2,660 33 New Hampshire 1,493 10 Kansas 2,652 33 Delaware 1,493 11 New York 2,626 35 Vermont 1,470 12 Minnesota 2,582 36 New Mexico 1,440 13 Washington 2,511 37 Maine 1,420 14 Oklahoma 2,475 38 Florida 1,307 15 Arizona 2,255 39 Louisiana 1,260 16 Wyoming 2,241 40 Arkansas 1,120 17 vSouth Dakota 2,239 41 Virginia 1.086 18 New .lersey 2,140 42 Kentucky 977 19 r tall 1,979 43 Alabama 964 20 Connecticut 1,969 44 Georgia 883 21 Pennsylvania 1,939 45 South C’arolina 869 22 Indiana 1,894 46 Tennessee 864 23 AVisconsin 1,875 47 North Carolina 794 24 Michigan 1,8731 48 Mississippi 726 better; and \lrginia claims that she has outstripped both states. In 1915, says the Kichmond-Times Dis patch, Virginia for the first time in many years raised enough wheat, corn, oats, and hay to supply her own citizens, and had a surplus valned easily at $20,000,000. SIGNIFICANT COMPARISONS In the next six issues of The Universi ty News Letter will appear a series of. tables ranking North Carolina among the states of the Union in (1) Per Capita Fanu Wealth of Country Populations, (2) Production of Crop Values Per Farm Worker, (3) Livestock Products Per Farm Worker, (4) Crop Values Per Acre, (5) Per Cent of Farm Incomes From Crops and Livestock Products and (6) Savings Bank Depo8its-*-Totals,^^umber of Depos itors and Per Capita Deposits. Our Rank in Per Capita Wealth The table in today's issue is re-arrang ed from a 1915 Bulletin of the Census Bureau, Estimated Valuation of National Wealth in 1912. Our estimated true wealth in North Carolina in 1912, all property considered, was $1,807, 573, 780, and our per capita wealth was $794. Only Mississippi rank ed below us in per capita wealth. It is worth noting that in per capita wealth neither New York nor Massachu setts nor Pennsylvania nor any other state in the great industrial region is the richest in the Union. Iowa, which stands next to the top in this particular, is rich er than New York by $913 per inhabit ant ; richer than Massachusetts by $1600 per inhabitant; and richer than Pennsyl vania by $1734 per inhabitant. The Importance of Farm Prosperity I Like North (Carolina, Iowa is a rural civilization; but Iowa is a well-developed farm state. And a safely balanced, well- developed agriculture is the surest foun dation for general prosperity—prosperity for farmers and city dwellers, traders and bankers alike, as Iowa proves. The Iowa farmers are crop farmers and sometWng more; they are also livestock farmers whose business is capped and crowned by livestock industries—butcher ing andjneat packing, dairy and poultry production. Just before Henry Wallace died, he published the crops and livestock pro ducts in Iowa in 1914 as worth $953,972,- 000. No wonder the savings deposits in Iowa in 1914 were $217,000,000. In North Carolina they were .$10,338,000. The savings of Iowa alone were nearly twice the total for 13 southern states. THE PROFESSOR SAYS I wonder why so many fathers always make their boys pass them the hammer and never let them drive the nail. I knew a man once who refused to vote for a school tax because if the district had a better school his property would increase in value. He had children of school age too. It always seemed a strange ar gument to me.