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THE UNlVERSiTY OF NORTH CAROUN/^.
Published weekly by the
University of North Carolina
for its Bureau of Extension.
jPTEMBER 8, 1920
CHAPEL HHX, N. C.
VOL VI, NO. 42
. tc. O. Branson, L. R. WUaon, B. W. Knight, D. D. Carroll, J. B. Bullitt.
Bntereci as ssjicond-clasa matter November 14, 1914, at the Pfxstofflce at Chapel Hill, N« G., ander the act of August- 24, 1912
fHE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC WELFARE
COURSES OF STUDY
The Public Welfare Courses of tke
liversity of North Carolina are
inned in such a way as to give the
cessary background and philosophy
social work as well as the requisite
shnique. The component courses ne-
ssarily range themselves into certain
neral groups dealing with large as-
cts of social life, as follows: (1) The
;ate and Public Institutions, (2) The
amily; The Individual, (3) Community
ife, (4) Methods of Organization and
dministration, (5) Field Work.
• Public Institutions
Social workers are of necessity thrown
ito constant contact with government
Qd public institutions. Many public
jrvants are themselves, in fact, social
'orkers. It is therefore necessary that
ny course of professional training for
)cial work should include a study of
le functions of government in the
eld of constructive social legislation,
1 the growing assumption by the state
f responsibility for the weaker and
3SS fortunate members of society, and
fi administrative technique to make
emocratic government an efficient ser-
ant of social progress.
The courses dealing with this subject
rill include a study of the increase of
he functions of the state in relation to
griculture and industry. Public educa-
ion and public health will be treated as
bowing the growth of a public con-
cience, and with it, of the state’s re-
ponsibility for the welfare of all its
itizens. Crime and punishment to-
;ether with penal legislation, the poor
aw, and the history of poor relief will
le discussed. The students should be-
ome acquainted with the various de-
artments of state and county govern-
lent, with distribution of powers and
unctions between the township, coun-1
y, state, and nation, and especially with
he problems of municipal and county
dministration. Institutions maintained
•y the state, county, or city for all pur-
oses will be studied, and consideration
e given to modern standards of institu-
The following are the courses outlined
nder this section:
Introduction to the Study of Social Insti-
Litions and Public Welfare. One term,
'ive hours a week.
This course deals with the historical
,nd philosophic background of modern
ocial movements and shows the bear-
tig which anthropology, psychology,
conomics, and ethics have upon present
ay social problems.
Rural Social Problems and Rural Eco-
lomics. One term. Five hours a week.
This course will coyer: (1) The rural
ocial problem—what it is and is not.
2) Socialization—what it means; ideals,
tnds, and aims. (3) Rural social insti
tutions. (4) Country-life agencies. (5)
Developments in other states. Progres-
;ive Communities in North Carolina. (6)
rhe sources of our primary wealth. (7)
Dur accumulated wealth and its forms.
(8) Factors involved in the retention of
farm wealth. (9) The civic and social
ises of ■ wealth. (10) After-the-war
problems in farm areas.
Social Reform and Legislation. One
term. , Five hours a week.
Given to second-year students. A
study of reform movements and social
legislation with special reference to
agriculture and industry, and including
both governmental activity and sponta
neous movements arising out of educated
public opinion. Comparative studies of
reform organizations and social legisla-
lation in the difierent Continental coun
tries. 'Special studies of local county
and municipal legislation and improved
Poor‘Relief and Correction. One term.
Five hours a week.
A history of the poor laws and ad
ministration and their relation to eco
nomic and social changes in Great Brit
ain and America. Study of eleemosyn
ary institutions—their activities and
standards. The outstanding features in
the history of criminal law and forms
of punishment—their relation to changes
in social philosophy and to newer crim-
inol^gy. A discussion and examination
of types of penal and reformatory insti
tutions, coiyts, and probation systems.'
Municipal Utilities. One term. Three
hours a week.
A course dealing with the physical
problems of community life, such as
lighting, sewerage, water supply, street
cleaning, garbage disposal, etc.
