The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, August 02, 1916, Image 1
The news io this publica- ' tion is released for the press ob the date incbcated below. the university of north CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the University of North Carolina (or its Bureau o( Extension. lUGUST 2,1916 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. II, NO. 36 Bditori-I Bo-rJ. B. 0. Branaon, J. Q. deB. Hamiitoa. L. 8. Wilson, I,. A. WilUams, B. H. Thornton, &. M. MoKie. Entered as aeooad-olass matter November 14,19U, at the.poatoffloe at Chapel HiU. N.C., ander the act of August 24.1913. NORTH CAROLINA CLUB STUDIES THE JULY EXTENSION CIRCULAR Ttie Inly Circular of the University Ex- aisiou Bureau bears the title, Our Caro- iiia Highlanders, As usual the edition I small. It will be mailed out free upon application. I' The headings are (1) Our Highlanders ! not a Peculiar People, (2) A Coming, liot a Vanishing Race, (3) A New Era in > Hill Country, and the Challenge to louiitain Workers, and (4) The Type of Education Needed. This circular sums up the two years of particular study put upon our Hill Coun- l!try Civilization, in the headquarters of If, North Carolina Club at the Univer- Bity- Dwp us a post card if you want it. IMPORTANT EVENTS AT THE A. ® M. Four events of state-wide importance cur at the A. & M. College in Raleigh, k.ugust 22-31: (1> a three-day school for tie members of the Boys’ Clubs, from the |J2iid to the 2Sth, (2) the annual confer ence of the ninety-odd Farm Demonstra- jtiou agents of the State, (3) the Farmers’ Convention headed by Roger A. Derby of Jackaon Springs, August 29-31, and (4) at the same time the Convention of Farm t'omcK. The Extension Farm News of July 22 1 de\'0ted entirely to the various pro grams. The schedule of events is exceed- ngly attractive. It ought to be read in every farm home in the state. Write for it. It offers a charming vacation for ! whole family. We heartily wisli that the limited space of the University News Letter permitted as to reproduce these significant programs pi full. composed of men who are competently schooled and skilled in the big general subjects of finance, banking, and credit; but also they ought to have a competent acquaintance with Farm Land Banking, and a proper attitude toward the new field that the Federal Government is ven turing to enter with a new kind of bank ing, new, at least, in the United States although old enough in the old world cou.ntries. The South over, no other man so perfect ly satisfies all the requirements of mem bership on this Board as Mr. JohnSprunt Hill of Durham. If men of this type are appointed the farmers of the United States may hope for the best that is pos sible for them under our new law. THE FATHERS TOO The enrollment in poultry, pig, and corn clubs in North Carolina for the past two years has exceeded five thousand Ipach year. Besides these main clubbers tiiere are scattering cotton, peanut, and otato clubs. The boys’ fathers are taking off their oats and getting ready to show the joungsters that they are also in the bet- er-production race, although a little late bii starting.—Farm and Fireside. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM New Brunswick, Canada, is a little acre than half the size of North Carolina, and has about an eighth of our popula tion; but during the year ending in March of this year her exports foreign and domestic exceeded her imports by |116 million dollars.—Federal Commerce eport, July 2J. It is an average of ^>360 per inhabi tant—for a single year, mind you! In ^two huiidred and fifty years in North Darolina we have managed to sas'e and ccumulate a per capita country wealth teu farm properties amounting to only If322. It is about one-third of the aver- ja^e lor the country-at-large. I'A'idently our outgo is too near our in- |«ome from year to year in our farm l-regions. Our farm wealth is too little j-'iad our yearly increases are too small. 