The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, March 13, 1918, Image 1
Library Chapel Hill The news in this publica tion is released lor the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the University of North Carolina for its Bureau of Extension. . 'i- h'.v MARCH 13, 1918 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. IV, NO. 16 Editorial Board i E. C. Branson, J. G. deR. Hamilton, L. R. Wilson, R. H. Thornton, G. M. McKie. Entered as second-class matter November 14,1914, at the Postofflee at Ohapel Hill, N, G., under the act of August 24, 1912. ENGLAND’S WAY That nation which, after tlie war, em ploys the i)e8t teachers, with the highest pay aa a part of the best scliool system will be the best governed and therefore the greatest nation. Of that lam abso lutely certain. No people which does not respect education will demand and support good government, and if there is not a vital impulse running through its education the people of no nation can be expected to respect it. What Poor Schools Mean 1 believe, and an increasing number of other people are beginning to believe, that education lies at the root of happi ness for every peopie. Worthy educa!- tion is impossible where inferior teaching forces are employed. Where teaching is interior good government cannot be ex pected . Obviously the first requirement of a better England must be better education, and, especially more education for the children of the people. The impulse thrills the Empire. Recently a meeting representing 100,000 workers met in South W'ales to pass resolutions demand ing free secondary and university educa tion for everyone who by scholastic ef forts shall show real desire for it. Nearly all the trade unions in England have passed resolutions of the sort. Better Paid Teachers The cardinal reform which the bill pro vides is the increase of teachers’ salaries. To one who knows the schools as they have been, it is apparent that instructors for them must be recruited from a class mentally and psychologically better than that which has been drawn from in the past, and that teaching must be made a liberal profession rather than low grade labor. With this thought in mind, we have secured of‘new money’ for annual expenditure £3,200,000 (about $16,000, 000) for higher salaries and pensions for the teachers in elementary schools,- and £433,000 for teachers in secondary schools.—Mr. Fisher, head of the Eng- lisl) Elucational System. AFTER THE WAR-WHAT7 Our schools after the war—what? Will ttiey sufter fhe worst possible conse quences of present war conditions, or will they reap the largfest possible advan tages? The first result will undoubedly follow for any school—elementary, secondary, college, or University, church or state— that fails to link up with the life that now is, and that misses any chance to serve the nearby community, the country a.t-lnrge and humanity in general in this hour of extreme peril to the race. The second result will certainly follow for sohoohs of every' grade^and rank tin t ' cau move up out of the low level of life less notions, customs and practices into tlie higher region of direct service to the community, the state, and the nation. The change is from training individuals to gat the most out of life for private •ends to training communities to make -the most of themselves for the common good; from egoistic or self-sulticient to .^dtruistic or patriotic purposes. It is a change long dreamed of, much talked about, always needed and rarely attempted heretofore; but under the pretisiice of war necessities, it is a change tlrat is so rapidly taking place in a thous and communities that our school author ities aifd the people at large ought to know the story in full detail. jf (Jie head of your school is a dead head—not a caput but a caput mortuum, if your school committeemen have bats and cobwebs in their belfries, then the eooudr you find it out the better. Your school will move up into being an active ertective agency of community uplift as a result of this war; or it will be carted out to the dump pile. Which Way Headed? Wliicli way is your school headed—up into direct service to the community, or down and out? AViiat can it do and how? AVhat are otlier schools doing? AVhat sensibly ought to l)e attempted and wliy? How can your .school hook-up with present war-time necessities and reap an abiding advantage on higher levels when this war is over? This whole field of inquiry is covered by an illuminating, inspiring volume that has just come to our desk, and against which we cherish a grudge be cause it has kept us awake a whole night through in fascinated interest. It is Dean’s Our Schools in War Time and After (Ginn & Co., Boston). Alert minded teachers, competent school authorities and intelligent citizens ought to have it without a moment’s de lay, because the emergency is critical and the school or the community that