The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, September 01, 1920, Image 1
n f ! \ . THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA The news in this publica- n is released for the press on :eipt. V NEWS LETTER Published .^eekly by the University of North Carolina tor its Bureau of Extension. MBER 1, 1920 CHAPEL HELL N. C. VOL VI, NO. 41 ;oriaI Board . 3. O. Branson, L. B. Wilson, E. W. Knight, D. D. Carroll, J. B. Bixllitt. BJntered as second-class matter November 14, 1914. at the PostofUcH at Uhapel HlU. N. O , under the act of August 34, 1913 fHE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC WELFARE SCOPE OF THE WORK luring the last quarter century or re the pressing problems of city life re absorbed the attention of public- oded men ' and women. Social condi- ns in the city, standards of living in igested districts, moral problems sing out of crowded housing, sanitary is decimating the population, espe- ily among infants, industrial disturb- ces, degeneration of community life, ploitation of the instinct of play and creation by commercialized amuse- snt and even by vice, the problems of ty government as related to human slfare,—these and many similar prob- ms have forced the thinking leaders ' town life to see k remedies and read- .stments. As a result, there has grown p a body of movements and technique, ieking to grapple with the riddles and ifficulties of urban America. The mani- )ld and various means adopted, whether y individuals or organizations, have )me to be included under the general jrm of social work. On the whole, it is city conditions, ity evils, city movements, city organi- ations, that have given most concern nd received most attention. More ecently, however, especially since the ountry was brought to sense the entire roblem of rural life by the epoch-mak- ig report of the Roosevelt Country jife Commission, the less conspicious, lut equallj important problems of coun- ry life, have been forcing themselves ipon the attention of public-spirited itizens. The problems have gradually lecome defined, remedies are sought ind proposed, movements and technique lave arisen, to deal with rural life prob- ems. The country school, the country ;hurch, the farmer’s organizations, igricultural extension departments, 'arm and home demonstration agents, lave done immeasurable service. But here is still need for the social worker vho'will guide families and communities n the country, as he is guiding them in ;he city. To supply social workers in the cities here have arisen numerous schools of iocial work under one name or another n the North, East, and Middle West, vhere the largest urban centers are iituated. These schools have been send- ngout workers trained to grapple with social problems in the cities. Now we ire facing the need for similar workers ,n rural America and in the small towns and, villages. But the city training is lot what the country workers need, and we have neither workers nor training schools for such rural workers. Breaking New Ground The University of North Carolina, cognizant of the need, and heeding the call, has established a School of Public Welfare, whose purpose it is to supply trained leaders of country life, social workers trained and adapted for the tasks in rural communities. It has called to its aid the experience and resources of the American Red Cross, upon which had devolved the duty and privilege of rising to the War emergency, and which, through its service for the soldiers and sailors and their families, in city and in country, has been able to make some slight contribution to the technique of rural social work. With the cooperation of the Southern Division of the American Red Cross and the North Carolina Department of Charities and Public Welfare, the Uni versity of North Carolina is therefore opening the first training school of so cial work designed especially for the rural social worker. Courses Offered The School of Public Welfare thus or ganized is therefore offering, beginning with the academic year 1920-1921, train ing courses in social woNc as follows; 1. A one-year course of professional training consisting of two quarter terms in jesidence and one quarter term in field work under supervision. This course is open to graduates of colleges of good standing, or those presenting equivalent educational qualifications. In addition to the specialized field work required during the one quarter term, students taking this course will carry on field work in counties adjacent to the Uni versity during the tw« terms in resi dence. A certificate will be issued upon completion of this course. 2. A two-year course of professional train ing. The first year of this course is identical with the one-year course. It will be followed by another year both in residence and in the field. Courses during the second year are designed for more intensive specialization and re search, and for more responsible admin istrative and executive work in the field. A diploma will be issued .upon completion of this course. 3. Special courses of one quarter term or more will be arranged for students desir ing to do postgraduate or special re search work, and for Red Cross Secre taries, by special arrangement with the Educational Department of the Ameri can Red Cross. 4. Summer Institutes will be arranged for special groups such as County Super intendents of Public Welfare, commu nity teachers, community welfare sec retaries, etc. Credits Students of the University of North Carolina will receive credits for approved courses' in the Training School of Social Work if registered for the one or two- year courses. Graduates of the Uni versity or of other accredited colleges may receive graduate credits leading to the degree of M. A. in the graduate school of the University of North Caro lina for approved courses taken in the training school. Students in the two-year course should be able to obtain their M. A. degrees in the graduate school, while at the same time qualifying for their .di plomas. Summer school students will be cred ited for work in the training school on the same basis as students taking other work in the summer school. Scholarships 1. The North Carolina Federation of Women’s Clubs at their last annual meeting generously endorsed the work of the School of Public Welfare and offer ed two Scholarships of $200 each to be awarded to young women of North Ca rolina. One of these has been awarded while the other is being considered at the present time. Applicants should write to Mrs. Clarence A. Johnson, Director