The family has been and is the funda
mental unit of society. A thorough ap
preciation of its structure and nature
is necessary both for an understanding
of social forces and for the constructive
treatment of maladjusted individuals.
The subjects in this group will include
a brief outline of anthropology, and the
historical development of the family
from earliest times to the present day.
Differences in the town and country,
the agricultural and industrial families
will be studied, with special emphasis
on the changing position of women and
children. Child welfare in all its rami
fications will form an important part
of this section, and will include a dis
cussion of the child of today and to
morrow, the exploitation of childhood,
child health, the exceptional, the delin
quent, and the disadvantaged child.
An important part of every social
worker’s ■ task is the discovery and
treatment of the maladjusted family
and individual, and this section will
therefore attempt to cover those sub
jects which are especially related to
that undertaking. The contributions of
mental hygiene and psychology, of the
movements for public and personal
health, of home economics in the widest
sense of the word will be carefully con
sidered. Types of dependency, and liv
ing standards will also be covered, and
the whole will lead into a full study of
the technique of present day case work
with the unadjusted family, especially
in its relation to the peculiar problems
of the rural family in the South.
The courses offered under this head
Family Welfare. Two terms. Two
hours and three hours a week respect
The social treatment of maladjusted
families and individuals. The study of
breakdowns in individual and in family
social life. The causes of maladjust
ment and the technique of social treat
ment. The care of such cases during
the field work term is an integral part
of this course which thus corresponds,
in social work training, to the doctor’s
study of clinical medicine.
Special Problems. Seminar. Two terms.
One hour a week.
Each student will be required to spe
cialize in some one of the recognized de
partments of social work, i. e., child
welfare, mental hygiene, industrial
problems, housing, public health, home
economics, delinquency, etc. During the
year he will do research in this subject
and his field work will also be directed
as far as posssible to this end. Special
conferences will be arranged under ap
propriate leadership to assist the stu
dent in this phase of his work.
Standards of Living. One term. Three
hours a week.
This course will comprise several
groups of lectures dealing with various
subjects related to standards of home
life, such as home sanitation and hy
giene, home economics, standards of
housing and home-making, with special
reference to conditions and problems in
History of the Family. One term. Three
hours a week.
This course is mainly a seminar for
research in the history of the family
group with special reference to the in
fluence of economic and social changes
upon the fortunes of families as a whole
and upon the structure' and cohesion of
the individuals constituting families.
The Individual. One term. Three hours
The study of the individual in the
newer psychology as a matter of para
mount importance not only for compe
tent case work but also for an under
standing of the larger cultural move
ments and disturbances in industry and
political life. No constructive plan of
social organization, of industrial read
justment, or of constructive develop-
MEN TO MAKE A STATE
George. Washington Doane
The men, to make a state, are
themselves made by obedience.
Obedience is the health of human
hearts; obedience to God; obedience
to fathers and to mothers, who are,
to .children, in the place of God;
obedience to teachers and to
masters, who are in the place of
fathers and of mothers; obedience to
spiritual pastors, who are God’s min
isters; and to the powers that be,
which are ordained of God.
Obedience is but self-government
in action; and he can never govern
men who does not govern first him
self. Only obedient men can make a
state. —Masseling’s Ideals of Hero
ism and Patriotism.
COUNTRY HOME CONVENIENCES
LETTER SERIES No. 26
THE BUSINESS OF HOME MAKING
ment in democratic technique can be un
dertaken without a full appreciation of
the meaning of instincts and emotions.
Social psychiatry and mental hygiene,
the psychology of morale, the relation
of eificiency to happiness, special forms
of mental deficiency and disorder, etc.,
wiU be dealt with.
While the isolation of the family con
stitutes one of the big problems of ru
ral life, especially in America, it is
nevertheless true that even the most
isolated of rural families has a number
of community interests or ties: the
school, the church, the farmers’ union,
the common trading center, all play an
an important part in the life of every
individual in such a family, and it is the
business of every social worker to en
rich this community life, and to bring
it within the reach of every individual
with whom he deals.
