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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
University of North Carolina
for its Bureau of Extension.
.APRIL 17, 1918
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
VOL. IV, no: 21
Editorial Board t B. O. Branson, J. G. deli. Hamilton, L, R. Wilson, R. H. Thornton, G. M. McKie,
Entered as second-class matter November 14,1914, at the Postofflce at Chapel Hill, N* C., under the act of Augu.st ,2i, 1912.
NO BUMMERS AND SLACKERS
North Carolina’s share of the third
Liberty I.oan is 19 million dollars.
Wc over-8ub8cril)ed our allotment of
the second Liberty l.oan by more tlian a
And yet fewer than 24 people in the
' thousand of our population, the' state
over, had any in the 27 million dollars
that we invested in that loan; 976 people
in every thousand in North Carolina in
vested nothing in it. In 13 counties
more than 990 people in every thousand
invested nothing in it.
All of whicli means that we can do
better this year—easily so, if only we
will. Ninety-six per cent of our people
have done nothing so far toward floating
a liberty loan issue. Many of tliese people
will go their limit in taking up the tliird
issue of war bonds, because they know
better tlian before wliat tremendous is
sues are at stake, and because, too, their
boys are rapidly getting into the struggle
overseas and they are willing to support
Ihem with government loans at home.
IjCnding money to tlie government
and getting four and half percent for it
in tax-free bonds is a far better investment
tiian the banks have ever been able to
Liberty Bonds are a good business
(>roposition. But also tiiey give tiiose of
us that are beyond the age limit of mili
tary service a chance to join the army of
support at home. Tliey give us a cliance
to serve liumanity in the most perrlous
iiour it has ever faced in liuman liistory.
The word ljummers was a term of
deadly reproach in the South for long
years following the sixties, and .till this
good hour neither the sons nor tlie grand
sons of tiie camp-followers and the profi
teers of those war timec have i)een able
±o put out of mind the shame of their
Our own children and our children’s
children for the next hundred years will
be asking wliat we did in this war—
whetlier we fouglit in it, or worked and
saved for it?
If not, tliey will never be able to for
get that we were Inimmers, camp fol
lowers, and slackera—willing to make
niuncy out of it, but unwilling to con-
in Indo anything to support it!
PATRIOTIC WAR SAVINGS
to addition to the 38 million dollars we
alivady have laid away in Liberty Bonds
aul Tiirift Stamps, suppose we save
eoougii tins year to take up the 19 mil-
i' iiifi of the third iiiberty i,oan and also
tit.'traiaace of tlie War Savings Stamps
ttfiuUed to North Carolina—46 million
•luat 8ii|>pose we save tliat mucli this
yS'ir for tlie sake of our boys on the battle
front and flic- cause they are risking their
lives for—then, on January 1st, 1919,
our .i.u'ings in these two forms of thrift
akme would be 104 million dollars, as
.Liberty Bonds - - $57,000,000
'^Yar Savings Stamps- .47,000,000
Ir only wo wore willing to deny our-
seix’.'s and save for this noble purpose in
tuifi iieroic way, on New Year’s day our
1 ,i.Ko:ty Bonds and Tlrrift Stamps would
tr*.' t-icariy live times our total bank ac
cniiit savings in banks of all sorts the
y.‘>, the World War began.
Our Chances To Save
Clan we do it? Is it witliin the reach
i‘ iHiniau possibility in North Carolina?
I I vniy so.
I) wo run our 60 tlionsand automobiles
111 ■ I y less eacli week we’d save $1,560,-
if vve cut out intoxicating liciuors, to
il i-c.), .jewelry and plate, patent medi-
c-'j ‘V candy, soft drinks, and cliewing
gum—these alone—we’d be $12,500,000
r.--ti *1^ Tiiis estimate is based on the
four's of Ur. Charles W. Eliot of Har-
vji-l, given to tlie public two years ago.
II we patched up our old clotlies and
c li. lawu oui: i'ills for furbelows, fuss and
i,-itfrn-3, we’d save 5 millions more.
il everybody lived on home-raised vcge-
L>!iL'S-uui fruits tliis year, we'd lower
I our grocery bills 50 million dollars.
Here are 69 inillion’dollars to the good,
witliout going any furtlier into details.
