The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, February 14, 1923, Image 1
The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published Weekly by th» University of North Caro lina Press for the Univer sity Extension Division. FEBRUARY 14, 1923 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. VOL. IX, NO. 13 Bdiiorial Bcardt E. C. Branson. S. H. Hobbs. Jr., L. R. Wilson. E. W.» Knight. D. D. Carroll, J. B. Bullitt. H. W. Odum, Entered as second-class matter Novemberl4, 1914, atlthe Poatoffice at Chapel Hill, N. C. under the act of August 24, 1912 THE EMPIRE STATE OF THE SOUTH HOW CAROLINA RANKS North Carolina is attracting more attention throughout the Nation than any other Southern state. Few states are more in the limelight today than is the Tar Heel State. News papers everywhere are calling her the Empire State of the South. And she is the Empire State of the southeast ern third of the United States. Like New, York, the Empire State of the Union, North Carolina is a great agri cultural state. Like New York she is a great manufacturing state. In al most every particular she is the leading manufacturing state of the South. Like New York she possesses an enormous amount of water power, both developed and undeveloped. In many respects she is more favored than the Empire State. In the variety of her soils and seasons, in the mildness of her climate, in the homogeneity of her population and the varied beauty of her landscape North Carolina stands almost alone. The writer recently had occasion to take a three thousand mile trip, and everywhere, on the Pullman cars, in the hotels, at meetings of various national bodies, he heard the state of North Carolina discussed. The state has received an enormous amount of advertising from various sources. It . is likely that our vast expenditures on good roads and schools have given us enough favorable publicity to repay the cost. One southern paper stated that North Carolina had spent fifty- five million dollars on roads and had gotten seventy-five million dollars' worth of national publicity. Twenty years ago a Tar Heel away from home kept the state of his nativity a secret. Today he is proud of his homeland, and people who meet him are anxious to hear about the marvelous achievements of the southern giant that has awaken ed to his vast powers, has taken stock of himself, and has decided to de velop to full maturity his wonderful possibilities. Mr. Seavey in The New York Times says: If ever a common wealth went head over heels, wholesale and retail, latitudinally and longitudi nally, to boom and develop itself, that commonwealth is the Old North State. It is impossible even to outline in one article half of what there is to say a- bout this state. An attempt will be made to present only a few of the most important facts; to exhibit merely a few of the factors that cause the Tar Heel State to be known as the Empire State of the South. Her People North Carolina has the most homo geneous population in the Union. A larger percent of her people are native born than is to be found in any other state. Few southern states have a larger white ratio. The negroes are about twenty-nine percent of the total population and are fairly well distri buted over the eastern and central parts of the state. They live mainly on farms and are largely responsible for our high rank as a cash crop state. Although North Carolina is the lead ing manufacturing state south of Balti more, the bulk of her people live in rurabareas. It is out of these rural areas that our industrial labor has been drawn. The white farm tenants for twenty years have been swarming off the Piedmont and mountain farms into industrial and trade centers. They are the best textile labor to be found any where. And although we have been urbanising and industrializing at a pace that has attracted national attention and respect, we are still a rural state. Only four states in the Union have more farms than North Carolina. Only four states have a larger ratio of their inhabitants actually living on farms. They are North Dakota, South Caro-^ fjna, Mississippi, and Arkansas. Our actual farmers and their families are nearly sixty percent of our total popu lation, and almost three of every four people live outside of incorporated places. Our industrial growth will depend largely on cur available labor supply. Were labor the only limiting factor there would be no cause to worry. There is still available twice as much white tenant labor alone as is employed in all the industries of the state. Thousands of white tenants are anxiously waiting for a chance to move to town, for a new cotton mill to open its doors, or for employment in other factory enter prises. The drift is unmistakable. Al most every county in the western half of the state has decreased in the num ber of farms during the last ten years. The tenants are on their way to town. It is a wise mov* f : the tenants and perhaps the final i i :.alt will be a better agriculture based on farm ownership. However that may be, the rise of North Carolina as an industrial state is very largely due to her abundant supply of adaptable labor, a supply that has scarcely yet been tapped. Agriculture North Carolina is a great agricultural state. She is not the agricultural state she should be, not the state she will be within a decade or two. But even to day she is the Empire State of the South in agriculture. Texas produces larger crop totals but Texas is an em pire in size, not a state. Only four states have more farms than North Carolina. Only four states have a larger farm population ratio. Only four states produce greater annual crop wealth totals. / We rank first in the Nation in the value of tobacco produced annually. We rank first in cotton production per acre and high in the total value of the cotton Qfop. We lead the Union in soy bean pro duction, and are among the leaders in sweet potatoes and peanuts. The farmers of this state have an in vestment in land, buildings, imple ments, and livestock of one and a quar ter billion dollars. This is an enormous amount of wealth taken totally, but on a per farm basis we do not rank so well. The one weak link in agriculture in this state is the lack of livestock. We are one of the most poorly developed livestock states in the Union. We need to correct this weakness, and live more largely on home-grown produce. MVe have the two best standard cash crops known to man. These two crops alone are worth to us two hundred million dollars annually. When our farmers live-at-home and sell these two crops efficiently through well-developed co- opdrative organizations, banking a fair share of the sales receipts, there is no legitimate reason why we should be second to any state in the Union as an agricultural state. In variety of soils and seasons we stand alone. Our four geographic areas, the Tidewater, Coastal Plains, Piedmont, and Mountain country, pos sess a greater variety of soils than are to be found in any equal area in the Nation. From the sea to the mountain tops is found a greater variety of plant life than is to be found in the entire continent of Europe. Our rainfall is abundant and well distributed, and our growing seasons are adequate for all needs. This means that this state can become a veritable paradise of variety in farm produce. We could easily feed ourselves. We could market millions of dollars' worth of fruits and truck crops. We could develop into a prime dairy, poultry, and livestock state, and in addition we have a treasure not possessed by any other state, a combination of two great cash crops worth more than two hundred million dollars annually. When we learn to retain a large part of this wealth, who dares say we will not be the Empire Agricultural State of the Union? Manufacture Whatever our present status and fu ture ourlook as an agricultural state, we have arrived as a manufacturing state. We are the undisputed leader in the South in the field of manufac ture. And our position is growing steadily stronger. We are industrial izing faster than any other state south of Maryland. Prosperity reigns in North Carolina because she is a great industrial state. Were it not for our industries we would be in the same po sition as many other southern states to day. We could not put on a stupen dous road and educational program. In the support of people ours is a great farm state, but in the creation of wealth LEARNING FROM CAROLINA Many states have their eyes on North Carolina, and some of them are rubbing their optical organs. They behold a commonwealth a few -decades ago plodding along in the mud, with antiquated school and health systems, with industry unde veloped, but now breaking into the front rank of states in all the activi ties that make for social and eco nomic improvement. South Carolinians are frankly im pressed by what the Old North State is doing, so much so that the Editor .of The Columbia State is in Raleigh writing for his paper two or three columns a day under the title Learn ing From North Carolina. In Wed nesday’s issue Mr. Ball tells his read ers how North Carolina is co-ordina ting highway, school, and public health work by means of the travel ing hospital. This hospital is a truck equipped with pouches, medicines, and instru ments; a staff of doctors and nurses accompanies it. The county health nurse sends in reports of the cases needing attention, with recommend ations as to the ability of the family to pay for medical attention—the treatment is free when conditions warrant. Here is The State’s picture of how the plan works: “One motoring through North Ca rolina next Summer may come upon, by the roadside in the woods, a hos pital with white-capped nurses, in ternes and all the other attendants and accoutrements. It may be a brick building of one story covering as much ground as the McM aster School in Columbia. In it will be 26 or 30 children, patients. Attached