11 his simple, sifTgle fact is a challenge to jiihe iutelligence of all our people—farm ers, bankers, and other business people, land especially teachers and preachers I'whose success depends largely upon the r wealth and the *villingnes8 of the com- f ®unities they serve. It is a big problem. The North Caro- liiina Club at the University has been pu/- Tiding at it for two years, and the longer I'&ey work at it the bigger it gets. But it •‘is a fundamental problem and it calls iu- T>sistently for solution if North Carolina is I to move up among the foremost states in I the Union. THE BANKS ARE HELPING The papers of late have noted the general interest of the banks in better agriculture and greater farm prosperity in North Carolina. In tiaston county the First National Bank of Gastonia, The Bank of Belmont, The Mount Holly Bank, and the First National Bank of Cherryville are back ing the Pig Clubs with pigs and prizes. Both the banks of Warrenton in War ren county are doing the same thing. In Catawba county. The Hickory Bank and Trust Company offers to start an endless chain of pigs for any number of club boys. lu Guilford, The American Exchange National Bank offers to finance 10 pig club boys. In Forsyth, The Wachovia Bank and Trust Company offers prizes in an annual state-wide hay growing contest. In Lee, The Bank of Sanford has dis tributed 100 gallons of highbred seed corn. Doubtless there are others. The Uni versity News Letter will be glad to know ~what they are doing. BETTER SUPPORT NEEDED Dr. Archibald Johnson Our country churches, as a rule, do not feel the obligation to support their pastors. They think the pastors ought to support themselves, and accept with thankful hearts the little the churches dole out to them of their sur plus pocket change. The churches would resent this charge but it is true nevertheless. A hundred and fifty members, after a mighty struggle raising one hundred and fifty dollars for the preacher for a year’s service, means exactly what I have described. In their hearts they think a pastor ought to find his own living and preach once a month for the dime they carry in their ve.st pockets to church on Sunday morn ing! How to open the eyes of the people in our country churches to the Scrip ture truth that “They that preach the gospel should live of the gospel” is the fundamental and essential thing before us; and until that is done we need not expect any further development among our country churches. ten-dollar gold prize was awarded by the State Health Board to the school that had the largest number of its pupils present on this occasion. Hurrah for Bladen. BABY BEEF CLUBS We found in Mississippi the other day that the banks of the state are quite gen erally backing the Baby Beef Clubs. For many reasons, Beef Clubs are more important in the South than Fig Clubs. For instance, lean meat—beef, mutton, and poultry—needs to be a tremendously increased item of common daily diet. In 55 country homes in Gaston county in 1913 the Federal Department of Agricul ture found that the average annual con sumption of meat per person was 122 pounds; which, by tlie way, is 34 pounds below the average for the U nited .States. But the significant thing was the fact that this total consisted of 120 pounds of pork and only 2 pounds of beef! Pellagra threatens to he a devastating scourge in our country regions. Last year theie were 75,000 cases in the United States ana 7,500 deatiis—mainly in the.South; in North Carolina, 551 deaths. This dread disease is sourced, says Dr. Goldberger of the U. S. Public Health Service, in an ill-balanced diet; too much; corn bread, fat meat, molasses, and the j like, and too little beef, mutton, [)oultry, eggs, milk, pease, and beans. And the cure lies in a well-balanced diet. Domestic beef production needs to stimulated in North Carolina as Mississippi. Why not Baby Beef Clubs as well BUILT-TO-BURN There are 250,000 school buildings of one sort or another in the United States. A fire occurs every day in some school. Built-to-Burn ought to be written over the doors of three-fourtlis of them. Two colleges and twelve school houses are burned in the United States every week In North Carolina the average is 36 school buildings burned each year. So said Mr. James R. Young, our State In surance Commissioner, to the University Summer School teachers the other day. If the buildings that house our children for five days of the week are fire-traps, it is time for the school public to wake up in North Carolina. Mr. Young furnishes information about safe school buildings and will arrange with the State Department O'f Public In struction to furnish plans for smaller buildings free of cost. be in Pig Clubs in North Carolina? our banks take the lead? Cannot AN IMPORTANT NEW BOARD I Land Loan Board created I ^ ^’^*'^1 Credits Law consists of I e Secretary of the Treasury ex-officio and four members appointed by the I t^resident, I f ^o*^der a little why the Secretary I griculture was not made an ex-officio * 1 Farm Land Banking liii,3!his Land Ix)an Board ought to be BLADEN’S HEALTH COMMENCEMENT There have been eighty-odd county school commencements this year in North Carolina. But Bladen is perhaps the first county in this or any other state to hold a Coun ty Health Commencement. It marked the close of a three-mont] :s campaign against pellagra and other pr.- ventable diseases, under the direction ci Dr. T. M. Jordon. The events were a picnic dinner, ad dresses by prominent men, essays and speeches by the young people, and the award of prizes for the best essays on public health. These prizes amounted to eighty dol lars in gold and were given by seventy p«blic spirited people of the county. A THE BROWN MOUSE In these times of forty-day floods of pen-poison, when, as Dr. Burroughs says, the worst smellers are the best sellers, it is refreshing to read The Brown Mouse, by Herbert .Quick, Bobbs Merrill Co., Indianapolis. A charming little love story is woven into an account of a country school fitted to country life by a home-bred country lad. The story is of a sort with Gene Stratton Porter’s Laddie, Freckles, and the rest. All these books ought to be in country homes everywhere; particularly in the homes of country school trustees and county.school board members. There is, by the way, a dearth of entertaining, inspir ing books for the young people in our country homes. Mrs. Robert E. Ranson, the Carolina genius who charms the University Sum mer School with her twilight story-telling hours, will short'y give us the story of The Brown Mouse. UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION LETTER SERIES NO. 84 SUMMER WORK It is rather a common delusion that school work is neither possible nor neces sary during the summer months. Some how or other folks have come to think of education as a very limited affair. Nothing can be more untrue. During the time when school is not in session (and that ought not be over three months every year at the most), there is work to do for everyone connected with our schools. Just think about it a minute. Mr. Committeeman What can the members of the school committees do? Well, is that school- house out there in the woods locked and are the windows properly protected against the ravages of destructive va grants? Do you know if the house needs to be shingled or painted? Is the fiue safe? Are there any little repairs need ing to be made—a few panes of glass set, a new hinge on one of the doors, a little tinkering done to some of the desks. Better still is the plau which was car ried out at White Cross in Orange county last week, where the schoolhouse and grounds were put to use as a general meeting place for the citizens in the sec tion. Why cannot the people’s property be used during the summer for general community purposes? It is their proper ty and they ought to get good use of it. Incidentally, that will help to keep oflT the ruthless destroyers of public property. Others Are Working The teachers are getting themselves ready to do better work next year. The superintendents are laying plans for next year’s work and getting their forces lined up. Why might not the trustees get on their job now and prepare the buildings, grounds and equipment, instead of wait ing until after school opens and then in terfere with the year’s work after it has started, thus wasting more of the public taxes for schools! AVhy not plan right now to give the folks 100 cents of value for every dollar of their school tax! YADKIN: ECONOMIC AND i SOCIAL Mr. Paul B. Eaton of Yadkin, a stu dent at bhe University of North Carolina, ' has just finished a remarkable study of I his home conaty. ^ Till- .iro that he has assembled 11.1 twenty tyi-ewritten ^-ages more of ac- curate information uDout Yadkin county than the oldest inhabitant ever dreamed ‘ 'of. ! His chapters cover: 1. History, a brief sketch; 2. Resources—timber, mineral, j ' and water-power; 3. Industries; 4. Facts , (1) About the Folks, (2) About Schools, (3) About Wealth and Taxation, (4) ^ Farm (Conditions, (5) Farm Practices, (6) Food and Feed Production, (7) The I.ocal Market Problem,and 5. Where Yadkin Leads, Where She Lags, and The Way Out. It ought to be put into print by the county authorities and placed in every home in the county. It would cost per haps $50, l)ut five pages of advertising by the merchants would cover this expense. It ought to be read thoughtfully by the ministers, the farmers, and the business men of the county. It will appeal especially to the instinct of leadership. It ought to be a text-book in the high school grades and the Teachers’ Institute. It will stimulate county pride and pro voke generous cooperative efforts for bet ter things in Yadkin. SECRETARY LANE TALKS SENSE Secretary Lane in his last annual re port to President Wilson sounds a clarion note for a nation-wiile campaign for bet ter country schools, and