We need only 66 million dollars to
take up the third Liberty Loan and tlie
Savings Stamps allotted to us in 1918.
If only we are equal to self-denial of
this sort we'd be a stronger, braver
people when the next New Year rolls
Our worst weakness is wastefulness.
Weakness and wickedness are one. Civil
ization is built on the sense of futurity
and the power of self-denial. AYe sorely
need discipline in self-denial in North
Liberty Bonds and Thrift Stamps Are
giving us a chance to learn a fundamen
tal lesson, and to learn it nobly.
TWO BUSY FACTORY TOWNS
The factory products of Durham have
been nearly quadrupled during the last
four years. In 1914 they -were valued at
27 million dollars; this year the total will
be around 100 million dollars, according
to Mr. AY. M. Upchurch, whose study of
Durham County, Economic and Social,
will soon be given to the public in bulle
During the same period the internal
revenue paid into the Federal Treasury
by AYinston-Salem has more than quad
rupled. It was nearly 6 million dollars
in 1914, nearly 20 millions in 1917, and
during the year ending next June it will
be around 25 million dollars. A forty
fold increase in 30 years in internal reve
nue paid on manufactured tobacco is the
story of Twin City achievement. During
the year ending June 30, 1917, the aggre
gate internal revenue receipts from North
Carolina were 30 million dollars in round
numbers, and almost exactly two thirds
of the total was turned in by AVinston-
Not quite all our millionaires live in
Durham and AA’inston-Salem, but there
are said to be five men in these two cities
whose war taxes on individual and cor
poration incomes will this year be in the
neighborhood of a thousand dollars a day
each. So far as we know, not one of
these men has whimpered.
The richest man in North Carolina lives
in a little cotton mill center. His war
taxes will be around twelve hundred dol
lars a day; but he is (proted as saying, If
necessary I’ll cheerfully-give every dollar
of my income to win this war for
WHERE TO SAVE
Do you put out all unnecessary lights
at home and thus save coal?
Do you keep the temperature of your
house down to 68 degrees, which not on
ly saves heat but improves health?
Do you save gasoline, rubber, and
skilled labor by cutting out all unneces
sary use of motor cars? Gasoline is a
most important factor in winning the
war, so is rubber! and chauffeurs are
needed on Government work.
Are you cutting down on amusements?
Ilecrcation is necessary but not the
amusements that cost so much money.
As far as yon can, get your amusements
more out of doors and out of your brains
and less out of your pocket book.
Are you foregoing personal luxuries—
things not essential to your health or ef
ficiency or that of your friends?
Are you wearing out your old clothes
and buying only that which is necessary
and will Avear well? By so doing you
will save labor and material that should
be used in winning the war.
Are you avoiding unnecessary travel?
The Government has already asked you
to take no unnecessary trips on the rail
road, that they imvy be used for war ser
Do you produce anything? If not, be
sure you are consuniing as little as pos
sible and releasing others wlio can pro
Do you refrain from unnecessary re
pairs and improvements? Do only what
is necessary to keep things from going to
pieces. Don't worry about sliabbiness
TAKE THE LOAN
Edward Everett Hale
Como, freemen of the land.
Come meet the great demand, •
True heart and open hand—
Take the loan.
For the hope the propliets saw.
For the swords your brothers draw.
For liberty and law.
Take the loan.
Ye ladies of the land.
As ye love the gallant band,
AA’ho have drawn a soldier’s brand.
Take the loan.
AA'ho would bring them what she could,
AA’ho would give the soldiers food,
AA'ho would stanch her brother’s blood
Take the loan.
All who saAV our liosts pass by.
All who joined the parting cry,
AA’hen we bade them do or die.
Take the loan.
As ye wished their triumph then,
As ye hope to meet again.
And to meet their gaze like men.
Take the loan.
AATio would press the great appeal.
Of our ranks of serried steel.
Put your shoulders to the wheel.
Take the loan.
That our prayers in truth may rise;
AVhich we press with streaming eyes.
On thA Lord of earth and skies.
Take the loan.
immensely better this year, if we are to
be a self-feeding state with surpluses to
send abroad to our soldiers and our Al
lies in Europe.
Netv Jersey has an anti-loafing latv
with teeth in it, says the Literary Digest.
