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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published Weekly by the
University of North Caro
lina Press for the Univer
sity Extension Division.
JUNE 13, 1923
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
VOL. IX, NO. 30
Editorial Boardt E. C. Branson, S. H, Hobbs, Jr., L. R. Wilson, E. W, Knight. D, D. Carroll, J. B. Bullitt, H. W. Odum.
Entered as second-class matter November 14.1914, atthePostofflceat Chapel Hill. N. C., under the act of August 24, 1912
. THE SMALL MILL
: The small or medium-sized mill is the
type most prevalent in North Carolina.
In practically all the great textile cen
ters, except this state, the mills as a
rule are large concerns. In England
and in the New England states large
mills with an enormous spindleage are
most common. In South Carolina and
Georgia the average mill is much larger
than in this state. North Carolina is
known for her great number of small
and medium-sized plants. Textile mills
are found scattered all over the entire
I . state, although the bulk of them are
located in the Piedmont area between
Durham and Shelby. Almost every
little town in this area has in it one or
more small cotton mills.
Gaston county may be used as an ex
ample. In this county there are 103
mills with a spindleage of about 1,130,-
I 000, or an average of about 10,000 spin
dles per mill. This is about the aver
age for the entire state.
We do not claim to know what sized
mill is most economical, but we do
kno^ that at the present time mill con
ditions are healthier here than in any
other area. We are putting in more
new spindles than any other state. The
average spindle runs more hours than
in any other state. Labor troubles are
practically unknown. We believe that
th^^ze of our mills has a great deal to
do^th the splendid feeling that exists
between employers and employees.
The average mill owner in this state is
in close contact with his workers. He
knowp their first names. He was raised
in the same area with many of them.
He may even know their love affairs.
He has their welfare at heart. The
fcuik of the employers do what they can
to make life happy and worth while for
their employees. We do not mean to
say that all employees are contented.
They are not. What we do mean to
say is that we have a more contented
set ^f laborers, more wholesome rela
tionships existing between labor and
capital, more personal contacts between
employers and employees, than are to
be found in any other industrial state.
The small mill, owned by local capital
and manned by local labor, is the basis
of our splendid labor conditions.
Bat Some are Giants
While the average mill in the state
is small or medium-sized, we also have
some textile plants that rank first in
size in the entire world.
Kannapolis has the largest towel mills
in the world.
Durham has the largest hosiery mills
in the world.
Greensboro has the largest denim
mills in the United States.
Roanoke Rapids has the largest dam
ask mills in the United States.
Winston-Salem has the largest men’s
underwear mills in the United States.
GASTON IS THIRD
Gaston has begun her 103rd C()tton
mill and has risen to the position of
the third textile county in the United
States. She leads the entire Union in
the number of cotton mills, and ranks
first in the South in practically every
detail of the textile industry. Gaston
has about one-fifth of all the spindles
in place in North Carolina and about
one-fifth of the textile capital stock.
In this one county alone there is a cap
ital investment of 36 million dollars
and all the mills except four are owned
or controlled by local capital.
The mills in this one county consume
annually about 213,000 bales of cotton,
or one-fourth the entire cotton crop of
the state. These 103 mills give employ
ment to nearly 17,000 operatives, and,
counting the people dependent on these
w^ge-earners, the mills support a labor
population of about 30,000 souls.
Nor has Gaston ceased to grow. She
is this year setting a rapid pace in in
stalling new machinery. Fourteen con
cerns, both new and old companies, re
port the installation of about 132,000
new spindles for the year 1923. This
represents around one-sixth of all the
spindles that will, be installed in the
state this year. At the rate Gaston is
developing she will soon pass Provi
dence county, Rhode Island, which
county is slightly ahead of Gaston to
day, and will become the second textile
county in the United States. It is in
evitable because of the favorable ad
vantages she possesses, an abundance
of available labor, proximity to an abun
dance of raw cotton, and an inexhaus
tible supply of electric power.