of phild Welfare, State De partment of Public Welfare, Raleigh, N. C. 2. Red Cross Scholarships. The American Red Cross Has established a fund to provide, a limited number of scholarships for especially qualified per sons who wish to enter Red Cross Ser vice. While the amount of each scholar ship may vary to meet different situa tions, it will usually take the form of a grant of seventy-five dollars a month for a period of three to eight months depending upon the time required for the course of training. The scholarships have been provided because o.f the great need of the Red Cross for trained \Vork- ers, and are assigned only to those who will remain in the employ of the Red Cross for a year following the comple tion of their training course. Candi dates for these scholarships should be persons of good personality and capacity for leadership, whose- previous studies and practical experience form a good foundation for technical preparation for Red Cross Service. Detailed informa tion about these scholarships and appli cation blanks can be secured by address ing the Educational Director, Southern Division, American Red Cross, Atlanta, Ga. Field "Work The distinguishing feature of social work training is the emphasis placed upon so-called field work. It is essen tial that the theory studied in the class room should be made concrete in actual practical Vexperience and that this ex perience in turn should be interpreted and related through class and confer ence discussion. With this end in view it has been planned to devote not less than one third of the entire time of the course to practical work under supervision in se lected communities throughout the state. The academic year being divided into three quarters, the first and second will be spent in residence at the University, in order to give the student an opportu nity to prepare for the practical work which will occupy his entire time during MEN TO MAKE A STATE George Washington Doane The men, to make a state, are made by self-denial. The willow dallies with the water, draws its waves up in continual puls es of refreshment and delight; and is a willow, after all. An acorn has been loosened, some autumnal morn ing, by a squirrel’s foot. It finds a nest in some rude cleft of an old granite rock where there is scarcely earth to cover it. It knows no shel ter and it feels no shade. It asks no favor and gives none. It grapples with the rock. It crowds up toward the sun. It is an oak. It will be an oak for seven times seventy years; unless you need a man-of-war to thunder at the foe that shows a flag upon the shore, where freemen dwell; and then you take no willow in its daintiness and gracefulness; but that old, hardy, storm-stayed and storm- strengthened oak. So are the men made who will make a state.—Masseling’s Ideals of Heroism and Patriotism. COUNTRY HOME CONVENIENCES LETTER SERIES No. 25 Electric Farm Power from Central Stations IV COUNTRY POWER LINES Following up our last three letters we give below a list of the material re quired to build a mile of transmission line suitable for supplying electric ser vice to country communities. Costs of the various items are given, based on August 1st quotations. The material specified would be con sidered standard by most central sta tions. In some cases the costs could be trimmed down slightly by lighter con struction but the Division would not such practice as it is be- recommend lieved that it would not pay in the end the third quarter. Students will be as signed for the second quarter in groups to communities desiring the benefit of such services as they may be able to render, and their work will be super vised by members of the school staff. Opportunities for service will be suffi ciently varied in character to afford ex perience in almost every field of social work. A particular effort will there fore be made to assign each student to that task and locality which will be most closely related to his special interest, and to the probable character of his future work. During the fall and winter terms, in addition to the academic work in resi dence, from ten to fifteen hours of work in field work will be required, so that, upon entering the third quarter to be devoted entirely to field work, the stu dents will have acquired some of the necessary technique. These specifications are based on the assumption of a single phase, 13,000 volt line. As a rule this kind of line will meet the needs of the average North Carolina farming community if the largest motor to be used is not over 10 horsepower. Poles: 40 Juniper poles 30 feet long with 6 inch tops.. .... $260.00 Cross-Arms: 48 Standard j two-pin arms $39.84 I Pole Hardware: 96 Galvanized I iron insulator pins $24.48 i 99 Galvanized braces—24 inch. $30.40 j 32 Galvanized bolts 5-8 inch by 12 inches '' $7.37 8 Galvanized bolts 5-8 inch by 16 96 Galvanized carriage bolts 3-8 inch by 4 inches $4.81 48 Galvanized lag screws 1-2 inch by 3 inches $3.71 16 Galvanized double arming bolts 5-8 inch by 16 inches $7.20 Insulators: 96—13,000-volt por celain insulators $27.00 Pole-Guys; Poles should be guyed wherever the line changes direction more than 10 degrees. At all right an gle turns the line should be guyed both ways and double arms used. An allow ance of 8 extra arms is included above. Estimate for guying including anchors $55.00 Wire: 10,700 feet no. 6 hard drawn copper wire $300.00 470 feet no. 6 soft copper tie wire » $13.20 The total cost of such a line as this would run from $900 to $1100 per mile depending upon how much of the work can be done by the farmers themselves. This does not include the cost of trans formers and switching arrangements which should be estimated on an indi vidual basis. A 13,000-volt transformer for small farm needs costs today about $175. Switching equipment will run from $50 to $200 or over depending on what standard of construction is in sisted on by the central station.