Skip to Content
North Carolina Newspapers

The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, March 12, 1924, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation of this newspaper page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA MEWS LETTER Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. MARCH 12,1924 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. THE UNIVERSITY OP NORTH CAROLINA PRESS . VOL. X, NO. 17 Editorial Board* EL 0. Braason. 3. H. Cfobbs, Jr., L. R. Wllaon, E!. W. Eoisht, D. D. Carroll, J. B.BolUtt, 3. W. Odam. Bnterod u Bocood-clua matter Novoobor 14, 1914, at the Postofflee at Chapel Hill, If. C., ander the actof Aofirust 24. 19X9 WHITE TEACHER SALARIES IN U. S. WHITE TEACHER SALARIES We doubt if there is another salaried, class in the United States whose aver age annual income varies as greatly in the various states as does the average salary paid public school teachers. The table presented elsewhere shows the average annual salary paid all white public school teachers in each state for the year 1921-22. It is based on infor mation furnished by the respective state superintendents of public instruc tion, in reply to a questionnaire recent ly sent out. While the average salary has been definitely computed for moat of the states, for a few states, duly designated in the table, it is only ap proximately correct. New York state pays ber white school teachers an average annual sal ary of $1,938 and ranks first^ain the United States. In Arkansas the aver age annual salary paid white teachers is approximately- $550. The average white teacher in New York state re ceives nearly four timesj as much a year as the average white teacher in Arkansas, or so in 1921-22. It is doubt ful if there is another salariedJlor wage earning class in the United ^States whose income is so greatly affected by geographic location, or state lines. However there is not much uniform ity in the salaries paid teachers by geo graphic areas. New England states rank both high and low. Western, mid dle western, and eastern states are all mixed together. The nearest approach to a uniform grouping occurs with the southern states, all of which rank very low in teacher salaries. Texas and Oklahoma rank highest in the South, both paying their white teachers an average salary of about $1,000 a year. No southern state pays as much as the average for all the states, by about two hundred dollars. A Western State' We are presenting below the average salary schedule of a western state for the year 1921-22. It is interesting to note that the average salary paid all white teachers in North Carolina for the same year was $720, which was also about the average for the entire South. Kindergarten: (all women) Supervisors $2,401 Principals 1,646 Teachers - 1,399 Elementary: District Superintendents— Men $2,966 Women 2,6^ Principals, Men 1,969 Women 1,612 Teachers, Men 1,656 Women 1,669 Supervision of subjects: Men $2,632 Women ... 2,396 Teachers of subjects: Men $1,746 Women 1,714 High School: Principals, Men $2,960 Women 2,796 Teachers, Men 2,201 Women 2,046 Why High or.Low The average annual ''salaries paid teachers depend upon many factors, the most important of which are: 1. The length of the school term. In many of the western and northern states the public schools’run from eight to nine months upon anjaverage. Since teachers are paid monthly'salaries, the total salary is much higher in such states than in North'^sCarolina or the other southern states^which have rela tively short schoollterms, counting all schools. 2. Cost of living. The salary paid .teachers is very largelyiaffected by liv ing cost, which varie8*greatly. In the sparsely settled West and in northern urban states it costs^more jto live than in the South, where most of the teach ers live in the country or in small towns where board andjrent are rela tively cheap. 3. Size of schools. It is almost uni versally true that the best and most expensive teachers are found in large schools, while weak one-teacher schools are operated by the poorest and cheap est teachers. Accordingly states which have relatively large numbers of one and two teacher schools have large numbers of cheap and ill-prepared teachers. The South has more than her share of microscopic schools taught by untrained teacher:?, who would be expensive at half the price. 4. Quality of teachers. Poor teach ers can be hired cheaply. Where the quality of teachers‘is low the salary is low. Poor pay is both the cause and the result of poor teachers. In states as in counties and towns, the best teachers are found where the pay is best. The North and the West pay salaries that attract ability and reward training and experience. In those states teaching is a profession, an oc cupation chosen for a life work. ■ In Montana, which is a typical illus tration, ninety-two percent of the ele mentary teachers have had more than two years -of high school work and twelve weeks of normal training. Nine ty-six percent of the high school teach ers have had at least two years of col lege work. Seventy-six percent of the high school teachers have had four years or more of college and normal training. 