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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, May 07, 1924, Image 1

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The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OR NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. MAY 7,1924 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. THE UNIVERSIXr.OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS VOL. X, NO. 25 Bdiiorlal Boardi B. C. Branaon. S. H. Hobba. Jr.. L. R. Wilaon. E. W. Knigbt, D. D. Carro!!. J. B. Ballltt H. W. 0.iam. Entered as Becond-claaa matter Neverabwr 14. 1914. at tbePoatoffineat Chanel Hill. N. C., under the act of Aa^uat 24, Ifil HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES IM N. C. HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES Id view of the fact that ..it is com mencement time in North Carolina, the accompanying table showing how the counties ranked in 1923 in white high school graduates should be of special interest. One of the outstanding de velopments in the growth of public ed ucation within recent years in North Carolina has been the rapid increase in number of high school students and^high school graduates. While great progress is being made we are still far' below the average -rate of white high school graduates per unit of white* population for all the states. For the year 1923 Northampton coun ty led all the counties of the state in the number of white high school ^grad uates per 10,000 white people, her rate being 93.7. Or to put it on another basis, it took 22 white families upon an average to supply one high school grad uate, in the county that ranks highest in the state. In this connection it is interesting to note that Northampton stands fourth in rank in collegejattend- ance in the state. Gates, a nearby county, with no incorporated town in the county, ranks second in high school graduates, with 64.3 per 10,000 white people. The Northeast A most interesting situation is dis covered in connection with the nine counties which form the northeastern corner of the state. Of these nine re mote rural counties all rank above the state average in high school graduates, except Pasquotank which is near the average, and the only county with a large town. This same area ranks high in college attendance, nearly all the counties ranking either above or near the state average of 41 , college students in our state cplleges per 10,000 white popula tion. To our mind there are two rea sons for this commendable rank. In the first place it is an area of relatively high farm ownership with diversified agriculture and a fair cash income. The other reason, in our opinion, is Chowan College at Murphreesboro. For years this small woman’s college has been training future mothers, and the re sult is seen in the keen desire on the part of the mothers to provide the best educational advantages for their sons and daughters. The Sand Hills Again it is interesting to note the status of the Sand-Hill area, for many decades looked upon as a poor section of the state. Of the eight counties which make up the bulk of that part of the state known as the Sand Hills, every single county ranks above the state average of 33.7 high school grad uates per 10,000 white population, and every single county s ranks above the state average of 41 college students per 10,000 white population attending North Carolina colleges of A and B grade. Again we believe there are two main reasons for this commendable position. In the first place the Sand Hills are settled largely by the Scotch and every one knows that above all things the Scotch people want an education, and will starve for it if necessary. Our second explanation is Flora McDonald, the Scotch woman's college which for decades has been training Scotch .mothers. The effect is seen in the firm desire of these mothers to provide the best educational facilities for their sons and daughters. It does not just happen that a solid group of coun ties in any area ranks high or low in high school graduates and in college students. There is always a reason, deeper than chance or even wealth. Two other groups of counties rank high: the counties in the central sec tion of the state which contain most of the colleges of the state, with a few adjacent counties, and four contiguous counties in the west: Buncombe, Hen derson, Polk, and Transylvania, with large numbers of northern settlers and with some good private, as well as public, high schools. