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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published weekly by the
University of North Carolina
for its Bureau of Extension.
CHAPEL HHX, N. C.
VUL VI, NO. 43
IraAl Board j
G. Branson. Li, B. Wilson. E. W, Knij'ht, D. D. Carrol!, J. B. Bullitt.
Entered as second-class matter November 14, 1914, at the Post-oftlce at Chapel Hill, N* 0., under the act of Anffuso 24, 1914
AROLINA: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
iring the college year just closed
following studies of the state have
L made by various students in the
irtmont of Rural Social Science in
University of North Carolina. In
1 study the facts for each county
worked out and the counties of the
e ranked accordingly from high to
or for each state and the state
How Our Counties Ranh
Surplus and Dependent Counties in
rth Carolina in 1918.—W. N. Poin
ter, Fsrsyth county. University
ws Letter, Vol. VI, No. 29.
. Per Capita Taxable Wealth in 1917.
*. P. Purrington, Halifax county,
iversity News Latter, Vol. VI, No. 38.
;. Total Taxable Wealth in Carolina
unties in 1917.-P. P. Purrington,
I. State and County Tax Rates in
.7.—Rufus Hunter, Wake county.
i. Prefessional Taxes in North Caro-
a in 1917.—Rufus Hunter, Wake
6. Local School Tax Districts in North
irolina, 1917-18.-F. L. Townsend, Jr.,
7. Local School Tax Rate per $1,000
^ Taxables, 1917-18.-J. M. Taylor,
8. White School Property, per Capita
ivestments, 1917-18.-S. G. Jenkins,
9. ftsral School Property, Total In-
jstments, Norjih Carolina, 1917-18. S.
. Jenkins, Edgecombe county.
10. School Expenditures per $1,000 of
axable Property, 1917-18.—C. 0. H.
augkinghouse, Pitt county.
II. Local School Tax District Reve-
aes, 1917-18.-C. 0. H. Laughinghouse,
12. Rurai School Buildings and Sup-
lies, Total Expenditures, 1917-18.—W. |
. McMullao, Pasquotank county.
13. Average Annual Salaries Paid
fhite Commpn-School Teachers, 1917-
3.-S. H. Hobbs, Jr., Sampson county,
niversity News Letter, Vol. VI, No.
14. Negw) Teachers’ Average Annual
ala^es, 1917-18.-W. 0. McMullan,
16. Consolidated Schools—Percent of
:ural White Schools Having Two or
[ore Teachers, 1917-18.-F. L. Town-
3nd, Jr., Gaston county.
16. ^hool Attendance Percents,
t^hite, 1917-18.-El f*. Hooker, Lenoir
17. School Ajitendance on Enrollment,
917-18.—F. L. Townsend, Jr., Gaston
18. School Equipment—White Schools
?ith Paftent Desks, 1917-18.—E. F.
looker, Lenoir county.
19. Birth and Death Rates, 1917.—B.
V. Sipe, Gaston county.
30. Tobacco Production, 1919.—I. D.
.'horpe, Nash county-
21. Tobacco Culture in North Caro-
ina, 1909-1919.-D. C. Sinclair, Jr.,
"Jew Hanover county.
22. Cotton Production, 1919.—G. W.
rhompson, Wayne coui>ty.
23. Corn Production, 1919.—J. E.
Jrayton, Mecklenburg county.
24. Wheat Prod^iction, 1919.—G. W.
Thompson, Wayne county.
25. Hay Production, 1919.—J. E.
Jrayton, Mecklenburg county.
26. Sweet Potato Production, 1919.—
Mi»s Marie Edgerton, Guilford county.
27. Irish Potato Production, 1919.—
Miss Marie Edgerton, Guilford county.
28. Carolina Tidewater Country.— W.
A. Blount, Beaufort county.
How Carolina Ranks
In the following stu(4es North Caro
lina is [Tanked in important matters with
the other states of the Union.
1. Per Capita Cost of State Govern
ments in 1918.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Uni
versity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 9.
2. State Expenditures for Public Ed
ucation.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Idem, Vol.
VI, No. 10.
3. |Pederal Income and Excess Profit
Tables.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Idem, Vol.
VI, No. 11.
4. Total Crop Values in 1919.—Miss
Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem, Vol. VI,
5. Crop Wealth per Inhabitant in
liH.9.—Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem,
Vol. VI, No. 14.
6. Crop Values per Farm Worker.—
Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem, Vol.
VI, No. 18.
7. Automobiles in the United States,
1919.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Idem, Vol. VI,
8. Motor Trucks for Farm Uses.—
Federal Weekly News Letter. Univer
sity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 16.
9. Factory Products in the United
States, 1914.—University News Letter,
Vol. VI, No. 19.
10. Gross Crop Values per Acre in
1919. —Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem,
Vol. VI, No. 25.
