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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROUNA
Published Weekly by the
University of North Caro
lina for its Bureau of Ex
CHAPEL HnJ., N. a
VOL. Vn, NO. 22
Editorial Board i E- C. Branson, L. R. Wilson, E. W. Knight, D. D. Carroll, J. B. Bullitt.
Entered as second-class matter November 14,1914, at the Postofflce at Chapel Hill, N. C ., under the act of August 24,1912.
BURDEN OF FEDERAL WAR TAXES
At Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the
seat of the State University, a tiny
newspaper is published each week. The
name of this little organ is The Uni
versity News Letter. It is a great lit
tle paper, having as its editors some of
the state’s best thinkers and scholars.
About one-eighth of each issue of this
paper is printed under the caption.
Country Home Conveniences. Week
in and week out it spreads and re
spreads the splendid propaganda of
home improvement. Another note
worthy fact about the little paper is
that it enjoys a wide circulation and is
sometimes quoted by so notable a con
temporary as The Literary Digest.
Country homes can be equipped with
modern conveniences. The University
News Letter says so, and several John
ston county farmers have demonstrated
the fact beyond the stage of theory.
One day last week I stood in a Johnston
county farmer’s field and admired it for
the many signs of improvement that I
saw. The surface was rolling and the
soil was sandy, but a perfectly arranged
system of dykes had made of it a field
with just enough tilt to give it good
drainage. Barnyard manure and leg-
umfes had put new life back into the
soil that was once so leached that it
would scarcely sprout a cowpea. In a
near-by lot I saw a sleek Jersey cow,
and about under orchard trees I counted
some fifty hives of Italian bees, all
housed in painted, patented hives. We
approached the house and one of my
observations was a Delco Electric En
gine busy filling a reservoir. It was
near the hour of nightfall, and as night
came on I saw the house suddenly lighted
by a switch of electricity. I was cor
dially invited to partake of a supper of
buttermilk, but an odor of frying ham
from the kitchen told of other things
The owner of this farm modestly
stated that he came there as a tenant
farmer some ten years ago. He stated
also that he thought his home was as
well equipped as the best equipped
homes in Smithfield, his home being
equipped with a sanitary sewerage sys
tem with septic tank. Safely made in
vestments and carefully supervised
work on the farm are. he thinks, about
all the secret there is to the'whole bus
iness of fitting up the country home
with all the comforts and conveniences
of the city home.
In this work the farmers will find
much help from the University News
Letter, and it is free to all who
invest a request for it. —H. V.
The Smithfield Herald.
LENOIR RANKS LOW
Lenoir county had $68 per inhabitant
invested in automobiles in December
1920, but only $6 per inhabitant invested
in public school property. Only four
teen counties made a better showing in
automobiles but seventy-five counties
made a better showing in public school
Here are the correct figures and they
are published to correct the mistake in
The University News Letter of Fabru-
ary 23rd, 1921. The mistake in the table
was due to the error of a transcribing
clerk in the office of the State Superin
tendent of Public Instruction. The to
tal investment in public school property
in Lenoir is $160,500. The clerk by
mistake wrote $630,000 as the total
value of public school property. The
correct figures leave Lenoir county
with a high rank in automobiles, but
drop her to very low rank in public
Remember that the per capita invest
ment in public school property in Lenoir
is $5 and not $20 as published in the
University News Letter.
The largest hosiery mills in the world
are in North Carolina—Durham Hosiery
The largest towel mills in the world
are in North Carolina—Cannon Manu
facturing Company, Kannapolis.
The largest denim mills in the coun
try are in North Carolina—Proximity
Manufacturing Company, Greensboro.
■The largest damask mills in the coun
try are in North Carolina—Rosemary,
Manufacturing Company, Roanoke
The greatest underwear factory in
the country is in North Carolina—Hanes
I Knitting Company, Winston-Salem.
Gastonia is the center of the fine
combed yarn industry of the South.
