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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
University of North Carolina
for its Bureau of Extension.
p 30, 1920
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
VOL VI, NO. 32
lorial Board i E. C. Branson, L. K. Wilson, E. W. Knight, D. D. Carroll, J. B. Bullitt.
Entered as second-class matter November 14, 1914. at the Postoffloe at Chapel Hill, N, C , under the act of August 24, 1912
PUBLIC mi FARE INSTITUTES
:OURSES AND LECTURERS
'hirty-one college-quarter, summer^
m courses, June 22-August 3 and
gust 3-September 13, for public wel-
e officials, and social workers of all
ts; under the joint direction of Dr.
ward W. Odu.n, formerly dean of
college of Liberal Arts of Emory
liversity, Atlanta, Ga., and now Ke-
n Professor of Sociology, University
North Carolina; Dr. Philip Klein,
ector of Education and Research,
uthern Division of the American
id Cross; and Hon. Roland F. Beas-
', State Commissioner of Public Wel-
1. Social Problems, by Dr. H. W.
2. Social Research Laboratory, by
3. Rural Social Problems, by E. C.
•anson, Kenan Professor of Rural So
il Science, University of North Caro-
4. Rural Economics, by S. H. Hobbs,
., Assistant Professor of Rural Social
jience. University of North Carolina.
5. Rural Research Laboratory, by
essrs. Branson and Hobbs.
6. Small Town Problems, by Dr.
7. General Economics, by Professor
. D. Carroll, dean of the School of
immerce. University of North Caro-
8. Theories of Economic Reform, by
9. Public Finance, by Professor Car-
ill. • ■
10. Introduction to Psychology, by
r. J. B. Dashiell, Associate Professor
Psychology, University of North
11. Social Psychology, by Professor
12. Survey Methods, by Mr. A. F.
uhlman. Survey Department of the
)uthern Division, American Red Cross.
13. Visual Instruction and Mass Edu-
tion, by Dr. W. K. Dudley, Extension
ivision. University of Wisconsin.
14. Family Case Work, by Miss
athryn Farra, Supervisor of Field
ork. Southern Division, American Red
•OSS, and Dr. J. F. Steiner, director
Educational Service of the National
15. Social Psychiatry, by Dr. Bern-
d Glueck, Professor of Mental Hy-
ene. New York School of Social
16. Juvenile Delinquency and Pro-
ition, by Mr. Harry G. Newman,
;ate Board of Public Welfare.
17. Child Welfare, by Mr. Newman.
18. Child Welfare Institute, by Mrs.
a D. Hasbrouck, National Child Wel-
19. Child Psychology, by Dr. Dash-
20. Story Telling, by Miss Henriette
asseling, Atlanta Public Schools.
21. Play and Recreation, by Dr. E.
. Lindeman, State College for Wom-
22. Public Health, by Dr. E. A. Aber-
3thy, Health Officer, University of
23. Social Hygiene, by Dr. George
I. Hunter, Carleton College, Minn.
24. Home Hygiene, by Miss Martha
iltner. Nursing Department, Southern
ivision, American Red Cross.
25. Home Dietetics, by Miss Arthur,
Bad of the department of Dietetics
nd Home Economics, Southern Divi-
on, American Red Cross.
26. Home Economics: Cookirtg, by
liss Frieda Rentchler, Chapel Hill High
27. Problems of the Country School,
y Dr. E. W. Knight, School of Educa-
ion. University of North Carolina.
28. Administration of Social Work,
y Mr. A. H. Burnett, School of Public
Welfare, University of North Carolina.
29., Record Keeping in Social Work,
y Mrs. Mary Burnett, School of Pub-
c Welfare, University of North Caro-
30. Personal Conference Periods, by
31. Field Work in Family Case
ork. Laboratory Studies and Special
nyestigatioms, and County Surveys, by
^®'^hryn Farra, supervisor South-
rn Division, American Red Cross, and
ppfntf A- H. Burnett, formerly di-
iai TT Division, Cincinnati So-
lai unit, and Mrs. A. H. Burj^ett.
In addition to two or three men of na
tional importance, whose names may
not now be listed, the lecturers before
the Public Welfare Institutes June 22-
September 13 will include:
Governor Thomas W. Bickett.