sleeps for a day, in these stirring times, might just as well settle down to sleep for the next thousand years. A SENSIBLE CITIZEN Said a Sensible Citizen to a Chronic Growler about taxes the other day; I don’t agree with you, I don’t think our city taxes are high considering the advantages they give us. My own town taxes are $30 this year, but wliat my lit tle girl is getting out of our high school would cost me more than that in any private school—ten times more if I had to send her away to a boarding school. But, said the C. G., I haven’t any children to send to the public schools they are worth nothing to me; they only make me pay more taxes; I’m just being robbed, that’s all! In reply the S. C. said—and said very gently, it seemed to us: AA'ell then, you can have the satisfaction of knowing that your school taxes help to provide school advantages for your poorer neigh bors, whose children can not go off to high schools and colleges. Maybe it’s not robbery, but an investment in pub lic welfare; so don’t put a bad taste in men’s mouths by calling it either rob bery or charity.’ You and your folks made all your money right here in this town; you are inaking money now, and you’ll make much more if this town gets to be a better place to live in day by day. If your'soul is all the time getting and none of the time giving, it will be as stagnant as the Dead Sea after awhile for all the religion you profess. Just here the bell rang and we got off. Dodo Religion And, by the way, we learned later that he is not only a chronic growler about taxes, but a chronic church attendant, and an unctuous grunter in the amen corner. Doubtless he gumshoes out of the sanctuary when the preacher preach es from the text. Bear ye one another’s burdens, and grunts 'loudest when the preacher preaches from the text. Let every man bear his own burden. His religion is like Ephraim’s cake— it’s a cake unturned, and sadly scorched on one side; or like Touchstone’s ill- roasted egg. But on the whole, it is comforting to reflect that C. G’s sort are getting fewer and fewer every day. It’s been ten long years since we heard a conversation like that; and we used to hear it every day. .The outrage of being taxed to educate other people’s children is a disappearing doctrine in advancing democracies every where. It is dodo religion as well as do do democracy, and soon it will be as much a democratic myth as the dodo is a geologic bird. COUNTY CARE OF CHILDREN Dr. Hastings II. Hart, Director of the Department of Child Helping, Russell Sage Foundation, New York City, ad dressed the North Carolina Club at its last regular fortnightly meeting. Taking as his subject “County Care of Children’’ Dr. Hart pointed out that States and Counties now care for many dependent, neglected, delinquent, and defective chiidren that were formerly dared for by private asylums and socie ties. Some believe, says he, that the, state and counties ought to care for all, but it'is a good thing for private agencies to do this work as far as possible, and they should not be discouraged in it. States and counties however should maintain a guardianship over such chil dren in order to ensure proper care, training, education and opportunity. As a rule states and counties are be- A WORKING CREED 1 believe In my country and her destiny. Ill the great dream of her founders. In her place among the nations. In her ideals; 1 believe That her democracy must be protected. Her privileges cherished. Her freedom defended. I believe That humbly before the Ahnighty, But proudly before all mankind, AVe must safeguard her standards. The vision of her AVashington, The martyrdom of her Lincoln, AVith the patriotic ardor Of the minute men And the soldier hoys Of her glorious past. I believe in loyalty to my country. Utter, irrevocable, inviolate. Thou in whose sight A thousand years are but as yesterday And as a watch in the night. Help me In my frailty To make real AVhat I believe. —The New Y'ork Times. coming, responsible for the care and the training of delinquent chiidren, includ ing the deaf, blind, feeble-minded, epi leptic, and crippled. The division of labor between state and county is not yet adjusted. In some states the state assumes the greater responsibility, in others the counti'vs assume the greater burden. The counties are undertaking “case work.’’ That is to say, they are study ing the conditions and the needs of the children, establishing medical and psy chological clinics, hospitals and dispens aries and organizing health work and other preventive agencies. In our social work we have been plunging ahead without careful inquiry, he states. There must be careful diag nosis to find out whether the child is normal or subnormal and if subnormal in what way. This work of diagnosis falls upon the county, and must be in the hands of skillful people. Many counties maintain juvenile courts, detention homes for children awaiting trial, probation officers, and in a number of states like New York, In diana and Alinnesota are establishing county boards of child welfare. Alany counties now employ competent trained workers at good salaries for this service. —Myron Green, Secretary N. C. Club. COUNTIES TOO BIG Speaking of the feeble sense of citizen ship in county affairs, one of our thought ful readers, an alert citizen of a small town in North Carolina, hits the nail ex actly on the head. Said he— The unconcern and indifference of the people is a thing that reduces me to de spair in county government. If that could be cured, county affairs could be a credit and not a common reproach. The lack of interested, active citizen ship in county government is due mainly to the lack of information about county matters.’ This lack of information is due to the long distances that lie between the people of a county and the county-seat. The long distances are due to the size of our counties and the widely scattered homes of the people. Our counties as a rule are too big to give the people a chance to know promptly what is going on at the center of things. AVhen anything goes wrong in this little burg, said he, the first time the. mayor and the aldermen stick their noses out of doors, they run against somebody that knows about it and is raising canc about it all over the baliwick. That is as it should be, said he, but it is just exactly as it cannot be in county affairs, because, the people are sparsely settled over a wide area. Long before a mistake of administration becomes com mon current news, the thing is dead and buried beyond resurrection. Milhing the Treasury For instance, I notice that the commis sioners paid a citizen of your county $50 the other day for rocks taken from his field by the road force. In my county, it would have been just the other way around—he would have had to pay the commissioners $50 for doing him a kind ness of this kind. There you are. That pretty well illus trates what 1 mean when I say that our counties are too big for alert citizenship. By the time the people of your county find out about that $50 rock transaction and begin to make proper inquiries about it, another administration will be in charge. I believe, said he, in small counties, good roads, country telephones, good country newspapers and a chance for democratic communities to know prompt ly what is going on in the county, and to develop stout citizenship on the basis of quick acquaintance with county affairs. Smaller counties would increase the burden of expense to be sure, but after all we’d get better results by keeping up bet ter with the expenditures of county money. I'm a full day’s journey away from our court house and back, and I don’t begin to know what’s happening at the county seat from time to time. Township Organization The question of big counties and small counties is worth thinking over. It’s either smaller counties, or township or ganization as in New England in my opinion, he said in conclusion. Ten of our counties are nearly as large as the whole state of Rhode Island. Un fortunately, four of them are sparsely pop ulated, otherwise they might consider tlie Home-Rule plan of county government in California. But six are big enough and have population enough to the square mile to make it well worth while to in vestigate the California plan. Named in order these counties are AVake, Cumber land, Randolph, AA’ilkes, Sampson, and Columhus. people of India, called famine,’’ says Ixird Rhondda. The simple truth i.s that America must now feed the world. AVe must feed our selves, we must feed our own soldiers and sailors, and we must feed the armies and the people of the countries allied with us in this final fight for freedom on earth. Are We Worth Fighting For? Those of us that stay at home must make and save in order to serve those that fight for us abroad; we must do it with intelligence and grim determination in this year of destiny; and everybody must do it! If we cannot or will not make and save to the utmost for those that fight our fight in distant lands, then we are not worth fighting for. GROW IT OR GO WITHOUT IT It is plainer than a pikestaff that the average family will this year either grow the food it consumes or go without food— and this, mind you, in these United States. This is particularly true of the wage earners and salaried people in our town centers and mill villages. Largely or mainly the food of their families must come this year from the garden patch, the little flock of poultry, and the pig that consumes such kitchen waste as is un avoidable. Heretofore gardehing in America has been a sentimental proposition; now it is a practical necessity. Gardening as a trifling side issue reduces the grocery bill a fourth, as the Gaston county survey showed in 1913. Gardening with a set purpose can cut the grocery bill down a full half or two-thirds. Home-raised