North Carolina embraces more mills
that dye and finish their own product
than any other Southern State.
North Carolina leads the entire South
in the knitting industry.
There are 513 textile mills in North
Carolina, as compared with 180 in South
Carolina and 173 in Georgia. North
Carolina mills are equipped with 6,321,-
460 spindles, as compared with 5,038,988
in South Carolina and 2,706,022 in Geor
Three-fourths of all the new spindles
and looms set up in the South in 1920
were set up in North Carolina alone.—
News and Observer.
Henry W. Longfellow
Were half the power that fills
world with terror.
Were half the wealth bestowed on
camps and courts,
Given to redeem the human mind
There were no need of arsenals
The warrior’s name would be a name
And every nation that should lift
Its hand against a brother, on its
Would wear forevermore the curse
Down the dark future, through long
The echoing sounds grow fainter
and then cease;
And like a bell, with solemn, sweet
I hear once more the voice of
Christ say. Peace!
Peace! and no longer from its brazen
The blast of War’s great organ
shakes the skies!
But beautiful as songs of the immor
The holy melodies of love arise.
COUNTRY HOME CONVENIENCES
LETTER SERIES No. 49
A GOOD INVESTMENT
and the like; for conservation and de
velopment in general.
Less than one cent of every dollar,
goes for agricultural education and pro
In other words, but for past wars and
preparation for future wars, our gov
ernment could be run for about seven
percent of what we are now paying—
for $3.86 cents per inhabitant instead
We can stand this burden perhaps
longer than any other country in
Christendom. The Old World countries
are about to collapse under their burden
of war debt and current war expendi
tures. J. Ellis Barker, the distinguish
ed English economist, sees nothing but
inevitable bankruptcy for Europe on
There can be no peace on earth to
men of good will so long as our civiliza
tion is based on war and preparations
Billions spent for war! The end is
bankruptcy, inescapable bankruptcy for
Europe, and almost as certainly for
THE NATION’S BULWARK
The bulwark of the nation is educa
It is a financial investment that yields
the highest dividends.
It results in safe and sane citizen
It increases the ability and desire to
It adds to the'appreciation and hap
piness of life.
It multiplies the chances
With no schooling the child has only
one chance in 150,000 of rendering dis
With elementary schooling the child
has four time the chance of the one
With high-school education he has 87
times the chance.
With a college education he has 800
times the chance.
Fewer than 1 per cent of Americans
are college graduates, yet this 1 per
cent has furnished—
Fifty-five per cent of our Presidents.
Fifty-four per cent of our Vice-Presi
Forty-seven per cent of our Speakers
of the House.
Thirty-six per cent of our members
Sixty-one per cent of our Secretaries
Sixty-seven per cent of our Attorneys
Sixty-nine per cent of our judges of
the Supreme Court.—Wisconsin Educa
tional News Bulletin.
THE PRICE OF WAR
The nations of the world are not like
ly to do anything with the problem of
disarmament until the masses begin to
have some acute realization of the
terrific money cost of war. And it looks
plainer than a pikestaff that western
civilization will either disarm or go in
to bankruptcy. How could it be other
The federal income of the United
States was last year close to six billion
dollars. Directly and indirectly the
federal government levies a tax upon
the people of the United States of
nearly fifty-four dollars per inhabitant,
counting men, women, and children; or
nearly two hundred and seventy dollars
a year per family. For the most part
this federal tax burden is paid indirect
ly, in small amounts, a few cents at a
time; but, all in all, it is paid, and the
total approaches three hundred dollars
a year per family.
Nearly sixty-eight percent of our
federal income is spent for interest on
war debt. Twenty-five percent of it
goes for current military expenditures,
army and navy.
Which is to say, ninety-three percent
of all our federal taxes are on acconnt
of past or future wars.