Dr. Samuel McCune Lindsay, profes
sor of Social Legislation, Columbia Uni
Dr. Bernard Glueck, head of the de
partment of Mental Hygiene, New
York School of Social work.
Dr. Frank P. Watson, director Penn
sylvania School for Social Service.
Dr. E. L. Morgan, director of Rural
Service^ American Red Cross.
President H. W. Chase, University of
North Carolina. ,
Hon. E. C Brooks, State Superinten
dent of Public Instruction.
Dr. N. W. Walker, University of
Dr/ J. F. Steiner, director Educa
tional Service, American Red Cross.
Hon. Roland F. Beasley, State Com
missioner of Public Welfare.
Dr. Amos W. Butler, State Commis
sioner of Charities and Corrections,
Mrs. Clarence A. Johnson, director
Child Welfare, State Board of Public
Dr. W. S. Rankin, State Superinten
dent of Public Health. >
Hon. Joseph C. Logan, assistant
manager. Southern Division, American j
Mr. Murray A. Auerbach, secretary
Southern Division National Anti-Tuber
Miss Margaret Byington, director
Field Service, American Red Cross.
Mr. Virgil Johnson, secretary Na
tional Travellers’ Aid Society.
Dr. Philip Klein, director Education
and Research, Southern Division, Am
erican Red Cross.
Miss Jane Van de Vrede, director de
partment of Nursing, Southern Divi
sion, American Red Cross.
Dr. pihomas H. McDonald, director
Federal Public Roads Bureau.
Miss Ada S. Woolfolk, director Chap
ter Service, American Red Cross.
A GREAT QUARTER
Public Welfare Institute
June 22-Sept. 13
Commercial Club Sec
Community Service Institute
State and County Council
Write for Bulletins
COUNTRY HOME CONVENIENCES
LETTER SERIES No. 16
32 vs 110-VOLT LIGHTING PLANTS—II
A PROGRESSIVE STATE
One of the significant reconstruction
movements comes from that progres
sive social state of North Carolina. I
so designate it deliberately because in
no other state in the South, and hardly
in any other state of the Union, is there
a more definitely organized social
movement, partly under state auspices
and largely at the inspiration of a state
welfare council that could with helpful
ness be studied and adopted elsewhere.
Thb University of North Carolina has
been another leading factor. That ag
gressive institution has a North Carolina
Club which this year is following the
lead of the State Reconstruction Com
mission and its committees. To this end,
the Club has established a working rela
tionship with the Commission. On Octo
ber 27th, the Club elected an unofficial
member of the State- Reconstruction
Commission and, at a subsequent meet
ing, a member of each Commission com
mittee. These, men brought back to
the Club from time to time the wis
dom of the Commission and the Commis
Each Club committee chairman chose
his cabinet of conferees, laid out the
comipittee work, held committee meet
ings at will, and passed on to the
Club on stated schedule dates' such
committee findings as the committee
thought to be fundamentally necessary
to progress under the new order of
things in North Carolina. Each com
mittee was set to the task of puzzling
out and stating ‘pVhat is. What ought
to be, and What possibly might be in
North Carolina. No proposal, policy,
or plan will be effective unless it ap
peals to the common sense and the com
mon aspirations of the common man in
the commonwealth.” *
Thus during the year 1919-20 the.
work of the wisely called North Caroli
na Club will be spent upon hammering
out A State Reconstruction Program
that will evidence a decent respect for
the opinions of mankind. This docu
ment will be finally. fashioned for Club-
approval, by the collaboration commit
tee, after the reports and findings of
the various Club committees are ren
dered as per the adopted schedule. It
will be the subject of the final Club ses
sion in early June, 1920.
The University News Letter carries a
bibliography of books, bulletins, reports,
clippings, and the like, arranged accord
ing to the schedule adopted for com
mittee investigations and findings.
Certainly an ambitious and useful
program which other state.universities
and organizations might well follow!—
Dr. Clinton Rogers Woodruff, in The
Last week we told you about the man
ufacturer who advertised that the full
power of his plant could be delivered
anywhere within a radius of one mile.