11. State Uiiversity Support.—Uni
versity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 30.
12. State University Plants.-Idem,
Vol. VI, No. 31.
13. Hospital Facilities in the United
States in 1919.—Idem, Vol. VJ, No. 33.
14. Doctors in the United States in
1919. —Idem, Vol. VI, No. 34.
15. American Railroad Mileage in
1920. —Idem, Vol. VI, No. 35.
16. New Railroad Trackage, 1910-20.
—Idem, Vol. VI, No. 36.
17. Potential Water Power in the
United States.—H. Price, Union county.
18. Taxable and True Wetflth in the
United States, 1918.—F. L. Townsend,
Jr., Gaston county.
19. Fire Losses in the United States,
1918.—Miss Marie Edgerton, Guilford
1. Church Membership and Sunday-
School Enrollment in North Carolina, by
Denominations.—J. M. Taylor, Beau
2. Personal Income Taxpayers in
North Carolina, by Classes, in 1917.—
S. H. Hobbs, Jr. University News
Letter, Vol. VI, No. 17.
3. Carolina Agriculture, 1850-1920.—
University News Letter, Vol. VI, No.
4. Japanese Agriculture as an Inten
sive System, Compared with the French
Farm System and Expansive Farming
in Iowa.—Saichiro Kita, Waseda Uni
versity, Tokio, Japan.
County Club Bulletins
1. Beaufort County: Economic and
Social. Ten chapters by Messrs. D. D.
Topping, E. W. Clark, Jr., B. L. Sus-
man, E. J. Harris, Jack Warren, Jack
Oden, R. B. Lee, H. C. Harris, J. M.
Taylor, and Miss Lydia Rodman. In
the hands of the printers.
2. Davidson County: Economic and
Social. Two chapters by Mr. O. B.
Michael, Lexington. In manuscript
with other chapters. ‘
3. Gaston County: Economic and
Social. Ten chapters by Messrs. S. H.
Hobbs, Jr., T. J. Brawley, and J. J.
Rhyne. Issued Feburary, 1920.
4. Halifax County: Economic anfi
Social. Ten chapters by Messrs. S. B.
Allen, R. S. Travis, and D. S. Daniel.
In the hands of the printers.
5. Lenior County: Economic and
Social. Ten chapters by Mes^s. Leo
Harvey, A. M. Scarborough, E. Frank
Hooker, R. A. Tillman, Corbett Howard,
and E. B. Mewborne. Almost ready for
6. Pitt County: Economic and Social.
Eleven chapters by Messrs. S. O. Worth
ington, J.V. Perkins, J. S. Moore,M.B.
Prescott, I .M. Little, and S. J. Hus-
keth. In the hands of the printers.
7. Richmond County: Economic and
Social. Two chapters by J. J. Pence.
In manuscript with other chapters.
8. Swain County: Economic and So
cial. By Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Latshaw.
Ready for printers October 1.
9. Union County: Economic and So
cial.. Two chapters by Heath Price.
In manuscript with other chapters.
10. Wayne County: Economic and
Social. Three chapters by P. Hettleman.
In ihanuscript with other chapters.
The North Carolina Club at the Uni
versity during the year just closed gave
detailed attention to a great range and
variety of state problems, following the
lead of the State Reconstruction Com
mission, of which the chairman of the
steering committee of the Club was a
member and the Club president an un
official member. These studies will be
given to the public in early November,
in the 1919-20 Year-Book of the North
TEACH YOUR BOY
William Joseph Peele
Teach your boy to hate shams;
they are walking the highways of
this life “in ghostly affection” of
greatness. Teach him to be content
with nothing less than genuine suc
cess; for as I go further along life’s
pathway, I find it strewn thicker,
and thicker, with the wrecks of men
who were almost successful—just a
little more faith, a little more cour
age, a little more character and all
would have been well.
Teach him to be in love with some
great truth, tenderly to woo it,
bravely to marry it, for better or
for worse, and then faithfully to
guard it as long as life shall last.
Teach him that although we are
poor in North Carolina, we need men
a thousand times more than we need
money, and that we have the mate
rial here to make them out of.
Teach him to be nothing but true,
to fear nothing but God, and to love
nothing but virtue, truth and God.—
From Jqdge Robert W. Winston’s
sketch of William Joseph Peele.
COUNTRY HOME CONVENIENCES
LETTER SERIES No. 27
BANISH BLUE MONDAY—I
A man out in Western Kansas came
into a farm-implement house in- a.- little
town to buy a tractor cultivator. In
showing him around the dealer stopped
in front of a washing machine made
especially for the farm home—one of
the kind into which the wife dumps
the dirty clothes, turns on a switch, and
then sits down to rest her weary bones,
while the machine does the big family
washing a great deal better than she
could ever hope to do it.