he urges upon Congress an appropriation of 11100,000 a year for two or three years to be used in arousing national interest in this most important matter. Why not take the 1250,000 a year that has been wasted on free garden seed, mailed out in picayune amoimts the whole country over, and use this sum to seed down the public mind with a proper concern about country schools and the preservation of country-life—the nation’s largest asset? This garden-seed waste of a quarter million dollars of public money year by year is a fat contract for the seed houses, but it is also an affront to the intelligence of the plain people of the country. It does not lack much of being an insult to com mon sense. The Senate, by the w ay, has just had the nerve to cut out the garden-seed ap propriation. What will the House do with it? And will Congress have the intelligent patriotism to put the money to the better use suggested by Secretary Lane? EXCLUSIVE CROP FARMING MEANS: 1. Selling the farm by the wagon load. 2. Uncertain returns and, in the end, crop failure. 3. More and more ditches and gullies. 4. Unsteady employment of men and reduced labor efficiency. 5. Sale of unfinished products and hence lower prices. 6. More tenant farmers. 7. More temporary agriculture (unless the soil is artificially fertilized or green ma nuring practiced.) Profitable Meat Production Means:' 1. Keeping on the farm much of the fertility produced. 2. Crop insurance and increased re turns. 3. Better use of untilled land. 4. Better help and better distribution of labor. 5. Manufacture of crops into meat. 6. More farms operated by owners. 7. More permanent agriculture. INTELLIGENT FORESTRY An effective forestry system, (1) regu lates the timber cut, (2) protects the un dergrowth, (3) maintains a sufficient forest fire patrol, and (4) systt^matically reforests bare areas. Korea is about twice the size of North Carolina and has about four times the population. Our Consul-General at Seoul reported on June 21 that nearly 94 mil lion young trees were reared in seeding nurseries in that country in 1915. Korea is busy two or three centuries after wholesale devastatioH by floods; we ought to have sense enough in North Carolina to begin a century or so ahead of time. A DANGER SIGNAL FIVE YEARS AGO In a paper on the Hanging Valleys of Alabama presented at the W'ashington meeting of the Association of American Geographers in December, 1911, and widely quoted at the time. Prof. Colher Cobb of the University of North Carolina said: “Statistics gathered by correspondence with people scattered pretty well over our southern states show that there is hardly a community in which there has not been for ten years past a steady lowering of the ground-water as shown in the shallowing of wells, necessitating the deepening of the wells in every single piedmont or mountain county of the en tire south and in many of the sandhill counties as well. “This sinking of the ground-water is closely correlated with bad forestry meth ods followed by bad farming, permitting an ever increasing amount of runoff, while allowing less and less water to soak into the ground. This lowering of the water level is only one of many evils, for the water that does not have a chance to soak into the ground runs off over sur face slopes, washing away the soil, cut ting gullies in fields, and spreading silt, sand and gravel over the meadows and lowgrounds. “The changes that have taken place in the memory of the younger generation will, if unchecked, lead to disastrous floods, to be followed through the lapse of years by an increasing arid climate, until our fertile fields have become veri table bad lands. Such has been the his tory of a large part of Northern Africa, once the granary of the Roman Empire. “But much of this may be prevented by keeping hilltops and steep slopes un der forest cover, by decreasing forest fires in the slashes, by changing surface drainage in some fields to underground drainage, checking the rush of water by means of brush or stone dams, and especially by renewing organic matter ia the soil by cover crops, green manuring mulching, and by thorough cultivation. ” h' ;a w >^1 1# r* 4/..I Profitable Dairying Means: m It 1. Enriching the soil. 2. A regular income and. a growing bank account. B • (r 3. Fewer gullies and ditches, and land made more tillable. 'ifli - 4. Steady employment of labor and better men. p J ^ -.V*” 5. Manufacture of high-priced finished F ^ (( products, better prices and higher re B turns. 6. Better, business methods and, in E-^ the end, land ownership. 7. More permanent agriculture.—The Banker-Farmer.