(Continued from last week)
Chatham. Bynum.—J. M. Odell Mfg.
Co. will install additional mchy.
Cherokee. Murphy.—Oak Lane Knit
ting Mills, Inc., considering construc
tion of 1-story knitting mill bldg., cost
$26,000; brick mill type.
Chowan. Edenton Hosiery Co.’s mill
bought and to be improved and operated
by C. O. Robinson of Elizabeth City.
Cleveland. Kings Mountain.—Phoe
nix Mills Co. increased capital to $300,^
Lawndale.—Cleveland Mill and Pow
er Co. let contract for addition to
Shelby.—Dover Mills Co. let contract
for construction of $600,000 plant; will
install 11,000 spindles, 276 looms; por
tion of mchy. purchased; capital in
creased from $600,000 to $700,000.
Waco.—A 5,000-spindle yarn mill, cost
$260,000, under consideration.
Davidson. Erlanger.—Erlanger Cot
ton Mills Co. (employing 600 persons)
making -extensive improvements in
home plant and equipment; also erect
ing additional houses for new workers;
1,100 looms in operation and 140 soon to be
installed; also making similiar additions
and improvements, and building 20 new
houses, at Yadkin in N. C. bleachery
mills (under same control).
Lexington.—Dacotah Cotton Mills
have increased their paid-in capital
stock to $600,000 and their authorized
capital stock to $1,000,000; now opera
ting 22,000 spindles and employing 400
persons working day and night shifts.
Nokomis Cotton Mills have completed
a new 3-story, loom bldg, which will
have a daily production of 6,000 pounds
Shoaf-Sink Hosiery Co. will construct
bldg, providing 11,000 sq. ft. factory
space, brick and steel sash, mill con
Poneemah Mills, Inc., chartered with
authorized capital stock of $200,000, a-
bout $60,000 already subscribed; has let
contract for erection of brick and steel
sash mill bldg, to be equipped with 1,-
000 spindles; will operate day and night,
employing 26 hands on production of
coarse cotton yams; to be ready by
Thomasville.—Amazon Cotton Mills
will erect $260,000 addition; standard
mill construction, for mfre. combed
yarns, increasing capacity one-third;
install 8,000 spindles; will also erect
bldgs, for employees.
Jewell Cotton Mills have plans for
constructing l-story addition, mill con
struction; install 3,000 spindles; have
2-story warehouse under construction;
will also construct a number of dwell
Durham. Durham.— Erwin Cotton
Mills have increased capital stock from
$5,000,000 to $10,000,000; will enlarge
Durham bleachery plant to increase its
output and also output of sheet fac
tory; will build a 40,000-spindle mill
(reinforced concrete) for production of
denims at Duke, also build necessary
warehouse and tenement houses.
Forsyth. Kernersville. —Vance Knit
ting Co. is enlarging plant; construct
new 2-story bldg.; ultimate capacity
50Q doz. hose per 10-hr. day; construct
boiler house and dye plant.
Gaston. Belmont.—Eagle Yarn Mill
will construct mill of 10,000 spindles "to
mfre. fine yarns.
Stowe Spinning Co., capital $1,000,-
000, will construct mill of 22, 000 spindles
to manufacture fine yarns; 90 houses
will be erected.
Cramerton.—Mays Mills, Inc., will
increase capital from $2,000,000 to $3,-
000,000, and construct weaving mill ad
dition to present 60,000-spindle spinning
plant, for production of fine and fancy
cloths; cost near $1,000,000; will even
tually install 2,000 looms. Name to be
changed to Cramerton Mills, Inc. Pro
ject will necessitate erection of 100
houses for operatives.
Gastonia.—Construction work being
KNOW NORTH CAROLINA
Today our state is moving for
ward toward the development of its
natural resources b^ companies or-*
ganized and financed by its own citi
The phenomenal growth of build
ing and loan associations in our state
during the past ten years speaks for
the great influence these institutions
have had in development along in
As indicative of the rapid strides
North Carolina has made in this di
rection, I wish to present the follow
ing comparison of conditions in the
industrial field at the close of the
years 1912 and 1922. In 1912, the
cotton mills of our state, exclusive
of cordage, silk and woolen manu
factories, reported a capital of $52,-
000,000, against $147,000,000 in 1922,
with an output of $62,800,000 in 1912,
against $230,000,000 in 1922.