6. Wealth. Naturally the taxable wealth behind each school child has much to do with the quality and pay of the teacher employed. Teacher sala ries are low in the South, especially in rural schools, because our per inhabit ant wealth is relatively small. In North Carolina White teachers in North Carolina in 1921-22 received annual salaries averag ing all the way from $1,259 in New Hanover county to $402 in Watauga. The average for the entire state for all white teachers was $720 and the aver age was less in only four states, or pos sibly five if we knew the facts' for Mississippi. In fourteen counties the average salary was less than five hun dred dollars a year, while in only six counties was it as much as one thousand dollars. In only one county in North Carolina are white teachers as well paid upon an average as in the United States as a whole. Ninety-nine of our counties pay leas than the aver age for the states of the Union, while sixty-two counties .pay their white teachers less than seven hundred dol lars a year upon an average. Good schools on the whole are impossible in such counties because it is impossible to employ good teachers at siich ridic ulously low wages. Teachers’ salaries vary greatly in the one hundred counties of North Ca rolina. There are three main factors that determine what our teachers re ceive. (1) The length of the school term, which averages 119 days in Mitchell county, and 180 days in New Hanover, for white schools. (2) The quality of the teachers. In Dur ham county the average teacher has had the equivalent of two and a half years in college, while in Cherokee the average teacher lacks nearly a half year of completing a high school course. (3) Local wealth and willingness, both of which vary greatly. A few very puor counties have good teachers, pay good salaries, and have long school terms. Such counties have outstand ing leadership, usually the county sup erintendent, who under our school sys tem is the key factor in the local school situation. As a rule the wealthier counties pay good salaries, especially in the urban schools. It is impossible for the poorer rural counties to have as good teachers and schools as the wealthier ones, with out heroic sacrifice. This is evident when we find that the taxable wealth per white inhabitant is fifteen times as large in the richest county as in the the poorest county. We are making great progress with our schools. Millions are being poured into modern buildings. The quality of teachers is being improved, the school term is being lengthened^ and in every way we are gradually moving ahead. Butlest we become boastful, let us re member that we fail to pay our teach ers a living wage, upon an average. Only four states pay their white teach ers less per year than North -Carolina, whose average is only $720, while in A STATE SYSTEM The principle embodied^|in the state equalization fund must be further extended. The equalization fund has done much to alleviate •alary conditions in poor counties, but it is inadequate. The present development in North Carolina is the county unit idea, where every tax dbllar goes to support every school in the county. This is a great improvement over the local district tax idea, and it is the ne^t logical step forward. But it should not be the ultimate goal. Instead of a county-wide we need a state-wide school system, with strong county units, in which, to a large,^extent, every dollar of taxable wealth in the state goes to support every school in the state. Educational opportunities for all children will never approach equality until a state-wide school system is adopted. Public education is the business of the state, and school facilities should be fairly equal for all children, ir respective of place of birth. As long as teachers’ salaries are three times as high in one county as in another, one county will have ex cellent schools and the other will have schools hardly worthy of the name. Such is the present situa tion in North ■ Carolina, and there seems to be no real remedy except a state-wide system of public edu cation. debate subjects is available. Libraries may be kept three weeks. No charge is made for the loan of libraries, but borrowers pay the postage both from and to Raleigh. The Library Commission has also special collections of declamations, recitations, school plays, and material for the celebration of holidays. Books on educational topics can be borrowed by teachers and parents. Address all applications for books to North Carolina Library Commission, Raleigh, N. C. seventy counties the average is less than this amount. Such pay is not a liv ing wage'. The teacher is the school and no state can build a public school system on the minimum wage basis. In the main our schools are taught by itinerant and ill- prepared teachers. Because the pay is ridiculously low, the turnover of new teachers is remarkably high. The aver age teacher teaches for a season or two, marries and quits. Teaching is not a profession, for the main body of teachers. It’s a game, an experience, an outing for many who have been pent up at home. Public education will never be a big success until teaching becomes a pro fession. The salary must be sufficient to attract men and women of ability and retain them after they have be come experienced and capable of doing effective work.—S. H. H., Jr. STATE LIBRARY SERVICE The North Carolina State Library Commission, Raleigh, N. C., offers to lend collections of books or individual books to North Carolina farmers, their families, schools, or communities, as follows: A Traveling Library Each traveling library contains 40 volumes, of which one-third are chil dren’s books. The remainder includes good stories and popular non-fiction. The traveling libraries for schools are made up entirely of children's books arranged according to grade. People in any North Carolina commun ity may get a traveling library, keep it three months, and then get another. The only expense to the community is the cost of transportation, and if that exceeds $1.00 the Library Commission pays the excess. Special Subjects Books on many different subjects are also lent to residents of North Carolina by the Library Commission,. Their col lection of books on agriculture is very complete and includes material on sub jects most important to farmers. Write the commission forgbooks on.fany sub ject that interests you. The only cost to the borrower for this service is that of postage which can be refunded to the Library Com mission when the books are returned. Free Debate Libraries Debate libraries are lent to schools and debating societies. Material on 80 B. ANDL. PLAN FOR FARMERS In the many schemes to aid our farmers in furnishing them financial aid there is a general agreement in that they all simply provide loans or ways of getting them. -Is this suffi cient aid? Is not something more need ed? , I have been surprised that some of the farmer’s friends have not come to the conclusion