The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, September 15, 1920, Image 1
The riews m thw publica- is released tof the press on »p(. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published weekly by the University of North Carolina for its Bureau of Extension. >TEMBER 15,1920 CHAPEL HHX, N. C. VUL VI, NO. 43 h IraAl Board j G. Branson. Li, B. Wilson. E. W, Knij'ht, D. D. Carrol!, J. B. Bullitt. Entered as second-class matter November 14, 1914, at the Post-oftlce at Chapel Hill, N* 0., under the act of Anffuso 24, 1914 AROLINA: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CAROLINA STUDIES iring the college year just closed following studies of the state have L made by various students in the irtmont of Rural Social Science in University of North Carolina. In 1 study the facts for each county worked out and the counties of the e ranked accordingly from high to or for each state and the state sed accordingly. How Our Counties Ranh Surplus and Dependent Counties in rth Carolina in 1918.—W. N. Poin ter, Fsrsyth county. University ws Letter, Vol. VI, No. 29. . Per Capita Taxable Wealth in 1917. *. P. Purrington, Halifax county, iversity News Latter, Vol. VI, No. 38. ;. Total Taxable Wealth in Carolina unties in 1917.-P. P. Purrington, ilifax county. I. State and County Tax Rates in .7.—Rufus Hunter, Wake county. i. Prefessional Taxes in North Caro- a in 1917.—Rufus Hunter, Wake unty. 6. Local School Tax Districts in North irolina, 1917-18.-F. L. Townsend, Jr., aston county. 7. Local School Tax Rate per $1,000 ^ Taxables, 1917-18.-J. M. Taylor, eaufort county. 8. White School Property, per Capita ivestments, 1917-18.-S. G. Jenkins, dgecombe county. 9. ftsral School Property, Total In- jstments, Norjih Carolina, 1917-18. S. . Jenkins, Edgecombe county. 10. School Expenditures per $1,000 of axable Property, 1917-18.—C. 0. H. augkinghouse, Pitt county. II. Local School Tax District Reve- aes, 1917-18.-C. 0. H. Laughinghouse, itt county. 12. Rurai School Buildings and Sup- lies, Total Expenditures, 1917-18.—W. | . McMullao, Pasquotank county. 13. Average Annual Salaries Paid fhite Commpn-School Teachers, 1917- 3.-S. H. Hobbs, Jr., Sampson county, niversity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. ). 14. Negw) Teachers’ Average Annual ala^es, 1917-18.-W. 0. McMullan, asquotank county. 16. Consolidated Schools—Percent of :ural White Schools Having Two or [ore Teachers, 1917-18.-F. L. Town- 3nd, Jr., Gaston county. 16. ^hool Attendance Percents, t^hite, 1917-18.-El f*. Hooker, Lenoir ounty. 17. School Ajitendance on Enrollment, 917-18.—F. L. Townsend, Jr., Gaston ounty. 18. School Equipment—White Schools ?ith Paftent Desks, 1917-18.—E. F. looker, Lenoir county. 19. Birth and Death Rates, 1917.—B. V. Sipe, Gaston county. 30. Tobacco Production, 1919.—I. D. .'horpe, Nash county- 21. Tobacco Culture in North Caro- ina, 1909-1919.-D. C. Sinclair, Jr., "Jew Hanover county. 22. Cotton Production, 1919.—G. W. rhompson, Wayne coui>ty. 23. Corn Production, 1919.—J. E. Jrayton, Mecklenburg county. 24. Wheat Prod^iction, 1919.—G. W. Thompson, Wayne county. 25. Hay Production, 1919.—J. E. Jrayton, Mecklenburg county. 26. Sweet Potato Production, 1919.— Mi»s Marie Edgerton, Guilford county. 27. Irish Potato Production, 1919.— Miss Marie Edgerton, Guilford county. 28. Carolina Tidewater Country.— W. A. Blount, Beaufort county. How Carolina Ranks In the following stu(4es North Caro lina is [Tanked in important matters with the other states of the Union. 1. Per Capita Cost of State Govern ments in 1918.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Uni versity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 9. 2. State Expenditures for Public Ed ucation.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 10. 3. |Pederal Income and Excess Profit Tables.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 11. 4. Total Crop Values in 1919.—Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 13. 5. Crop Wealth per Inhabitant in liH.9.—Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 14. 6. Crop Values per Farm Worker.— Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 18. 7. Automobiles in the United States, 1919.—S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 15. 8. Motor Trucks for Farm Uses.— Federal Weekly News Letter. Univer sity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 16. 9. Factory Products in the United States, 1914.—University News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 19. 10. Gross Crop Values per Acre in 1919. —Miss Henrietta R. Smedes. Idem, Vol. VI, No. 25. 11. State Uiiversity Support.—Uni versity News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 30. 12. State University Plants.-Idem, Vol. VI, No. 31. 13. Hospital Facilities in the United States in 1919.