“You ought to have one of these ma
chines out at your House,” the dealer
“No, I guess we don’t need that,” the
“Why, who does your washing?”
“My wife does it, of course.”
“For you and the four boys and the
“Yes, she does it.”
“Why don’t you buy one of these and
lighten her work a little?”
“She doesn’t need a newfangle's con
traption like that; she makes out well
I enough as it is. ’ ’
“Say, Jim, how many motor cars
have you got out there on your farm?”
“Well,” Jjm said, as he scratched his
head, “we’ve got the flivver and the big
car and the motor truck.”
“Yes, you’ll spend a thousand dol
lars for a car to get yourself around in
Carolina Club. They are as follows: |
1. Public Education: (1) The County i
Unit System of Public Schools, (2) Or- j leave your wife to wear her fingars
ganization and Administration Prob-1 ^ ^^gj^i^eard. ”
lems; (3) Illiteracy and School Support;
(4) A Building Program; (6) Teachers
and Teacher Training.—H. F. Latshaw,
“But I need those cars in my farming
operations,” the farmer insisted.
Jim Saw the Light
“If you need machines in your farming
operations your wife needs machines in
her household operations: it’s all on the
farm, isn’t it? Isn’t the work in yoar
home as important as the work around
the barn? But you’ll have patent forks
to lift yeur hay, and manure spreaders
to save you work in putting the manure
on the land, and aM those labor saving
devices. ■ You call a washing machine a
newfangled contraption and are con
tent for your wife to break her back
over a washboard that is as old as the
hills. Why don’t you plow with a forked
stick? Why don’t you haul your
stuff to town in a two-wheeled cart with
oxen? Now look here, you might just
as well use those old-fashioned devices
as to ask your wife to be manicuring
her fingers on a washboard while you
are riding a sulky plow.”
I never thought of it in that way be
fore, ” said Jim.
“Of course you didn’t. When shall I
send out the washer? Cash or on
“Send her right off the reel and
here’s the money to pay for it.”
I don’t believe I could preach a better
sermon than to say to every farmer in
America: “Get rid of Blue Monday this
summer.’’—Billy Sunday in the Country
chairman, Macon county; R. B. Spencer,
Orange county; H. B. Simpson, Union
county; W. J. Nichols, Durham county;
0. A. Tuttle, Mecklenburg county; B.
W. Sipe, Gaston county; Mrs. H. F.
Latshaw, Macon county.
2. Public Health Problems: (1) Coun
ty Hospitals; (2) County Health De
partments, Whole-Time Health Officers,
and Public Health Nurses; (3) Health
4 nd Sanitation as Required Studies in
tate-aided Schools.—J. S. Terry, chair
man, Richmond county; Blackwell Mark
ham, Durham county; A. R. Anderson,
3. Transportation Problems: (1) Rail
way Transportation, Inland Waterways,
and Port Facilities; (2) State Highway
Policies; (3) Country Telephone Sys
tems; (4) Motor Truck Freight Lines
and the Country Paroels Post. — P. Het
tleman, chairman, Wayne county, S. 0.
Worthington, Pitt county; B. E. W'eath-
ers, Cleveland county; I. M. Abelkop,
4. Home and Farm Ownership: (1)
The Facts about Our Laadless, Home
less Multitudes; (2) Country Home Com
forts and Conveniences; (3) Construc
tive Policies.—Myron Green, chairman.
Union county; W. R. Kirkman, Guil
ford county; R. R. Hawfield, Union
5. Race Relationships: (1) The Negro
View; (2) The Southern View; (3) De
tached Views.-G. D. Crawford, chair
man, Cornelia, Ga.; A. W.
ley, Guilford county; W. B. Womble,
Wake county; L. J. Phipps, Orange
6. Public Welfare Studies; (1) Child
Welfare; (2) Child Labor; (3) Mill Vil
lage Problems; (4) Jail, State Farm,
and Penitentiary Problems; (5) «iild
Delinquency, and Volunteer Social Al
lies.—T. J. Brawley, chairman, Gaston
THE CITYWARD DRIFT
The first agricultural report upon a
Carolina county in the federal census of
1920 has just come to hand.
It gives us the bare details of the
cityward drift of country populations in
Mitchell county. ' If the reports of the
otfier counties of the state are in any
wise like that of Mitchell, then North
Carolina has a score or more of funda
mental problems to work out, and the
sooner we get at the task the better.
For instance, the improved acres in
Mitchell decreased 41 percent or a little
more than two-fifths between 1910 and
farming; else, instead of 22 million wil
derness acres in North Carolina, we shall
have many more millions of waste
acres, a still larger kingdom of sSenoe
and solitude, fewer country people to
the square mile, and still more exten
sive regions of static and stagnant
Back-to-the-farm is a senseless cry.