will be a kitchen in which the usual hospital foods are prepared—and there will be a laboratory, operating' tables and perhaps rolling chairs. A fortnight later the traveler return ing may see no signs of hospital; only an empty school house cleaned and polished. The hospital has moved on, with healing for the next neigh borhood. “The heavy hospital trucks would never reach a school house on the top of the hill over a red clay road. No little red brick school house could accommodate a hospital with 26 or 30 beds." The State adds that, if this school- house hospital is in one of the unde veloped counties of the coast or mountains, Forsyth and other rich counties gladly and liberally contrib ute to its support. This lesson of all units of government working to gether for the common good is one that The State is seeking to teach South Carolina through its series of articles on North Carolina. Thus the wisdom and vision of Tarheels is every day being commended by disinterested observers from other states who come among us to learn the secret of our advancement.— Asheville Citizen. and in its retention we are a great fac- ;tory state. j Our 460,000 farm workers produce a- round410 million dollars’ worth of farm wealth. Not all of this is new wealth. For instance we spend 60 million dollars for fertilizer alone. Our 167,700 fac tory workers turn out a total produce valued at nearly one billion dollars. Nearly a half billion dollars is the value added by manufacture, a far larger a- mount than the grand total of all farm products, crop and livestock. Eighty thousand cotton mill opera tives turn out 318 million dollars of out put. Of this total 182 million is created in the processes of manufacture. Fewer than ten thousand workers in one of our great manufacturing plants turn out an annual product valued at nearly 200 million dollars a year. The new wealth created annually by this one concern is as much as the total value of our leading cash crop. Its fed eral tax bill for one year is many timeo the total taxes received by the state from all taxpayers combined. Yet we are a great agricultural state. The point is, we are a greater manu facturing state and manufacture is the basis of our marvelous abi^ty to invest in roads and schools and the like. A few facts gathered from reliable sources show our present status as a factory state. We have about 176 knitting mills em ploying around 18,000 workers. The yearly output of these mills is valued at about 83 million dollars. We have about 400 cotton mills, capi talized at about 200 million dollars. These mills employ about 65,000 work ers and the yearly output is valued at about 286 million dollars. We have 18 tobacco factories capital ized at about 130 million dollars. These concerns employ about 14,000 workers and the yearly output is valued at about 226 million dollars. Our 124 furniture factories are capi talized at about 16 million dollars. They employ more than 16,600 workers and the value of the yearly output is about 36 million dollars. This is factory value, not prices the consumers pay. In addition to the above there are a- bout 6,600 miscellaneous establishments which turn out an annual product val ued at about 376 million dollars, or more than the total value of all crops produced in the fifth crop state of the Union! The proof is abundant that the economic foundatiow^of North Carolina lies more in manufacture than in agri culture. Our rise to the 15th manufacturing state of the Union has taken place al- i most entirely during the last twenty years. During this brief period the capital employed in manufacture has risen from 85 million to 669 million dol- • lars. The value of yearly output has : risen from.85 million to 944 million dol- ' lars, while the value added by manu- I facture has risen from 40 million to ■ 417 million dollars. We Are First North Carolina leads the South in the number of factory establishments. She leads the South in the number of i wage earners. j She leads the South in capital em- i ployed. Texas, her nearest competi- i tor, is 100 million dollars behind. I She leads the South in the value added : in the process of manufacture. 1 She leads the world in tobacco manu facture as well as in tobacco crop value. Her factories consume nearly a third of all leaf tobacco used in the United States. She pays nearly a third of the ' national tobacco taxes, j She leads the South in practically every detail of the textile industry and is patting in more new machinery than all other southern states combined. In the opinion of some, she may never forge ahead of Massachusetts, but oth ers say we will assume leadership in ; the textile world. I Some of the giant industries of the ' world are located in this state. For instance, we have the largest towel mills in the world at Kannapolis. The largest hosiery mills in the world are at Durham. The largest denim mills in the United States are at Greensboro. Roanoke Rapid? has the largest