—Idem, Vol. VJ, No. 33. 14. Doctors in the United States in 1919. —Idem, Vol. VI, No. 34. 15. American Railroad Mileage in 1920. —Idem, Vol. VI, No. 35. 16. New Railroad Trackage, 1910-20. —Idem, Vol. VI, No. 36. 17. Potential Water Power in the United States.—H. Price, Union county. 18. Taxable and True Wetflth in the United States, 1918.—F. L. Townsend, Jr., Gaston county. 19. Fire Losses in the United States, 1918.—Miss Marie Edgerton, Guilford county. Special Studies 1. Church Membership and Sunday- School Enrollment in North Carolina, by Denominations.—J. M. Taylor, Beau fort county. 2. Personal Income Taxpayers in North Carolina, by Classes, in 1917.— S. H. Hobbs, Jr. University News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 17. 3. Carolina Agriculture, 1850-1920.— University News Letter, Vol. VI, No. 21. 4. Japanese Agriculture as an Inten sive System, Compared with the French Farm System and Expansive Farming in Iowa.—Saichiro Kita, Waseda Uni versity, Tokio, Japan. County Club Bulletins 1. Beaufort County: Economic and Social. Ten chapters by Messrs. D. D. Topping, E. W. Clark, Jr., B. L. Sus- man, E. J. Harris, Jack Warren, Jack Oden, R. B. Lee, H. C. Harris, J. M. Taylor, and Miss Lydia Rodman. In the hands of the printers. 2. Davidson County: Economic and Social. Two chapters by Mr. O. B. Michael, Lexington. In manuscript with other chapters. ‘ 3. Gaston County: Economic and Social. Ten chapters by Messrs. S. H. Hobbs, Jr., T. J. Brawley, and J. J. Rhyne. Issued Feburary, 1920. 4. Halifax County: Economic anfi Social. Ten chapters by Messrs. S. B. Allen, R. S. Travis, and D. S. Daniel. In the hands of the printers. 5. Lenior County: Economic and Social. Ten chapters by Mes^s. Leo Harvey, A. M. Scarborough, E. Frank Hooker, R. A. Tillman, Corbett Howard, and E. B. Mewborne. Almost ready for the printers. 6. Pitt County: Economic and Social. Eleven chapters by Messrs. S. O. Worth ington, J.V. Perkins, J. S. Moore,M.B. Prescott, I .M. Little, and S. J. Hus- keth. In the hands of the printers. 7. Richmond County: Economic and Social. Two chapters by J. J. Pence. In manuscript with other chapters. 8. Swain County: Economic and So cial. By Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Latshaw. Ready for printers October 1. 9. Union County: Economic and So cial.. Two chapters by Heath Price. In manuscript with other chapters. 10. Wayne County: Economic and Social. Three chapters by P. Hettleman. In ihanuscript with other chapters. Reconstruction Studies The North Carolina Club at the Uni versity during the year just closed gave detailed attention to a great range and variety of state problems, following the lead of the State Reconstruction Com mission, of which the chairman of the steering committee of the Club was a member and the Club president an un official member. These studies will be given to the public in early November, in the 1919-20 Year-Book of the North TEACH YOUR BOY William Joseph Peele Teach your boy to hate shams; they are walking the highways of this life “in ghostly affection” of greatness. Teach him to be content with nothing less than genuine suc cess; for as I go further along life’s pathway, I find it strewn thicker, and thicker, with the wrecks of men who were almost successful—just a little more faith, a little more cour age, a little more character and all would have been well. Teach him to be in love with some great truth, tenderly to woo it, bravely to marry it, for better or for worse, and then faithfully to guard it as long as life shall last. Teach him that although we are poor in North Carolina, we need men a thousand times more than we need money, and that we have the mate rial here to make them out of. Teach him to be nothing but true, to fear nothing but God, and to love nothing but virtue, truth and God.— From Jqdge Robert W. Winston’s sketch of William Joseph Peele. COUNTRY HOME CONVENIENCES LETTER SERIES No. 27 BANISH BLUE MONDAY—I A man out in Western Kansas came into a farm-implement house in- a.- little town to buy a tractor cultivator. In showing him around the dealer stopped in front of a washing machine made especially for the farm home—one of the kind into which the wife dumps the dirty clothes, turns on a switch, and then sits down to rest her weary bones, while the machine does the big family washing a great deal better than she could ever hope to do it. “You ought to have one of these ma chines out at your House,” the dealer said. “No, I guess we don’t need that,” the farmer said. “Why, who does your washing?” “My wife does it, of course.” “For you and the four boys and the hired man?” “Yes, she does it.” “Why don’t you buy one of these and lighten her work a little?” “She doesn’t need a newfangle's con traption like that; she makes out well I enough as it is. ’ ’ “Say, Jim, how many motor cars have you got out there on your farm?” “Well,” Jjm said, as he scratched his head, “we’ve got the flivver and the big car and the motor truck.” “Yes, you’ll spend a thousand dol lars for a car to get yourself around in Carolina Club. They are as follows: | 1. Public Education: (1) The County i Unit System of Public Schools, (2) Or- j leave your wife to wear her fingars ganization and Administration Prob-1 ^ ^^gj^i^eard. ” lems; (3) Illiteracy and School Support; (4) A Building Program; (6) Teachers and Teacher Training.