It requires every able-bodied male citizen
between the ages of 18 and 50 to be
habitually and regularly engaged in some
lawful, useful, recognized business, occu
pation, trade or employment.
The mayors of the state have had the
police compile lists of the habitual idlers.
The hoboes and the swell-club loafers are
rounded up together and treated to hun
dred dollar lines or three months in jail
or both if necessary. t
If a man will not work, neither shall
he eat is the way the Book has it. AA’e
sadly need man power on our farms and
in our factories, anid the loafer, rich or
poor, is an unspeakable disgrace to him
self and an intolerable insult to society.
The first day this law went into effect a
thousand men applied for jobs in the
Public Employment Bureau in Newark
in war times.
Do you employ servants who might
aid the Government in shipbuilding,
transportation, and farming?
Have you planted your AVar Garden
or an extra acre to help tvin the war?
Last year’s gardens saved the food situa
Are you saving and investing your
savings in Thrift and AA'ar Savings
If you refuse to do any or all of these
you put yourself in the same class with
the healthy young man who refuses to
serve his country.—State AA'^ar-Savings
The various grain crops produced in
North Carolina last year reached a total
of 84 million bushels, according to the
Federal Crop Report of Dec. 1917.
It is an increase of 37 million bushels
AA’hicii is to say, we have nearly doub
led our production of small grains in
Our last year’s grain crop averaged 35
bushels per inhabitant, counting men,
women, and children.
It was a near approach to suftlciency.
Look at the increases in detail during
these eight years:
Corn from 34,000,000 'ou. to 60,000,000
AYhoat from 3,800,000 bu. to 9,700,000
Oats from 2,700,000 bu. to 5,700,000
R3'e from 280,000 bu. to 520.000 bush
Buckwheat from 144,000 bu. to 240,000
Peanuts from 5,980,000 bu. to 7.600,000
During this period we nearly doubled
our crop of white potatoes, but we made
almost no gains in the production of
sweet ))otatOPs. Indeed we lost our pri
macy in the Union as a sweet potato
state. Last year Georgia beat us by 3
million bushels and Alabama by nearly
8 million bushels. AYe needed 27 million
bushels of potatoes a year; we produced
only 13 million bushels.
AYe also dropped from the 2nd to the
4th place in our peanut crop. Georgia
beat us by 2 million bushels, and Ala
bama and Texas by nearly 8 million
bushels each. However, we took the
leadership of the Union in soy bean ' pro
Onr saddest lack is in home-produced
meat and dairy products—beef, pork,
mutton, poultry, eggs, milk, and butter.
And this lack largely accounts for the
fact that this year we shall be sending
out of the state some 200 million dollars
for bread and meat that we failed to
produce at home.
A\'e liAve done well, but we ii.u.st do
TWO MORE WAR LEAFLETS
“If home-keeping youths have homely
wits, and little more in A'ortb Carolina,
it is not the fault of our state university.
Home bred students who cannot get away
to college have the chance of their live's at
competent culture in war topics and dem
ocratic ideals. ATour AA’ar Information
Series is wonderful. Please send me an
extra full set to date.’’ So writes an alert,
active minded country boy in one of our
Two more AA’ar Leaflets are ready for
the public, without charge. No. 15—
America and her Allies: Section A,
France, and No. 14—National Ideals in
British and American Literature, bj' the
English Faculty of the University. Both
these bulletins are outlines of studies in
progressive detail, with abundant reading
Bulletin No. 14 is a pamphlet of 85
pages and the chapters are as follows:
1. Foreword.—Edwin Greenlaw.
2. From the Beginnings to Shakes
peare.—J. M. Steadman, Jr.
3. The English Renaissance.—Edwki
4. Tlie Rise of Modern Democracy.—
James H. Hantord *
5; England Democratizing Under AYc-
toria.—John M. Booker.