Only six percent of the total goes for
government functions the salaries of
federal office holders from the president
down, and for public works—public
buildings, harbor improvements, good
roads, and so on. And only one percent
—one cent in every dollar of federal ex
penditures—goes for education, health,
research, agriculture, forest protection.
JACKSON COUNTY PROGRESS
The year starts well for the develop
ment of resources in Jackson County.
At a cost of $95,000 Sylva has just
completed a water system that taps the
head of Fisher Creek close to the sum
mit of one of the highest peaks of the
Balsam range. The Tuckaseigee and
Southern Railway is extending its lum
ber and common carrier line from the
county seat to Cullowhee and the end
of the year is expected to see the road
enter this school center of the counties
west of Asheville. Work has begun on
the Jackson County Highway from Syl
va to the South Carolina line, passing
through Cashiers Valley where it will
intersect the road to Lake Toxaway and
Brevard by way of Fairfield. Through
the Scot’s Creek section Jackson is ex
tending another link of the Asheville.
Murphy highway. It'will also be wel
come information to travelers in all the
mountain section that the State Highway
Commission is expected to let a contract
soon for the completion of the road be
tween Sylva and Addie, thus affording an
improved road from Sylva to Asheville
The close of the road-building season
will probably also see the finishing of a
road up Savannah Creek to the Macon
County line, a thoroughfare that has
been a trial to man and beast since
Jackson is rich in minerals, timber
and grazing lands. Only the lack of
roads has kept Jackson from being one
of the richest counties in the State in
agricultural and manufactured wealth.
And now, with good roads and a freight
and passenger carrier railway penetrat
ing sections where almost virgin re
sources await development, the future
looks very promising for the people of
jackson.—The Asheville Citizen.
THE COST OF ELECTRICITY
Electric light and power on the farm
are very cheap. The average farm
home uses only five cents’ or ten cents’
worth of electricity in a day.
One cent’s worth of electricity will
do any one of these things;
Light a large reading lamp for 6 hours.
Light an ordinary fixture in the kit
chen, bathroom or bedroom for 8 hours.
Light an electric lamp in the barn for
Pump 225 gallons of water,
» Run a 9-inch fan for 5 hours.
Run a washing machine for 40 min
Heat an electric iron for 22 minutes,
Run a sewing machine for 2 hours.
Run a milking machine for 1-4 hour.
Run a churn for 1 hour,
Run a separator for 1 hour.
Run a grindstone for 1 hour.
Run a fanning mill for 1 hour.
Run a corn sheller for 1 hour.
Run a vacuum sweeper for 1 hour.
Saving with Electricity
Electric light and power for the farm
are not only cheap, but actually save
time and money. On many farms where
electric light and power are used the
following amounts of time and money
are saved each week.
Cleaning and trimming lamps 3 hrs.
Operating cream separator - 1 hr.
Operating washing machine 3 hrs.
Operating grindstone 1-2 hr.
Pumping water. 5 hrs.
THE METHODIST CAMPAIGN
The Southern Methodist Church has
undertaken this year an extensive
movement in the interest of its high
schools, colleges and universities, the
Christian Education Movement, the
every-member canvass of which is set
for the week of May 29 to June 6.
The five special objects in view are
as follows; To develop in the mind of
the church an adequate conception of
the place of Christian education in the
life of the church, the nation and the
world; to promote the cause of Chris
tian education by tying the home, the
Sunday school and the Christian college
more sincerely together; to lead at least
6,000 young men and women to pledge
themselves for whole-time religious
service; to deepen the moral and spirit
ual life of Methodists and promote the
spirit of Christian liberality; and to
raise for Methodist schools, colleges,
and universities thirty-three million dol
The North Carolina Conference has
set out to raise $1,322,500, and the
Western Conference $1,607,000, a total
for North Carolina Methodists oi
Rev. H. M. North, Raleigh, is educa
tional secretary of the North Carolina
Conference and Wade Marr director
and Rev. T. F. Marr is secretary of the
Western Conference and Mr. Norwood
director. —Susan Iden, Publicity Di
Operating fanning mill 1-2 hr.