—H. F. Latshaw, “But I need those cars in my farming operations,” the farmer insisted. Jim Saw the Light “If you need machines in your farming operations your wife needs machines in her household operations: it’s all on the farm, isn’t it? Isn’t the work in yoar home as important as the work around the barn? But you’ll have patent forks to lift yeur hay, and manure spreaders to save you work in putting the manure on the land, and aM those labor saving devices. ■ You call a washing machine a newfangled contraption and are con tent for your wife to break her back over a washboard that is as old as the hills. Why don’t you plow with a forked stick? Why don’t you haul your stuff to town in a two-wheeled cart with oxen? Now look here, you might just as well use those old-fashioned devices as to ask your wife to be manicuring her fingers on a washboard while you are riding a sulky plow.” I never thought of it in that way be fore, ” said Jim. “Of course you didn’t. When shall I send out the washer? Cash or on time?” “Send her right off the reel and here’s the money to pay for it.” I don’t believe I could preach a better sermon than to say to every farmer in America: “Get rid of Blue Monday this summer.’’—Billy Sunday in the Country Gentleman. chairman, Macon county; R. B. Spencer, Orange county; H. B. Simpson, Union county; W. J. Nichols, Durham county; 0. A. Tuttle, Mecklenburg county; B. W. Sipe, Gaston county; Mrs. H. F. Latshaw, Macon county. 2. Public Health Problems: (1) Coun ty Hospitals; (2) County Health De partments, Whole-Time Health Officers, and Public Health Nurses; (3) Health 4 nd Sanitation as Required Studies in tate-aided Schools.—J. S. Terry, chair man, Richmond county; Blackwell Mark ham, Durham county; A. R. Anderson, Iredell county. 3. Transportation Problems: (1) Rail way Transportation, Inland Waterways, and Port Facilities; (2) State Highway Policies; (3) Country Telephone Sys tems; (4) Motor Truck Freight Lines and the Country Paroels Post. — P. Het tleman, chairman, Wayne county, S. 0. Worthington, Pitt county; B. E. W'eath- ers, Cleveland county; I. M. Abelkop, Durham county. 4. Home and Farm Ownership: (1) The Facts about Our Laadless, Home less Multitudes; (2) Country Home Com forts and Conveniences; (3) Construc tive Policies.—Myron Green, chairman. Union county; W. R. Kirkman, Guil ford county; R. R. Hawfield, Union county. 5. Race Relationships: (1) The Negro View; (2) The Southern View; (3) De tached Views.-G. D. Crawford, chair man, Cornelia, Ga.; A. W. ley, Guilford county; W. B. Womble, Wake county; L. J. Phipps, Orange county. 6. Public Welfare Studies; (1) Child Welfare; (2) Child Labor; (3) Mill Vil lage Problems; (4) Jail, State Farm, and Penitentiary Problems; (5) «iild Delinquency, and Volunteer Social Al lies.—T. J. Brawley, chairman, Gaston THE CITYWARD DRIFT The first agricultural report upon a Carolina county in the federal census of 1920 has just come to hand. It gives us the bare details of the cityward drift of country populations in Mitchell county. ' If the reports of the otfier counties of the state are in any wise like that of Mitchell, then North Carolina has a score or more of funda mental problems to work out, and the sooner we get at the task the better. For instance, the improved acres in Mitchell decreased 41 percent or a little more than two-fifths between 1910 and farming; else, instead of 22 million wil derness acres in North Carolina, we shall have many more millions of waste acres, a still larger kingdom of sSenoe and solitude, fewer country people to the square mile, and still more exten sive regions of static and stagnant country life. Back-to-the-farm is a senseless cry. Having once moved out of the country, people rarely, ever move back to the farm. The sensible thing to do is to bend ev ery energy toward making country life livable —efficient and prosperous, satis- 1920; the farms were nearly 38 percent | fyi^ig wholesome for country- fewer in 1920; nearly a third of the i niinded people who choose to remain on white farm owners abandoned farming , C'® farm. as a business; while nearly 59 percent I People who own country property or nearly three-fifths of the tenants disappeared