6. The Rise of Imperialism.—JohnM.
7. American Ideals.—Norman Foers-
8. AYar and Democracy: State Papers
and Public Discussions.—Richard Thorn
9. AYar and Democracy: In Personal
Narratives and Imaginative Literature.—
James H. Hanford.
backbone, or allow the State Commission
to appoint him, which I think would be
still better. The work of assessing real
property ought to begin on April 1, and
personal property on June 1. One 'man
could do all the work for each county
and do it better than 15 or 20 township
TALK ABOUT TAXES
This one man could then go entirely
over the real estate in a county and see
exactly for himself what changes ought
to be made. Equalization could then be
more uniform. One man’s judgment is
better than that of 15 when no two of the
The money before paid to 15 or 16
tow’nship assessors could be paid to one
man and he could afford to devote his
entire time throughout the year to his
work. Each year could be improved
upon by his previous experience.
I sincerely wish the assessment were on
a basis of actual worth and the com
bined state and county rate made lower.
The appointment of county assessors
should be made preferably by the State
Tax Commission, and freed if possible
from the domination of local politicians.
AA'hen so appointed the man holding the
job would not be hampered as he is at
present. He would be free to do his
I make these statements not to the
detriment of any man, but from my ex
perience as a landowner, as a county as
sessor, and as a long-time citizen of this
county, which I know well.
AA'e are briefing below one of the score
or more letters that have come from
thoughtful, good men all over the State
since the- North Carolina Club began its
study of County Government and County
Affairs in September—not because a final
conclusion has been safely reached by
any one of these splendid men or by all
of them together, but because of the high
lights they throw on our sorry tax situa
tion in North Carolina.
But returning to our mutton, the letter
is as follows:
I was County Assessor for luy county
in 1915 and my experience was worth a
lot to me. As you say, the great trouble
is with the township assessor. He is us
ually a poor business man. He virtually
belongs to the county commissioners who
appoint him. They post him beforehand
what to do. He is usually a deputy tax-
collector handicapped by his petty job
and anything but reliable in judgment.
The greatest trouble I had with the town
ship assessor was his inclination to favor
his friend and do the man he did not
After figuring on this matter for two or
three years’, I have come to the conclu
sion that it would be better for the legis
lature to do away with the township as
sessor altogether, and appoint as county
assessor a good business man who has
WASTE IN BRIDGE BUILDING
The vast majority of the bridges of the
State are unsafe and InsufBcient in size
and capacity, according to Mr. AY. S.
Fallis, State Highway Engineer, who ad
dressed the North Carolina Club at the
University on Monday night. Mr. Fallis
urged that for the sake of economy and
safety great care be taken to secure ade
quate designs made by independent and
skilled engineers—those not connected
with any bridge company or any contrac
tors proposing to build the bridge, and
that careful supervision of bridge con
struction by competent men be taken in
Great care must be taken in construct
ing bridge foundations, and in selecting
materials for building—depending largely
on local conditions, costs, etc. Selection
of the design is an important factor.
Bridge designing is almost an exact
science. Many, if not aU, of the State
Highway Departments have developed
standard plans for bridges to be built un
der the supervision of the State Depart
ments, and to be used by the counties of
the state for the purpose of securing a
better class of construction than is usually
sold by bridge companies. AA’hen the
character of th6 foundation has been de
termined it is a job for the Iwidge engi
neer to determine the design of tiie piers.
Failure in properly determining the ciiar-
acter of the foundation often results in de
struction of the bridge by a flood which it
would otherwise have stood against. The
failure to do this explains why many
bridges across the Catawba and ATadkin
rivers were washed out by tlie floods o
How the State Helps
One of the greatest crimes committed
against the taxpaying pu'olic by county
authorities, he continued, lies in their
failure to maintain bridges properly after
tliey are built, by neglecting to keep the
bridges painted and the floors in smootli
and safe condition. Steel bridges should
never go more than tlireo years without
being thoroughly cleaned and painted, he
said. Preferably two years should be the
limit in repainting the average steel
Mr. Fallis ernphasized the importance
of county supervision in bridge building.
Those in autliority in tlie county sliould
see to it tliat proper care be taken to
liave tlie job supervised by competent
bridge engineers. Tlie State Highway
Commission fnrnislies d.esigning, con
structing. and supervising engineers to
the counties ^ payment of their ex
penses, and each county should take ad
vantage of tliis fact. Onr counties are
spending about a half million dollars a
year in bridge construction, and the
county autiiorities need tlie help of the
.State Iligliway Commission to save need
less waste of public money.—Myroiv