The knitting mills with a capital
in 1912 of $3,900,000 had grown in
1922 to $36,000,000 with an output
increasing from $6,000,000 to $27,-
Our furniture factories, with a
capital of $3,000,000 in 1912, had in
creased to more than $10,000,000 in
1922, their output increasing from
$11,000,000 to $30,000,000 over the
While we have no report as to the
amount invested in tobacco manu
factories, their output for 1912 was
valued at $36,000,000, while in 1922
it was reported at $216,000,000.
In addition to these, a number of
miscellaneous industries, represent
ing an investment in 1912 of $44,-
000,000, grew to $175,000,000.
Our state banks, which had a cap
ital of only $82,000,000 in 1912, had
grown in 1922 to $265,000,000, exclu
sive of national banks, and our build
ing and loan associations, which we
consider one of our greatest assets
in their moral effect, numbering 120
in 1912, with only $9,000,000, have
grown to 260 with more than $50, -
000,000 paid in and patronized by
more than 100,000 citizens of our
two and a half million population,
and are increasing at the rate of 40
percent a year.
These figures represent a growth
in what may be considered invest
ments of the first class during a pe
riod of ten years from $196,000,000
to $900,000,000, exclusive of the a-
mount invested in tobacco manufac
tories, our second largest industry,
and furnish, I believe, a most illumi
nating explanation of the successful
administration of a rigid blue sky
law in our state, and the phenomenal
growth in the industries of our state
during this period. — Stacey W. Wade,
State Insurance CJommissioner.
resumed on 1,200-spindle mill for Flint
Mfg. Co., and on20,000-8pindle mill for
Arkray Mills. Modena Cotton Mills to
rebuild burned portion of waste house.
Groves Mills, Inc., reported to con
struct $76,000 cotton mill for fine
combed yarns, with capacity of 15,000
Ragan Spinning Co. (Gaston’s 103rd
cotton mill) plans for a 10,000-spindle
mill to produce fine combed yarns; au
thorized capital stock $500,000; 60 to 70
houses will be erected.
Priscilla Spinning Co., capitalized at
$1,000,000, is erecting a 26, OOO-spindle
3-story mill and l-story warehouse; 120
cottages just completed; mchy. being
Acme Spinning Co. is addiqg 6,600
spindles, also building additional houses
Linford Mills are installing 8,000
spindles, soon to be in operation.
A. M. Smyre Mfg. Co. has increased
capital to $600,000.
Dixon Mills will install about 4,000
spindles and erect number of dwell
Jenckes Spinning Co., Pawtucket,
R. I., to erect third addition to plant,
providing 100,000 sq. ft. floor space;
install spinning and weaving mchy.
Art Cloth Mill will erect weave shed,
daylight construction, for mfre. mixed
silk and cotton cloth; will install dye
ing and probably finishing -mchy.; have
filed an amendment to their charter in
creasing the capital stock frojn $200,-
000 to $1,600,000.
Lowell.—Lowell Mill increased capi
tal from $450,000 to $1,000,000.
McAdenville. —McAden Mills con
template addition and improvements to
Mount Holly. —Madora Spinning Co. ’s
Mt. Holly plant is adding 3,000 spin
dles to 10,000 now in use.
Ridge Mills recently added 4,000
spindles, making 10,000 now in use.
Ruby Cloth Mills recently added 3,-
000 spindles, making 9,000 now in use.
Stanley.—Lola Mfg. Co. (dress ging
hams) has let contract for construction
of $250,000 building, and will install
6,000 additional spindles and 252 auto
Granville. Creedmoor,— Wei worth
Hosiery Go., capital $60,000, incorpor
Guilford. Greensboro.—Benj. B. B.