out of the country regions of the county. Corn acreage dropped 44 percent and hay/' acreage 47 percent. The only increase in crop acreage was a 70 percent gain in wheat land. Our feeling is that the population fig ures of the 1920 census are going to take the state by surprise. Ten years ago we were being urbanized more rap idly than 36 other states of the Union, and during the last census decade the both resident farmers and absentee landlords—will have to solve this prob lem; or the sooner they sell their farm lands and get on the safe side of the the dead line the better. If we owned farm land in Mitchell we’d sell it in a hurry; or else get promptly busy with the problem of bet ter roads, better schoois and churches, better equipped country homes, better farming and better country community life. exodus of country people has been tre- a htvt- a v mendously accelerated. CHRISTIAN IDEAL This is due to the fact that North The barbarous ideals of power and , -ji- pleasure as the chief ends of life, which Carolina is developing her industries j prevailed in pagan antiquity, have been more rapidly than any ’ other state in j more often triumphant over Christian the South. Her mill and factory cen-1 ideals in our culture than most Chris- Sta- ^ ters are multiplying amazingly in num- i are "'illing to admit; for the trans- , -11 ■ 1 • ition from barbarism to civilization is her and growing equally amazingly in fj-om complete. size. Also to the further fact that dur- Nevertheless, it is fair to say that -for ing the last five years negroes and ! the last two thousand years we Have wit- wage-earners have been swarming in 1 nessed among European peoples the thousands out of North Carolina into j Christian ideals of life have been the industrial centers of the North and | the chief mediators of the process. West. Moreover our 77,000 boys who i though now having many auxiliaries in went into the camps at home and the | science, industry, government and edu- armies overseas were country boys for cation. If social progress continues, it is evi dent that the Christian ideal of a social life based up^ love, with resulting justice, peace and good will between individuals; classes, na- county TTT. civ. w...,5 r. tions, and races, must be realized, 7 Oriranized Business and Life: (1) be produced this year by something like for there is no other pathway open to Corporate Organization; (2) Cooperative ! two-thirds of our customary farm force, human society unless it turns back ^ (3) Civic Organization.— I The cotton and tobacco counties have ’ held their farm labor better than the county C T Boyd, Gaston county; H. j for the most part, and they are not go- G Kincaid Gaston county; R. E. Boyd, 1 ing back to the farm in any large num- Gaston county; W. H. Bobbitt, Iredell hers, in this or any other state. We are estimating that our crops will and Organization; J. V. Baggett, chairman, Sampson , county; C. T. Taylor, Wayne county; ■ W. E. Price, Rockingham county. i 8. Civic Reforms, State and Local: (1) State and County Budgets and a State Budget Bureau; (2) Consolidation of Stair Boards; (3) The Australian Ballot- (41 Our State Primary Laws;. (5) UnifiU County Government; (6) Uniform County Accounting and Re- and State-Wide Auditing ot SffRlirfs)’ The^To^rnXplcI?: ^ rapidly readjusted to a decreasing farm ttlTa^^adl 1?sfon o/ cal beii-n.uie, V Community labor supply. Either our farms must be our barbarous past. The Christian ideal increased in average size and human labor reinforced by horse and machine power, or our uncultivated lands must be converted into pastures for livestock grain, hay and forage counties. The chances are that the tidewater and the mountain counties will show very small increases in country population or posi tive decreases in a surprising number of instances. Hobson’s Choice All of which means that farm activi ties in North Carolina will need to be to barbarism. All other ideals have been tried and have proved failures. This is why the genuine Christian sees in Christianity purified from its pagan dross and applied to the social life of man the hope of the world. But he sees, too, that the world can not remain any longer half-pagan and half-Christian; that it must become all one or all the other; that we are even now at the parting of the ways. But he does not doubt the ultimate triumph of the Christian ideal of peace and brotherhood among men; for if it be a dream it is a dream iervicTBule^’.-^M. M. Jermgan chair man, Sampson county ; W. D. Hams, Lee county; Charles Nichols, Transyl vania county; T. J. Wilson, Forsyth county. of life is man’s dream, his vision, of his social destiny. And thus far the dreams of humanity, if dreamed long enough, have always come true!—Dr. Charles A. Ellwood, in The Arbitrator.