You have heard ofthe man who couldn’t
see the forest for the trees. Well
this manufacturer’s trouble was that he
couldn’t see the trees for the forest.
His big idea was that fundamentally the
higher the voltage the farther you can
transmit electrical power. And he
was trying without saying so directly
to show how much better his plant was
than the ordinary 32-volt plant.. He got
into trouble because he couldn’t see the
trees of .economic fact in his forest of
Quite a number of manufacturers are
putting out 110-volt plants, some with
out and some with storage batteries.
The superiority of the 110-volt plant is
variously stated by explaining that the
outside wiring for the 32-volt plant costs
much more. Some say 8 to 15 times as
much, some 11 to 17 times. And what
is more they prove it too—to their own
I satisfaction. They use the same form
ula calculating the size of wire that all
electrial engineers use. Their mathe
matics is perfect. But their result is
Stuffing the Ballot Box
One reason why their figures are too
high is that they do not apply the form
ula correctly. They stuff the electrial
ballot box by not comparing the two
plants on the Same basis. Theoretical
ly the wire for a 32-volt plant should
cost almost exactly 12 times as much as
that for a 110-volt plant. For technical
reasons connected with the standard size
of wires that can be bought this maxi
mum theoretical figure is rarely ever
reached. The cost of 32-volt wiring is
more often from 5 to 8 times the cost
of 110-volt wiring.
Even these relative costs, however,
apply only in case the figure obtained
by multiplying the number of watts to
be used by the length of the line in feet
is greater than about 300,000.
Suppose for example that a farmer
has a barn 200 ft. from his plant and he
has lamps to the amount of 200 watts to
be lighted at the same time. Allowing a
loss of two volts in the 32-volt line, it
would require No. 8 wire costing 6c.
per foot or a total of $24 for the wire. A
proportionate loss on the 110-volt system
would be 6.88-volts and the size wire
called for by the formula would be No.
19. But No. 19 wire is altogether too
small because it is not nearly strong
enough mechanically. From the stand
point of strength the smallest size of wire
that should be used for outside wiring
on the farm is No. 10. As this costs about
4.5c. per foot the total cost of wire for
the 110-volt plant would be $18. The
outside wiring for a 32-volt plant for a
case of this kind therefore costs only
one-third more than for a 110-volt
As the distance increases, or the load
to be transmitted, or both increase the
comparison favors more and more the
110-volt plant, but never to the extent
of 15 to 17 times. Those figures are
more than extravagant. They are im
possible on a fair basis of comparison of
the two plants.—P. H. D.
Schools of Beaufort.
THE BEAUFORT BULLETIN
Beaufort County: Economic and Social,
is the title of a booklet of eleven chap
ters just finished and sent to the print
ers by the Beaufort-Hyde County Club
at the University of North Carolina, as
1. Historical Background. — Miss
3. Natural Resources.—E. W. Clark,
4. Industries and Opportunities.— B.
L. Susman. !
5. Facts About the Folks.—E. J. ;
6. Wealth and Taxation.—Jack War
7. The Public
8. Farm Conditions and Practices.—R.
9. Pood and Feed Production and the
Local Market Problem. —H. C. Harris.
10. Things to be Proud of in Beau
fort.—J. M. Taylor. |
11. Our Problems and Their Solution.
The officership of the Beaufort-Hyde
Club is: D. D. Topping, editor-in-chief,
B. L. Susman, business manager, as
sisted by Messrs. Clark and Oden. !
These economic and social studies of
Beaufort were undertaken at the in
stance of W. L. Vaughn, Esq., and the
Washington Chamber of Commerce, ,
which is undertaking the distribution of
the , 3,000 copies of the bulletin. The
publcation was financed by the adver
tising of the business men of the county.
Other County Bulletins |
Each county in the state ought to have
such a study of its local conditions, en
terprises, organizations, and possibil
ities, and it can have it if only the home
folks will call upon their boys in the
University, and help them to finance the
Five such bulletins have already been
issued— Sampson, Durham, Wake,
Rockingham, and Rutherford.
The Gaston County Bulletin by
Messrs. S. H. Hobbs, Jr., and T. J,
Brawley is just coming from the press.