Phillips Mfg. Co. incorporated; capital
$25,000; mfre. percale house-dresses,
Revolution Cotton Co. increased cap
ital to $3,000,000.
J. E. Latham Co. increased capital
High Point.—Robbins Knitting Co.
(lately incorporated, cap. $160,000) will
construct $25,000 bldg, by day work;
install 135 knitting machines; daily ca-
pacity 1,00^ to 1,600 doz. prs. hosiery;
0,000; electric power.
Pointer Hosiery Co. incorp9rated;
Amos Hosiery Mill let contract for
erection of 2-story brick addition to
Halifax. Roanoke Rapids.— Patter
son Mills Co. will construct $45,000 2-
story addition (standard mill construc
tion); install 260 automatic gingham
Weldon.—Audrey Spinning Mills in
corporated, capital $226,000.
Iredell. Loray.— Loray Mills are
carrying on a virtually continuous ex
pansion program; 3-story addition re
cently completed and equipment being
installed; other enlargements planned.
Mooresville. — Mooresville Cotton Mills
are constructing l-story addition to
Dixie plant, steel construction; install
Mooresville Cotton Mills (now opera
ting 40,000 spindles) will install 10,000
additional spindles with accompanying
looms; improvements to cost about
$750,000 will include mill bldg., 2 ware
houses, and lOOor more‘dwellings; work
to begin about Apr. 1; authorized capi
tal stock recently increased from $1,-
600,000 to $4,000,'000.
Johnston. Clayton.—Liberty Cotton
Mill Co. has increased capital stock
from $|20,000 to $300,000; has awarded
contract for construction of brick mill
building to house 5,000 spindles and ac
companying equipment for production
of cotton yarns up to a daily capacity
of 4,000 pounds; bldg, will cost $35,000.
Lenoir. Kinston.— Kinston Cotton
Mills will install looms to weave out
Lincoln. Lincolnton.—Excell Mfg. Co.
purchased and will improve Williams
Anderson MiHs, Inc., will double in
stallation to give 12,000 spindles.
Saxony Co. has a duplicate unit erect
ed to permit of the installation of 6,-
000 spindles, but it has not yet been e-
Rhodes-Rhyne Mfg. Co. launched;
to mfre. wide sheetings; will employ
100operatives; 30 homes for operatives
to be built.
McDowell. Marion.—Clinchfield Mfg.
Co. increased capital to $1,600,000.
Appleton Mills about to report on
suitable sites for new Southern Divi
sion of the company; capital of new con
cern will be about $3,000,000; three
Marion sites offered as possibilities.
Mecklenburg. Charlotte.— Highland
Park Mfg. Co. will increase capital to
$1,700,000; present capitalization $660,-
Southern Spindle and Flyer Co. in
creased capital to $115,000.
Charlotte Knitting Mill will double
capacity of plant, install new lighting
system and new floors, and also install
32 knitting machines; let contract for
erection of 3-story mill, cost $46,000.
Everett Mills, Lawrence, Mass., re^
ported to consider establishing textile
Highland Park Mfg. Co. will con
struct l-story addition to plant, cost
Leaksville Woolen Mills increased
capital from $360,000 to $600,000.
Nebel Knitting Co. incorporated, cap
ital $200,000. '
Huntersville.—Anchor Mills incorpor
ated, capital $1,500,000.
Montgomery. Troy. — Smitherman
Cotton Mills increased capital to $360,-
Orange. Hillsboro. — Eno Cotton
Mills will construct cotton storage
warehouse, finishing and cloth room,
and 30 dwellings.
Pasquotank. Elizabeth City.—Ideal
Hosiery Co. changes name to Ideal
Mills, Inc.; company chartered with
capital stock of $126,ooo; plans en
largement and improvement of its 1-
story bldg., and possibly construction
of larger plant; mill now employs 6o
operatives and has capacity of 36o doz.
prs. hose per day.
