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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, August 13, 1919, Image 1

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The news in this publica tion is released (or the press on leceipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the University of North Carolma (or its Bureau of Extension. AUGUST 13,1919 CHAPEL HHJU N. C. VOL. V, NO. 38 SdUorUi Board i B. C. Branson, J. G. deB. Hamilton, L. B. Wilson, D, D OarroU G. M. MoKie ^ L Entered as second-class matter November 1,4,1914, at the Postoffloe at Chapel Hill, N, C., under the act of August 24,1919. SCHOOL FORUMS IN CAROLINA THE COMMUNITY FORUM The Federal Bureau of Education, says /Dr. Henry E. Jackson, is seeking to es- itablish a community forum in every •school house in the land. He elaborates his idea of what the forum is to be as follows: The first principle to note is that a '.forum is organized on the basis not of agreement but of difference. We meet 'for discussion not because we agree but ibecause we differ, ft would be a stupid and monotonous world if we all thought alike, just as it would be if our faces, forms, and pursuits were all strictly uni form. The aim of the forum is not to secure uniformity but unity. When citizens meet for discussion they do not promise to agree with one another but to make an honest attempt to under stand one another. It is a parliament of the people for mutual understanding. The aim of the community forum is to discover, organize, and thereby make eflfecti%’e the common opinion. There are only two ways to govern a •community, said Lord Macaulay: One is by the sword, the other is by public opinion. Public opinion is made effective for control by discussion. We need have no particular desire that other men agree , with anything we say, but we ought most 1 earnestly to desire that they should begin to think. Honest thinking is the straight road to the truth.—Henry E. Jackson, in The League of Nations. his answer will probe to the quick of people—teachers and mill owners—who have hearts to feel with and heads to think with. Someday somebody in the South will vocationalize education in a cotton mill village witli the genius that Wirt put into the schools of Gary, Indiana; and also will flU it to the full with final advan tages and values. It has never yet been done. Who will do it? A Half-Time Mill School, bulletin No 6, 1919 of tlie Federal Bureau of Educa tion, provokes the above item. It can be had free of charge by writing to the U. S. Commissioner of Education, Wash ington, D. C. THEIR CAUSE IS BAD In the I^eague of Nations the council of statesmen at Paris has sought unselfislily and with the noblest aspirations to pro mote the highest good of all nations, to BURKE MOVES UP The bank-account savings of Burke ■County according to the last published statements in 1918 were |248,780; which ■uverages $10 per inhabitant and gives the county a rank of 61st, instead of 80th as publislied in the University News Letter July 16th. The savings deposits and time certificates of the Bank of Morgan- ton were $35,186 and the time certificates of the First National Bank of Morgantoii •on December 31, 1918 were $213,594. On June 30, 1919 the total of bank- account savings in Burke had risen to $516,226. In other words, it more than •doubled in six months or so. If the other banks in the state have done as well, then our total bank-account savings in North Carolina are now around 122 mil lion dollars. The savings of tlie National Bank in Burke were overlooked by our students for some unaccountable reason. When included in our War Thrift table of the July 9 issue, Burke rises from 67tli place to 53rd, witli a total of war securities and bank-account savings of $1,171,312, or $47 per inhabitant. Burke’s total of war securities and bank-account savings in 1918 was $140,- 000 beyond that of Caldwell; while her rank in per capita thrift was 25 places below that of McDowell. make them dwell together on earth m friendship, not in enmity. War is sense less and ugly and hateful. More than at any other time in history tlie mass of mankind abhors its savagery, its cruelty, its awful destructiveness. The peoples of the world have had their fill of the horrors of the battlefield, they are sick of slaughter, and with sure insight they demand that the curse of war be attacked and destroyed in its source, the secret councils, like that of Potsdam, where dynastic and selfish na tional interests prepare the decrees that send millions forth to take the lives of their brothers. The Covenant abounds in provision designed to prevent war by removing the occasions and opportunities for war, by putting hidden intrigues and plottings under the ban, by providing open and honorable ways of adjustment for differ ences between nations, by making the resort to arms odious and subject to penalties. If that is not work in “the united service of mankind,” will the gentlemen