The Granville, Surry, Pitt, Halifax,
Union, Lenoir, and Guilford bulletins are
ready for the printers. They await
the interest and activity of thinkers
and leaders among the home folks in
these seven counties.
In my judgment there has never been
a time at which the systematic and im
partial study of social and economic
questions has been so urgent as the pre
sent day. We stand on the threshold
of a new age. The problems which
confront us and the other leading demo
cratic states of the world are of the most
complex and the most vital character,
and can only be solved by patient ex
amination conducted in a spirit of scien
tific detachment accompanied by a wide
diffusion of adult civic education. To
avert grave conflict between classes
and interests we must in good time in
quire into and determine so far as pos
sible their causes and conditions. We
need, therefore, today and at once, a
much more adequate provision for social
research and for giving publicity to the
results of such research.-Lord James
Bryce in The Intercollegian.
During the first hundred days of 1920
98 cooperative carloads of hogs were
shipped from 22 Arkansas counties. The
6,480 hogs in the cars were owned by
700 different farmers, or an average of
more than 10 shippers to each carload.
Returns totaling $127,590 were received
for these hogs at the central markets. The
average cost of shipping was only 94.3
cents per hundredweight. The amount
made above the highest price offered lo
cally, where there was a local market,
amounted to $260 per car, or a total sav
ing of more than $17,500 on all ship
The season for shipping Arkansas cat
tle has not yet started; but in 1919 cat
tle shipments from that state exceeded
the cooperative shipments of hogs,, and
indications this year are that almost all
the Arkansas cattle will be shipped co
The cooperative shipping of live stock
by the method advocated by the United
States Department of Agriculture has
been found practicable and profitable inall
sections of the country where live stock
is produced in connection with general or
specialized systems of farming.—Federal
IRVIN COBB ON CAROLINA
Once upon a time I thought North
Carolina was one of the most backward
states in this Union. Today I am sure it
must be one of the most prosperous of all
our great sisterhood. Certainly no state
is presently more progressive. In the
outskirts of such a town as Wilson or
Gastonia or Durham or Winston-Salem
one passing through aboard train beholds
more convincing evidence of substantial
improvements than formerly one would
have seen in a ride across the entire state.
Trim and tidy bungalows are replacing
the shacks and shanties of a preceding
decade. Big, broad-winged brick school
buildings rear their bulk in rural settings.
Neatly painted fences surround flower
beds and grass plots where once were
yards of bare ugly turf. Alopg with
civic pride an individual pride has blos
somed. Oftener than not, in the back
ground there rear up those tall iron stan
dards which carry the harnessed energy
of distant water courses hundreds of
miles across country to be transmuted
into heat and light and power.
I drove through one North Carolina
town with a population which could not
have exceeded three thousand. On the
principal business street, which indeed,
was the only business street, I took ac
count in passing of eight buildings, all in
process of construction and all being con
structed of brick. On one corner^a big
general store neared completion. Diag
onally across from it a three-story build
ing for offices and lodge rooms was go
ing up. There was a structure which
could mean nothing else except a new
movie palace. One next- door plainly
was destined to be a garage, and there
was yet another whose purpose I could
not divine offhand. Possibly it is to be
a service station for ouija boards—the
folks are getting to be most terriflcally
up to date in North Carolina.
This was not all. By no means was
it all. The red-clay bowels had been
ripped out of every street, main street
and cross street, and in the deep
trenches iron water mains were being
laid to bear underground company with
sewer pipes and electric conduits. New
cement sidewalks threaded off in all di
rections. From the width and the num
ber of the new pavements one judged
that practically all the business men
and most of the householders in that
town had become confirmed concrete
With excusable vainglory a citizen of
the place told me that last year by
practically a unanimous vote the citi
zens had voted a bond issue for electric
lights, municipal waterworks and a mod
ern sewage system; this, too, in addi
tion cheerfully to bearing their propor
tionate share in a million-dollar bond
issue for good roads through the county
and a second county bond issue of two
hundred thousand dollars for building a
system of modern graded schools and a
high school building. Recalling how
easily, just a few years ago, the aver
age rural Tar Heel was satisfied in the
matter of drainage and public utilities,
or the lack of them, this statement
spelled something to my understand
ing.—Irvin Cobb, in The Saturday