There will be considered, therefore,
the voluntary groupings of society and
and their comparative importance, es
pecially in the case of the vocational as
contrasted with the geographic group
ings. The modern development of com
munity organization as a means of both
enabling individuals to meet their o-wn
needs cooperatively and of revivifying
their- relation to government, local,
state, or national, will be studied as
necessary parts of the social worker’s
Under this heading will be the fol
Recreation and Dramatics. One term.
Three hours a week.
Recreation as a means of developing
potential personality, together with the
study of definite recreational activities
such as community drama, folk plays,
and motion pictures, both as media of
expression and as factors in the finan
cial support of community programs.
Technique of Community Organization.
Two terms. Two and three hours a
Largely a seminar course for the dis
cussion of the development of the group
as a social phenomenon, of forces which
discourage group life and of prevailing
methods of community organization, as,
for example, the school center, the com
munity council, the farm bureau, etc.
National and State Voluntary Agencies.
Two terms. One hour a week.
This course aims to acquaint the stu
dent with the resources which are of
fered by the various social and philan
thropic agencies of the state and na
tion. As far as practicable, these lec
tures will be given by the executives or
field agents of these organizations in
This course will be given largely in
connection with other courses, fitting
in with a study of state, community,
and family at points where the func
tions of those units make, or ought to
make, for public health. A supplement
ary series of lectures will cover the
newer knowiege of nutrition, the rela
tion of diet to health and disease, the
deficiency diseases, the preventable dis
eases, food spoilage and intoxication,
j^ygj0j^0 and sanitation, exercise and
recreation, and health prophylaxis.
History of the Community. One term.
Three hours a week.
A study of organized group life on
Progressive business firms are con
tinually on the look out for new methods
and devices that will perfect and in
crease the output of their concerns as
well as develop smoothly working or
ganizations. The typewriter, up-to-date
filing systems, mimeographing and ad
dressing machines have done much to
promote office efficiency while'numerous
inventions for doing the work formerly
done by hand have revolutionized mod
ern industry. Wide awake business
men realize that improvements and con
veniences in their firms not only are
of tremendous value in dollars and cents
but the indirect benefits are equally as
greater even greater. Healthy, well
trained and contented workmen are
secured and retained in such establish
ments. People like to- work in the
healthful atmosphere of a modern con
cern and well trained workers stay
with the firm which has trained them.
The home is just as much a place of
business as the office, factory, or store.
This is particularly true of the farm
home. The business and home life of
the farmer and his family are so closely
associated that it is impossible to tell
where one leaves oif and the other com
mences. The farm is the big work shop
of nature audit is up to, every farmer
to put aside a certain percentage of his
income each year to improve the living
and working conditions of his business.
Modern machinery and electric service
guarentee efficient work and are paying
investments. Labor-saving, profit^ pro
ducing devices should be regarded as
so much currency with which to buy
efficiency. Electricity in the home
makes housekeeping light housekeeping
while electric help in the dairy and barns
is invaluable. Hired help of the best
sort is also attracted and retained on
the up-to-date farm.
This is an age of efficiency and rival
ry and a farmer who is not prepared to
compete with his neighbor who has ev
ery modern appliance to assist in grow
ing and harvesting large crops, in rais
ing better cattle and in having better
dairy products will soon find out that
he has not only failed as a business
man, but, handicapped with incompetent
or insufficient hired help, inadequate
machinery and no modern conveniences,
he may even be forced to struggle for
his very existence.—A. N.
geographic, race, and vocational bases,
covering types of organizations from
the beginning of the history of civiliza
tion with comparative study of present
Cooperative Movement. One term.
Three hours a week.
A descriptive and critical study of the
cooperative movement with a special
emphasis on the Irish, Danish, and Rus
sian experiments, and the beginnings
of American cooperative organization.