Having once moved out of the country,
people rarely, ever move back to the
The sensible thing to do is to bend ev
ery energy toward making country life
livable —efficient and prosperous, satis-
1920; the farms were nearly 38 percent | fyi^ig wholesome for country-
fewer in 1920; nearly a third of the i niinded people who choose to remain on
white farm owners abandoned farming , C'® farm.
as a business; while nearly 59 percent I People who own country property
or nearly three-fifths of the tenants
disappeared out of the country regions
of the county. Corn acreage dropped
44 percent and hay/' acreage 47 percent.
The only increase in crop acreage was
a 70 percent gain in wheat land.
Our feeling is that the population fig
ures of the 1920 census are going to
take the state by surprise. Ten years
ago we were being urbanized more rap
idly than 36 other states of the Union,
and during the last census decade the
both resident farmers and absentee
landlords—will have to solve this prob
lem; or the sooner they sell their farm
lands and get on the safe side of the
the dead line the better.
If we owned farm land in Mitchell
we’d sell it in a hurry; or else get
promptly busy with the problem of bet
ter roads, better schoois and churches,
better equipped country homes, better
farming and better country community
exodus of country people has been tre- a htvt- a v
mendously accelerated. CHRISTIAN IDEAL
This is due to the fact that North The barbarous ideals of power and
, -ji- pleasure as the chief ends of life, which
Carolina is developing her industries j prevailed in pagan antiquity, have been
more rapidly than any ’ other state in j more often triumphant over Christian
the South. Her mill and factory cen-1 ideals in our culture than most Chris-
Sta- ^ ters are multiplying amazingly in num- i are "'illing to admit; for the trans-
, -11 ■ 1 • ition from barbarism to civilization is
her and growing equally amazingly in fj-om complete.
size. Also to the further fact that dur- Nevertheless, it is fair to say that -for
ing the last five years negroes and ! the last two thousand years we Have wit-
wage-earners have been swarming in 1 nessed among European peoples the
thousands out of North Carolina into j Christian ideals of life have been
the industrial centers of the North and | the chief mediators of the process.
West. Moreover our 77,000 boys who i though now having many auxiliaries in
went into the camps at home and the | science, industry, government and edu-
armies overseas were country boys for
If social progress continues, it is evi
dent that the Christian ideal of a
social life based up^ love, with
resulting justice, peace and good
will between individuals; classes, na-
county TTT. civ. w...,5 r. tions, and races, must be realized,
7 Oriranized Business and Life: (1) be produced this year by something like for there is no other pathway open to
Corporate Organization; (2) Cooperative ! two-thirds of our customary farm force, human society unless it turns back
^ (3) Civic Organization.— I The cotton and tobacco counties have
’ held their farm labor better than the
county C T Boyd, Gaston county; H. j for the most part, and they are not go-
G Kincaid Gaston county; R. E. Boyd, 1 ing back to the farm in any large num-
Gaston county; W. H. Bobbitt, Iredell hers, in this or any other state.
We are estimating that our crops will
J. V. Baggett, chairman, Sampson ,
county; C. T. Taylor, Wayne county; ■
W. E. Price, Rockingham county. i
8. Civic Reforms, State and Local:
(1) State and County Budgets and a
State Budget Bureau; (2) Consolidation
of Stair Boards; (3) The Australian
Ballot- (41 Our State Primary Laws;.
(5) UnifiU County Government; (6)
Uniform County Accounting and Re-
and State-Wide Auditing ot
SffRlirfs)’ The^To^rnXplcI?: ^ rapidly readjusted to a decreasing farm ttlTa^^adl 1?sfon o/
cal beii-n.uie, V Community labor supply. Either our farms must be our barbarous past. The Christian ideal
increased in average size and human
labor reinforced by horse and machine
power, or our uncultivated lands must be
converted into pastures for livestock
grain, hay and forage counties. The
chances are that the tidewater and the
mountain counties will show very small
increases in country population or posi
tive decreases in a surprising number of
All of which means that farm activi
ties in North Carolina will need to be
to barbarism. All other ideals have
been tried and have proved failures.
This is why the genuine Christian sees
in Christianity purified from its pagan
dross and applied to the social life of
man the hope of the world.
But he sees, too, that the world can
not remain any longer half-pagan and
half-Christian; that it must become all
one or all the other; that we are even
now at the parting of the ways. But
he does not doubt the ultimate triumph
of the Christian ideal of peace and
brotherhood among men; for if it be a
dream it is a dream
iervicTBule^’.-^M. M. Jermgan chair
man, Sampson county ; W. D. Hams,
Lee county; Charles Nichols, Transyl
vania county; T. J. Wilson, Forsyth
of life is man’s dream, his vision, of his
social destiny. And thus far the dreams
of humanity, if dreamed long enough,
have always come true!—Dr. Charles A.
Ellwood, in The Arbitrator.