who denounce it as a “Biitish Wilson” plot be good enough to tell us in what way enlightened statesmanship can serve mankind? Tliose who now profess liostility to tlie League Covenant cannot hold their po sition against the judgment and the will of pretty much the whole world except themselves. Tlieir cause is bad. They hopelessly confront millions of mankind in a forward movement. Tliey make tliemselves the champions of outworn and evil conditions. The world already j regards tliem with astonishment. It is more immediately to the point that tlie people of the United States are observing their proceedings with ‘close attention. —New York Times. TEACHER-STANDARDS I asked a teacher what he was teacliing the children in his mill school. And tlie teacher answered; Beading, writing, arithmetic and so on; the regular things you teach in any school anywhere, -geography, grammar, history and so forth. Of course we have busy-work ex- ercis^pdrawing, picture stories, paper cutting and the like to keep the children out of mischief between lesson times. All ■ of whicli are very necessary, I said. Then I asked a cotton mill operative what in his opinion the -mill villagers .needed to learn in a school. Community-Needs And the mill villager answered; We’d aike to learn how to make the most of our Jives, liow to spend tlie money we earn, how to make ourselves and our homes attractive, how to care for our babies, how to keep our homes free from disease, how to work mill arithmetic, how the mill machines run and how to repair them, how to climb on up in skill and -wages, how to have homes of our. own •with gardens, cows, pigs and poultry, and how to spend our spare time with profit. Which was his way of phrasing the meeds of life in a cotton mill village. And A HUNDRED YEARS LATE Tlie debate in the Senate over the Treaty of Peace and the Covenant of Nations discloses tlie fact that certain senators are violently opposed to dping at this time what the United States has been doing for a liundred years or so under its treaty-makjng power. Thus, in the Rush-Bagot treaty in 1817, la the Webster-Ashburton treaty in 1842, in the treaty with Colombia in 1846, in the Bulwer-CIayton treaty in 1850, in the treaty with Honduras in 1864, in the treaties with Great Britain and Germany in 1889, in the Panama treaties of 1901 and ’03, and in the Bryan treaties with twenty countries during the present ad ministration, we have been doing the very things that the learned senators are now saying that we ought not to do, to wit: Under the treaty-making power we have made covenants for the reduction of armaments, the maintenance of armed forces in foreign territory, the fixing of boundaries, the maintenance of neutral ity of territory belonging to other nations, the guarantee of the independence of other nations, the compulsory arbitration of disputed matters, with the postpone ment of war during that process, the par ticipation by this country with other countries in the affairs and government of backward nations, a restriction upon the right to erect fortifications for tlie protection of property in which this country is interested and with reference OUR SOLE SAFEGUARD Thomas Huxley Truly America has a great future before lier—great in toil, in care, and in responsibility, great in true glory if she be guided in wisdom and right eousness, great in shame if she fail. I can not understand why other na tions sliould envy you or be blind to the fact that it is for the highesl in terest of mankind tliat you should succeed; but the one condition of suc cess, your sole safeguard, is the moral and intellectual clearness of the in dividual citizen.—Address in 1876. to which it assumes a responsibility, and an appropriation of money in order to make all such covenants effective.—The Covenanter. BREAKING IN TWO Nowhere in the world except in rare spots does the farmer enjoy the same educational facilities for his children as does the urban citizen, even the most common laborer, who pays little or no taxes. It is manifest that this condition can not continue. Either the country as a whole will provide, regardless of expense, the same educational advantages for the children of the farm as well as for those of the city, or we cannot maintain our average citizenry upon the land. If the actual resident upon the land is inferior, then we shall one day break in two politically as Russia has broken. In any event, our lands will not be well managed and the future will be insecure. —E. Davenport, dean Illinois College of Agriculture. THE LEAGUE DOES NOT It does not commit member-nations to obligations they cannot get rid of. It does not place the United States in a po sition where it can be coerced by the votes of other nations, either in the council or in the assembly. It does not involve tlie calling out of American troops to settle local squabbles. It does not place peace above justice; but agrees to restrain and prevent aggression. It does not obstruct union or division of existing nations; nor nullify the authority of Congress to declare war; nor weaken the Monroe Doctrine, but extends its principles; nor interfere in any nation’s domestic affairs, and it does not exceed the treaty power under the Constitution.