that simply loaning, though on a long time, does not always help the borrower. Money borrowed must be paid back with interest even when borrowed on long time. No one is benefited by a loan who is not taught, if he does not know, how to be ready to meet his payments as they fall due. All borrowers must be taught thrift and economy for the loans to be of real benefit to them. Simply making the loans on long time will not do this. It merely makes the payments smaller extending them over a longer period of payment. The borrower with the cap ital loaned must make whatever is nec essary to repay the loan and interest, or he is no better off at the end than when he started. He must save and lay aside in one way or another. The operations of Building and Loan Associations show that they are the best teachers of thrift while furnishing loans for present use. Their principle where used has taken many wage earn ers who knew nothing of saying and made them home owners and more, for the principle once learned and prac ticed becomes a habit and continues to guide the daily life. The Act providing for Land and Loan Associations (Chapter 172, Laws 1916) is-nothing more than adapting the prin ciples of Building and Loan Associa tions to the conditions and needs of the farmer. It is reasonable and work able-holds out no false promises but will improve and pull out of the hole any neighborhood of farmers, land owners or tenants. It offers no get-rich-quick scheme but a reasonable and understandable plan to help the farmer, his family, his ten ant, and even his hired help. It does not propose to accomplish this at once and without the help of the farmer, but gradually and surely. The amount paid during the season of the market crop to equal twenty-five (26c) cents a week will in about six years make $100.00 in net clear money. The Land and Loan plan has all the benefits and advantages of the Credit Ujiions and other asaociations or plans with the added advantages of teaching the borrower to save and enabling him to improve his condition permanently. I would commend this plan to those who desire to lead the farmers or even help them. "Write to the Insur ance Commissioner for a copy of the law. It is plain and workable.-J. R. Young, N. C. Insurance Commissioner. NEED MORE PEOPLE The one distinct sign of new popula tion moving into North Carolina is seen in eastern Carolina, and now is a good time for us to undertake to secure a desirable class of newcomers for the coastal region. Many newcomers have gone into the Sandhills peach and fruit belt, and others have come to eastern Carolina’s black land section to go into the corn growing and livestock indus tries. These newcomers are northern ers and westerners, outside of the small colony of thrifty foreigners set tled around Wilmington by Mr. Hugh MacRae. At least three new developments in ea.stern North Carolina are attracting widespread attention at the north and west. They are the peach orchard in dustry, the Hugh MacRae community farms settlements, and the Bolton drainage development. Those three can be taken advantage of for an im mense amount of genuine publicity for eastern North Carolina. They are al ready exciting the wonder of progres sive men in all parts of the country. One of the problems standing in the way of progress on a wider scale in eastern North Carolina is lack of popu lation, and if we hope for our commun- • ities to grow it must be through devel opment of the splendid resources of this section. More population means greater production and it is upon pro duction that prosperity in this section depends. The time is ripe for a great regional development and there are great opportunities in it for all of us. While the migration of new population has started this way we should give it our immediate attention.—Wilmington Star. AVERAGE SALARIES PAID WHITE TEACHERS Per School Year in the United States 1921-.22 The following table showing the average annual salaries paid all white school teachers in each state is based on information secured from the Superin tendents of Public Instruction of the respective states. New York state ranks first, paying all white public school teachers, ele mentary and high school, an average salary of $1938 in 1921-22. Arkansas comes last with an average salary of approximately $560 per year for white teachers. The 16,198 white teachers in North Carolina in 1921-22 received a total sal ary of $10,963,682. The average annual salary paid all white teachers was $720, and the average was less in only four states, all southern with far less total or per inhabitant wealth. The main factors that account for high or low teacher salaries are: length of the school term, the size of the schools, the cost of living, taxable wealth, and quality of teachers which is both a cause and result. Kansas and Mississippi are omitted for lack of data. S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Department of Rural Social Economics, University of North Carolina Rank State • Average annual Rank State Average annual New York.... salary paid white teachers $1938 24 Pennsylvania... salary paid white teachers $1172 2 California .... 1726* 26 Indiana 1160 3 Connecticut . 1675* 26 Colorado 1100+ 4 New Jersey .. 1628 26 Louisiana 1100 6 Massachusetts 1617 26 Wisconsin 1100 6 Arizona 1600 29 Ohio 1000* 7 Woqhinptnn . 1428 29 Texas 1000* 8 Rhode Island. 1408 29 Oklahoma 1000* 9 Nevada 1379 82 North Dakota .. 971 10 Illinois 1343 33 • West Virginia .. 961 11 Iowa 1300* 34 New Hampshire 960* 12 New Mexico .. 1300* 36 Utah 948 13 Nebraska 1266 36 South Carolina. 834+ 14 Maryland .... 1242 37 Florida 820* 16 Montana 1227 38 Virginia 818 16 Oregon 1226 39 Maine 816 17 Minnesota.... r. 1210 40 Missouri 760 18 Delaware .... 1200* 41 Kentucky 726 18 Idaho. 1200* 42 North Carolina. 720 18 Michigan 1200* 43 Alabama 638 18 South Dakota 1200* 44 Tennessee 634 18 Vermont 1200* 45 Georgia .... 600* 18 Wvnmincr 15?no» A rkansan .,; 550* Approximately correct, f 1922-23.^

North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.

Digital North Carolina