damask ^ mills in the Nation. Winston-Salem I has the world’s largest tobacco factory, and underwear mills. Gaston county has more cotton mills than any other coun ty in the United States. We are also credited with the largest pulp mill at Canton, and the largest aluminum plant at Badin. We are by all odds the lead ing furniture state of the South. The primacy of the South, and our world leadership in many items, is due mainly to our resources in water pow er, and human labor, and secondarily to the presence of raw materials at hand. Whether labor or water power is most important, we have an abund ance of both for all visible needs for decafies to come. In waterpower, both developed and undeveloped, only New York, of all the eastern states surpasses us. In adaptable and available human labor no state is our superior. We are in the very heart of a vast supply of raw materials, espedally for textile mills, tobacco factories, and furniture factories. In these three in dustries we will always be among the leaders. Perhaps within a decade or two we will reign supreme in all three. We are headed toward leadership in these three essential industries. We are now and will continue to be the Empire manufacturing state of the southeastern third of the United States. And in Addition As the playground of the South we acknowledge we are second to none. Where is another state in the South that can boast that it is both a winter and a summer resort? During the win ter scores of thousands seek the warm Sandhills for a pleasant outdoor life while the north is snow-bound. During the summer hundreds of thousands swarm into our cool mountain areas, the most extensive, the highest and the most beautiful in the eastern half of the Nation. Our three hundred or more miles of seacoast, and our great inland seas at tract many thousands of visitors both during the summer and in the winter duck shooting season. Throughout l.he summer this eastern strip of land is a vast pleasure resort, mainly for Tar Heels. It is possible that the state should purchase at least a part of this sea coast and convert it into one vast state pleasure resort to be preserved and used by our people for all time to come. Building a Commonwealth The greatness of North Carolina is not entirely in her material wealth. Until recently our material wealth was nothing to boast of. The state has been blessed with an abundance of wise and consecrated leaders, leaders who have spent their entire lives telling the people that a state, like any business enterprise, in order to develop must spend money on itself. The people are now firmly convinced that this is true. And once a Tar Heel is convinced he is a convert for all time. There is no re troaction nor retraction. The Univer- versity News Letter says: “He knows little about this state who does not know that the people of North Carolina are bent on building a great commonwealth on public education, public highways, and public health." We are embarked on one of the great est good roads construction campaigns ever attempted by any people. Fifty million dollars was voted by the state in 1921 to be spent in two years. Dur ing the last five years the counties have voted for this purpose an almost equal amount. The state now has under con struction, or has completed, nearly 1,- 400 miles of good roads, about one-third of which is hard-surfaced. The pro gram will be continued and we will soon have the greatest network of good roads to be found in any state, with possibly one exception. North Carolina oelieves in education strongly enough to pour millions of dol lars into schools of every type. During the fiscal year 1921-22 approximately 42 million dollars was spent on education by the municipalities, the counties, and the state. No couthern state is more liberally pouring its wealth into educa tional channels. Illiteracy and wealth have never been boon companions. An educated citizenship is the best founda tion upon which to build a great com monwealth. And so the story might run on indeti- nitely. It is sufficient to say that our program of expansion has attracted the entire Nation. Investment capita! is looking toward North Caroljna. State officials and newspaper editors all over the east and south are talking and writ ing about North C.trolina. Delegations have come and others are preparing to come to see how North Carolina does it. There is no secret. We have the natural resources. We are a great agricultural state. We are a greater manufacturing state. We have been blessed with wise and inspired leaders in abundance. We have a citizenship which believes in itself and in its native state. In other words wc have more wealth, and more willingness to convert wealth into welfare, than ary other southern state. Without pnl.Iic willingness, pri vate wealth is little value. Wealth and willingness are making North Ca rolina the Empire State of the South. •—S. H. Hobbs, Jr., in the North Caro lina Magazine.