—Edward Berwick. SECRETARY DANIELS SAYS If a League of Nations plan succeeds, COLLEGE RED CROSS WORK The question of Home Service institutes has become of special importance since the Red Cross has decided that Home Service sections may, under certain cir cumstances, widen their clientele to in clude any civilian family which stands in need of sucli service. During the war the course liad, of necessity, to be brief. Soldiers’ and sailors’ families had to be served, and there was a dearth of train ed workers. For the quick training of new workers the institutes were organized and for the same reason are now being temporarily continued. These facts have not undermined tlie tlieories of the Red Cross as to what con stitutes good training for carrying out a peace-time program. The general edu cational program of Home Service—insti- stutes, chapter courses, conferences, field visits—has succeeded beyond the hopes of the most optimistic, but it has not satisfied tlie Red Cross with a six weeks’ training for social workers. The train- we must end our naval construction. If j iug policy is now undergoing its readjust tlie it does not, we must build a navy equal in size of any in the world.” Witli these words Secretary Daniels emphasizes one of the perils we must face if the Senate refuses to ratify the Paris Covenant—the peril of another race for armament. Enormous expenditures for warships, airplanes, and ammunitions will begin immediately if the League plan fails. Secretary Daniels, however, demon strates his faith in the success of tlie Covenant by recommending the abandon ment of his proposed tliree-year naval building program, the execution of which would have cost six hundred million dollars. Thus we are able already to express some of the benefits we will derive from tlie league in figures. The first great saving for the United States, according to the Secretary of tlie Navy, will be more than half a billion dollars. Actually t will be more than this because once tlie great powers of the world re-enter tlie race for armament, there is no telling where they will end. Tlie difference will be that, whereas before the war the United States made no effort to compete with Europe, now we should have to main tain an army and navy equal to the greatest. HOBBLED BY COTTON Cotton fastened slavery on the South, and slavery a false economic policy. I have often said that if the South had never raised a bale of cotton it would be infinitely richer today than it is. With out cotton the South would be the center of the food-producing power of America. Without cotton the South would long ago have become the industrial center of America, for its resources in minerals and in water-power and in climatic ad vantages give it preeminent potentialities unmatched in the world. Nevertheless, we are now largely tied to the cotton industry, and it is the su preme duty of the South to make the most of its opportunity and to win from cotton production a prosperity matching that wliich the West has gained from grain production. For years diversified agriculture was well-nigh destroyed. Tlie South kept its corn crib and meat house in the West. Almost every dollar secured for its crop was in advance mortgaged for the bacon and the corn and the flour of the West. —Richard H. Edmonds in Manufacturers Record. ment. From the, beginning the Red Cross has looked upon this work as a co operative enterprise in which appropriate educational institutions were persuaded to lielp prepare people to do home ser vice. Schools for social work lent their aid, even at a considerable sacrifice some times to their regular work. College Home Service Many colleges and universities gave the use of their plants and some of the time of the members of their sociology facul ties. The Red Cross supplemented the teacliing, procured field-work oppoi^tun- in whicli tlie social agencies assist- ities- ed willingly—carried the overhead ex pense, and recruited the students. It is now expected to develop this cooperation with educational institutions and in time to get it taken over entirely by them Tlie six schools for social work will naturally be the first institutions asked to assume responsibility. Next come the state universities ami state agricultural colleges, whicli are tlie natural resources for training rural -workers, for whom there is now great demand. It is thought that the experimental work necessary for the development of laboratories of rural sociology in these schools is a proper responsibility for the Bed Cross and should be its contribution in the cooper ative arrangement. It is expected to loan competent members of the Red Cross personnel to assist in the teach ing and to