In order to equip students for positions
of an executive character the curricu
lum will include a section dealing in
some detail with the administrative side
of social work. Under tfiis head will be
considered committee-organization, par
liamentary practice as applied to the
conduct of group activities, and the du
ties of officers, with special reference
to the functions of a secretary.
Statistical methods, the collection and
interpretation of quantitative social
data, the use and meaning of records,
cost accounting systems, and the gen
eral management of a business office
will be included. The conduct of finan
cial compaigns, and other methods of |
money raising will also be considered,
with special emphasis on community
self-support in social effort.
Another important topic will be the
analysis of the various forms of pub
licity as a means of informing the pub
lic of the needs and achievements of
The following courses are offered:
The use of quantative data in social
work. How to recognize facts and how
to interpret them. Record-keeping and
the use of recorded information. Cost
accounting, budget making, etc. A
demonstration of a social agency.
Administration and Management.
Business methods as applied to social
service administration. Office manage
ment, filing, etc. Publicity financial
campaigns and federated finance. The
organization of communities and the
elements of parliamentary practice.
The entire second year work of each
student will be grouped around some
special interest requiring intensive field
work and research. The research ' will
be laboratory and statistical as well as
field study. There will be utilized such
experts at the University or outside as
may be necessary for each special
The new bulletin of the School of
Public Welfare will soon he ready for
distribution. Address Dr. Howard W.
Odum, director. Chapel Hill, N. C.
best can material wealth be converted
into human welfare.
North Carolina now stands fourth in
the value of agricultural products, hav
ing produced last year the enormous
total farm wealth of $683,000,000. Her
taxable resources now stand at over
three billion dollars. The federal taxes,
mostly from tobacco products, amount
to approximately $170,000,000 a year.
These figures ought not to mean ex
travagance in the use of state revenues,
but they ought to mean an end of par
simony made necessary by poverty.
In the past North Carolina people of
forward vision have had to be content
with dreams of what the state might do
if ever the burden of poverty could be
lifted. The devastation of four years’
war was for two decades a heavy hand
icap to progress; the people grew ac
customed to small thinking in education,
business, community advancement. It
has taken time to live down that herit
age. But the natural resources were
here, undeveloped; the native capacity
for leadership was present. This gen
eration has therefore a great op
portunity to advance the state in the
utilization of those community resources
that are not found alone in rich lands
and valuable forests and mines. The
people themselves are the proper study
of statesmen and lawgivers.
Several fundamental developments
may be expected to follow the reform
of the tax system, provided that reform
is completed by the voters in the No
vember election. There must be a state
system of hard surface roads; the school
teachers must have adequate salaries;
there must be more reformatories and
sanatoriums for the unfortunate.
There is now in session at Chapel
Hill a school that will send out leaders
for a new era in commnnity organiza
tion and development. The central
high schoool in the rural township will
become a center of social life as well as
the seat of learning. Community en
tertainments, games,'contests; home
comforts and conveniences; farm ma
chinery-all these things will be the
subjects which school, farm and home
agent and county welfare supervisor will
bring out of the cloisters of theory and
put to the test of daily life’s needs.
It would seem that we can in the com
ing ten years make any sort of state
j history that we desire. And the Uni
versity Community Service school' is
I training the leaders of the next great
North Carolina renaissance.—The Ashe-
j ville Citizen.
MATERIAL FOR PROGRESS
Demonstration that the state is worth
two billion dollars more in taxable re
sources than was shown a year ago will
not cause North Carolinians to ask what
they shall do with so much money, but
it may well put them to thinking how
j A LIVE BANK
■ The Farm Service Department of the
: Farmers Bank & Trust Company of
! B orest City has begun to issue a month
ly bulletin entitled. Farm Service
' Department News. Mr. C. C. ’ Proffitt
is editor-in-chief. The bulletin is sent
free to all patrons of the bank and
I others who ask for it. It is a neat little
. sheet, full of good information for farm-
! ers and should be in every farm home
in the county. The bank is to be high
ly commended for its progressivehess.
—The Rutherford Sun.