Pasquotank Hosiery Co. increased
capital to $15o,ooo; will more than
double present capacity; now operates
67 knitting machines, turning out 6oo
doz. prs. hose a day, employing 6o to
Randolph. Franklinville. —Randolph •
Mills formed by purchase and consoli
dation of the Franklin Mfg. Co. and
the Randolph Mfg. Co., both at Frank
lin ville; total capitalization $4oo,ooo.
Worthville.—Riverside Mfg. Co. has
adopted amendment to charter chang
ing its name to Leward Cotton Mills,
Inc., and increasing authorized capital
from $126,000 to $5oo,ooo; let contract '
for improvements and additions to plant
to accommodate 5,ooo additional spin
dles and 16o additional looms; .part of
mchy. pur-chased. .
Richmond. Rockingham.— Roberdel
Mfg. Co., Mill No. 2, will equip looms
with individual motor drive.
Entwistle Mfg. Co. will construct
46oxl26 ft. brick picker bldg.
Leak Mfg. Co. incorporated; author
ized capital stock $1,000,000, to operate
on $600,000 capital stock; to construct
$600,000 cotton mill and village; will in
stall 16,000 to2o,ooo spindles and'about
4oo to 5oo looms; construction to begin
about Apr. 1; development will include
mill village of about 7o houses.
Robeson. Lumberton. — \jennings,
Dresden and Lumberton Cotton Mills
will construct 600-loom weaving mill to
mfre. cotton goods; cost to be about
Mansfield Mills, Inc., incorporated,
capital $1,000,000; let contract for
erection of l-story bldg.; mill construc
tion; cost $83,000.
Rockingham. Reidsville. — Carter
Underwear Co. organized with $600,000
capital; to establish plant with l,ooo
doz. men’s union suits weekly; has
bldg, and will install mchy.
Rowan. China Grove.—China Grove
Cotton Mills (3o. soon to begin opera
tions; mchy. being installed; floor space
available for 21,000 spindles, but not
so many included in initial equipment.
A village of 48 houses has been erected,
and space reserved for other units of
plant if needed later.
Cotton mill to be erected at Swink.
Salisbury.—Kesler Mfg. Co. has in
creased its capital from $600,000 to $1,-
Rutherford. Forest City.—Alexander
Mfg. Co. has had plans prepared for
erection of weave shed for mfre. of
wide sheetings; ultimate capacity of
shed 36o looms; daylight construction;
will purchase power.
Spindale. — Spinners Processing Co.
let contract for recpvery plant and
boiler house; also general contract for
construction of mill.
Stonecutter Mills Co. having plans
prepared for bleaching, dyeing, and
finishing plant; will double present ca
pacity; will install 26o looms.
Stanly. Albemarle.—Wiscasset Mills
Co. will increase capital from $l,2oo,000
Surry. Mount Airy.—Alpine Woolen
Mills (capital $5o,ooo) acquired by W.
E. Lindsay, who will improve and in
stall 4o h. p. boiller and mchy. for slash
er-cloth, yarn and blankets; daily ca
pacity 25o lbs. slasher-cloth yarn.
Transylvania. Brevard. — Brevard
Cotton Mill (carded yarn) purchased
by Wade H. Gray of Asheville.
Union. Marshville. — Cotton mill
planned to incorporate with $loo,ooo
capital stock; to begin in small way
but gradually enlarge.
1 Marshville Mfg. Co. will establish
plant for mfg. tire cord fabric; 6,000
lbs. daily capacity; will install 2,800
twister spindles; electric power plant;
2oo h. p.; cost of mchy. $48,000.
Monroe. — Icemorelee (3otton Co.,
cap. $75o,ooo with privilege of increase
to $1,600,000, formed by merger of
Wilkes. North Wilkesboro.— Wilkes
Hosiery Mills Co. will construct 2-story
brick plant, mill construction, also 1-
story dye house and boarding room and
a boiler house; will increase employees
by 16 to 2o upon completion of new