vegetables, poultry, eggs, and pork have come to be a pinching necessity in every state of the Union; be cause a dollar will today buy less than half as much food as it would three years ago, and grocery bills even now spell bankruptcy in the homes of wage earners and salaried people. And the situation will be worse as the year goes on. Fed eral authority has already forbidden the sale or purchase of hens and pullets. Other restrictions will follow. The Main Reason There is another reason. The food stocks of the world are now lower than ever be fore in a hundred years. The grim spec ter of famine is stalking throughout the earth, says The Literary Digest. A dan gerous famine is creeping across Europe, says AV. C. Anderson, a member of the British Parliament. Mr. Hoover and Mr. Page have warned us. The International Institute of Agri culture in Rome has warned us. Lord Rhondda the British Food Controller has warned us. IMr. Eagan our ambassador to Denmark has warned us. Surely we are not too stupid to heed the warnings of the people that best know, ‘ ‘The food wanted by mankind does not exist. The word shortage is not strong enough for the situation. To put the matter bluntly, the whole world is up against a nasty thing, familiar to the GOOD ROADS INSTITUTE The fifth Road Institute was held here February 19-22, 1918, under the auspices of the University of North Carolina, the State Highway Commission, andtheState Geologic and Economic Survey. It was highly successful both from the standpoint of large attendance andinterest manifested in fhe meetings. Never before have those attending the Institute entered into the discussions so freely and gained so much information of real benefit in better road construction. There were registered at the Institute 122 road officials and engi neers from 49 counties of the state. The program of lectures and demon strations was planned by Mr. AV. S. Fallis, State Highway Engineer and act ing director of the Institute, Professor T. F. Hickerson, of the civil engineering department of the University, and Miss H. M. Berry, secretary of the State Geo logical and Economic Survey. The following topics were given special consideration at this session of the Insti tute ; road administration and organiza tion, road construction, road mainte nance, military roads. The schedule of lectures embraced the following: A Plan for the Organization/of a County Road Construction Force, by Mr. AV. S. FaUis; An Accounting System for County Road AVork, by Mr. C. R. Thomas of the State A. and E. College; Ethics of Engineering, by Pres. AV. C. Riddick of the State A, and E. College; Road Legislation by the Legislature of 1917, by Hon. Bennehan Cameron; Problems of Administration Boards, by Mr. Roy M. Brown of AVa- tauga County; Geology in Relation to Highway Engineering, by Professor Col lier Cobb of the University; Lecture on Road Building, illustrated with moving pictures, by Mr. AV. S. Fallis; Highway Location, Grades, and Alignment, by Mr. A. D. AAfflliams, State Highway Engineer of AA’est Virginia. EXTENSION LECTURES Members of the faculty of the Univer sity offer through the Bureau of Exten sion a total of 163 lectures. These lectures fall in general under three classes: (1) Lectures of popular and general interest, (2) lectures of spe cific hnd tecnical nature for study clubs, institutes, and farmers’ meetings, and (3) lectures or addresses for special meet ings, such as commencement, patriotic and dedicatory occasions. Memorial Day exercises, and conventions. In the total 163 lectures offered to the people of the State there are included 38 lectures under the L^niversity’s special program of Extension Service for a Time of AA"ar. If you wish to secure for your com munity one or more lectures by members of the faculty of the University, write to the Bureau of Extension, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The only charge for a lecture is for the travelling expenses of the speaker. “GERMANY CAN DEFY GOD” “Of what use is a debate on the exist ence of the Deity? The invisible can as sume no earthly obligation, can bear no mortal burdens. One might as reasonably say that the ether bore a message; that there was divine ordination in the sough ing of^the night-wind over the battlefields; that God was a mere road to some desired end; that peace could be found only in the termination of the road. “There is only one God—fear. There 18 another God annihilation. Expediency is the intercessor and completes the Trin ity.^ “All hope in invisible intercession must be put away. Fear of the doom that awaits them must be inspired in the breast of all who oppose Germany. In that lies her salvation. She must trust in no other. The struggle for unity would be its own compensation. AVhat that is accomplish ed, Germany can dispense her favors and can defydier enemies—and the invisible God.’’—Schlunsen, in The Mongen-post.