Using electric iron 1 hr.
Total time saved 14 hrs.
An hour of labor on the farm is worth
at least 40 cents. So the 14 hours
saved by electric light and power are
worth 14 times 40, or $5.60 per week.
This means a saving of $291.20 per
An electric vacuum sweeper saves
some time too by making the sweeping
a quicker and easier job. This saving
might be added to the time given above.
—The A. B. C. of Electricity for the
We doubt if any public question of
today is more generally misunderstood
than the proposal of the War Finance
Corporation to finance the export of
cotton to Central Europe.
In the fall of 1919, six months before
the War Finance Board considered such
an enterprise, cotton exporters in the
United States were endeavoring to de
vise means for placing cotton in Cen
tral European countries on a credit or.
consignment basis, in order to meet the
inability of the European buyer to pay
cash. The results from such efforts
were negligible because it was neces
sary for the American exporter to re
tain title to goods shipped to countries
with whom the United States was at
war, which goods might be confiscated
or otherwise disposed of without any
protection to the American owner.
In the spring of 1920 the War Fi
nance Board, under the authority
granted by Congress, attempted to ad
vance credits to American^exporters in
order to enable them to place cotton in
In our Letter Series No. 47 in the Un
iversity News Letter of April 6, 1921, a
typographical error occurred in the sec
ond paragraph, the omission of a whole
sentence making the paragraph convey
a wrong meaning. The paragraph
‘ ‘If you went to a horse sale and were
picking out a horse, what is the first
thing you would do? Quite simple, isn’t
it? You would look at his mouth and
tell by the inspection of his teeth how
old he is. This will give an indication
of the number of useful years of work
that can be expected of him, or in other
words his reliability. The same is true
in selecting a lighting plant. An old
horse is very much like a poor lighting
plant. It does all right while it is go
ing but its life is short.”
Europe and thereby make a market for
it. It was contemplated that the sur
plus cotton in the United States could
be disposed of in this way. After ex
tended effort on the part of the War
Finance Board, it financed exports to
the amount of about $10,000,000, which,
based on the market price at that time,
meant the sale of about 50,000 bales,
and the bulk of this would probably
have been sold without the assistance
of the War Finance Board. We doubt if
the efforts of the present War Finance
Board will have any greater success
than those in the past.
The reason is not difficult to ascertain;
The United States government does not
propose to finance the buyer in Europe,
because it has no authority under the
law to do so, and, further, because it
would have no assurance of the Euro
pean buyer meeting his obligation. It
can only finance the American exporter
and the American exporter takes all
the risk of confiscation, destruction by
revolution, and other contingencies both
as to the safety of the cotton and the
security of the payment of the purchase
price. We are still at war with Central
Europe and the American exporter has
no protection from confiscation or other
dangers confronting such a hazardous
business, and will undertake it only
with the greatest caution and in a lim
The seat of the whole trouble is large
ly the inability of the European custom
er to pay. If the cotton is sold in
Germany it must be sold for, marks.
Marks were worth twenty-four cents
before the war. They are now worth
about one and one-half cents, or one-
fifteenth of the pre-war price in dollars.
Therefore, comparatively speaking, if
cotton can be placed in Europe after
paying freight, insurance, commissions,
etc., at twenty cents per pound, it will
cost the German buyer about fifteen
times that amount or $3.00 per pound.
It is clear that a great amount of cot
ton can not be sold in Europe under
those conditions. Marks must be en
hanced in value, peace must be restored,
and the purchaser in Europe must be
able to pay before either^ the govern
ment of the United Statesjor the Amer
ican exporter can deliver any great
quantity of cotton in Europe.
This is the plain situation which con
fronts the Southern cotton grower, and
should be sufficiently persuasive to in
duce him to plant more of something
to eat and less of something^for pauper
ized European customers to wear.—
Wilmington Morning Star,'^