surpervise the field work training. Cooperative agreements of tliis nature have already been made with the following universities: Cornell, Berea College, Western Reserve, Tulane, Em ory, the University of Cincinnati, and the state universities of Alabama, Min nesota, Kentucky, Ohio, Wisconsin, Louisiana, Kansas, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Utah. Already the training courses are being lengthened. Plans are now under way to have the minimum course cover twelve weeks, with additional advanced courses covering a period of one year or more. The workers who have had only the short courses will, in peace-time, be rated ac cordingly. The war emergency past, higher professional standards will be set up and Home Service workers will be re- ■quired to meet them.—Tlie Survey. NON SIBI SED ALUS For themselves nothing, for others every thing—in His name and for His sake. That has always been the core of the re ligion of the Salvation Army. That was its battle cry in the war zone. And the crisis of war has at last forced this kind of religion upon the attention of man kind. Humanity witli God left out is a futile sort of religion, as Frederick Harrison proved beyond debate. It is little more indeed than a plan of salvation by soap and soup and social salves. On the other hand, God with humanity left out, or left incidental and accidental, is also a futile sort of religion, as John fully realized when he said, If a man will not love his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen? The Salvation Army creed is a working • creed and a complete theology, but the world is realizing it slowly. We are still fiercely and foolishly contending for many things that are really unessential, the final values of life and destiny considered. Or so it seems to the average man. And when this war came, ” says Evangeline Booth, Commander-in-Chief of the Salvation Army in America, “it was natural for us to look to the man— the man under the shabby clothes, en listing in the great armies of freedom; the man going down the street in the spick and span uniform; the man behind the gun, standing in the jaws of death hurl ing back world autocracy; the man, the son of liberty, discharging his obligations to them that are bound; the man, each one of them, although so young, who when the fate of the world swung in the balances proved to be the man of the hour; the man, each one of them, fighting not only for today but for to-morrow, and deciding the world’s fu ture ; the man who gladly died that free dom might not be dead; the man dear to a hundred million throbbing hearts; the man God loved so much that to save him He gave His only Son to the unparalleled sacrifice of Calvary, witli its measureless ocean of torment heaving up against His heart in one foaming, wrathful, omnipo tent surge. Our Passion is Man IVherein is price? What constitutes cost, when the question is the man? ‘ ‘It is for man we have laid our lives upon the altar. It is for man we have entered into a contract with our God which signs away our claim to any and all selflsli ends. It is for man we have sworn to our own hurt, and—my God thou knowest—when the hurt came, hard and hot and fast, it was for man we held tenaciously to the bargain. “Man! Sometimes I think God has given us special eyesight with which to look upon him. We look through the exterior, look through the shell, look through the coat, and find the man. We look through the ofttimes repulsive wrap pings. through the dark, objectionable coating collected upon the downward travel of mis-spent years, through the ar tificial veneer of empty seeming, through to the man. “He that was made after God’s own image. He tliat is greater than firmaments, greater than suns, greater than worlds. “Man, for whom worlds were created, for whom the Heavens were canopied, for whom suns were set ablaze. He in whose being there gleams that immortal spark we call the soul. “When the Empress of Ireland went down -with a hundred and thirty Salva tion Army officers on board, one hun dred and nine ofiicers were drowned, and not one body that was picked up had on a life-belt. The few survivors told how the Salvationists, finding there were not enough life-preservers for all, took off their own belts and strapped them upon even strong men, saying, I can die better than you can; and from the deck of that sinking boat they flung their battle-cry around the world—Others! “My father, in a private audience with the late King Edward saidi: Your Majes ty, some men’s passion is gold; some men s passion is art; some men’s passion is fame; our passion is man!”—Evange line Booth, Commander-in-chief of the Salvation Army in America. In Emerson’s phrase, These words are alive and'vascular; cut them and they will bleed. They are quoted from The War Ro mance of the Salvation Army, J, B. Lip- pincott Go., Philadelphia. It is a fasci nating and quickening story.

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