—P. H. inches. $2.20 D. THE ONLY HOPE hope for civilization. The one hope for civilization, says Gilbert Murray, of Oxford University, is a change of heart, and lacking this, the world order is doomed. “Unless it abstains utterly from war and the causes of war, the next war will destroy it. Unless it can'seek earnestly the spirit of brotherhood and sobriety at home, Bolshevism will destroy it.” “Almost every element necessary to success has been put into the hands of those now governing the world except, as an old Stoic would say, the . things that we must provide ourselves. We have been given everything except a certain necessary greatness of character. Just at present that seems lacking, at any rate among the rulers of Europe. It may be recovered. We have had it in the past in abundance, and we probably have the material for it even now. If for any reason the great democracies permanently prefer to follow low mo tives and to be gtjverned by inferior rhen, it looks as if not the British Em pire only but the whole world order es tablished by the end of the war and summarized roughly by the League of Nations may pass from history under the same fatal sentence as the great empires of the past, that the world which it ruled hated it and risked all to destroy it.’’—Current Opinion. a conspiracy of everybody to get ahead of everybody else. Jesus tried to convince his time that the only way out of this mess must be acceptance of the world as the domain of a beneficent Father, and adoption of the belief that the only economy which can fit this world permanently is the economy of brotherly love. So far as the meager records of Jesus’ teachings inform us, his entire career as a teacher was devoted to applying this big idea to petty cases. That is, they were petty in themselves, but he made them the means of clarifying the tremendous principle. He tried to show all sorts and condi tions of men what his spirit of life would mean if it were in control in their own situations. He tried to show what that spirit would be in action in the pre cise situation of the different kinds of common people with whom he mingled. It has been only by the most strained interpretation of the record that Jesus has been made to lend sanction to de tached and unearthly types of religion. By violence to the evidence, many counterfeit Christianities have provided themselves with pretexts for ignoring the actual moral problems of real peo ple, and for turning religion into some sort of orgy on the one hand, or radically different if they saw some prospect of real industrial peace ahead of them. After all, what would organized labor be doing by such a proposal? It would be entering into a vast collective bar gain with the community—a bargain which safeguards its essential purposes under a legal sanction. Labor in the vital incjustries would make a contract enforceable at law. The difference be tween it and any other collective con tract would be 'that it ran for a greater period; that it gave labor infinitely greater security against the hazards of industry, and at the same time offered to the community at large security against the thing it most fears. If these contracts are just in the sense that they provide for justice under changing conditions; if in other words they do not freeze labor in statu quo; if they give that sense of security without which the human reason cannot operate, then it is to the advantage of all that for an experimental period the agree ment shall have behind it the full au thority of law.— The Y. W. C. A. In dustrial Bureau. RURAL CONTENTMENT Many peojole ignorant of rural prob in to I lems talk and write , as if farming were vain contemplation of the sins of other ; not a business and as ijf food production centuries and the joys of other worlds. — j did not involve the expenditure of capi- Albion W. Small, University of Chicago, in The American Journal of Sociology. ' tai and labor. The demand of the city PUBLIC SAFETY THE ONLY WAY OUT Jesus tried to make his generation understand that the only way the world can ever stop being a world of univer sal cross purposes and thwartings and bafflements and defeats and woes will be to breed out of the would the type of people who think always first and last of themselves, and to substitute a breed of men and women who will actu ally take God seriously and will be dis posed toward one another sympathet ically. Jesus tried to persuade his neighbors that life will be an impossible mix so long as everybody pitches in to make it Modern society is cooperative. It is not conceivable that the salaried classes, the farmers or the merchants will be satisfied with the prospect of an endless cycle of demands, strikes, settlements, recriminations. They will support the resistance to organized labor unless and until the program of labor has at least the promise of stability and peaceful adjustment within it. The plain fact is that sooner or later the strike will have to disappear from all those services on which the immediate life of the commu nity depends. No' people living in a complex, industrial system will tolerate forever the possibility of great suffer ing because of a deadlock dispute be tween managers and employees in an industry producing immediate necessi ties. The demand that this threat be ended will become irresistible. The real question is, when will it be ended and how? Walter Lippman, in The New Repub lic, suggests that labor should propose the essentials of a legal process for safeguarding its interests and forego the right of striking for a term of years. Such a proposal, he says, coming from labor would create a totally new atmos phere in the industrial world. People not affiliated with union labor would feel is for cheap food and that more abund antly. There are those who talk as if there could be an unlimited number of farmers. This may have been true when the farm was self-sufficient and produced little or no surplus. But, ob viously,. today there should be, and, in the long run, there will tend to be, enough farmers to produce their pro portion of what the world will buy at prices which make production profitable. Certainly farming must'pay. There will be farmers enough if the business of farming is made profitable and jf rural life is made attractive and healthful) The farmer, as well as the industrial worker, is entitled to a living wage and to a reasonable profit on his investment. He is entitled also to sat isfactory educational opportunities for his children and to the benefits of mod ern medical science and sanitation. When these requirements are met there will be no difficulty in retaining in the rural districts a sufficient number of contented and efficient people. What we need is not back-to-the-land propaganda, but an acceleration of the work for the improvement of the coun tryside which will render the abandon ment of farms unnecessary and the ex pansion of farming inevitable. I am sure that the farmers of the nations are perfectly willing to do their part in producing and saving if all other pro ducers in the nation will set about doing their part.—David F. Houston, former ly Secretary of Agriculture.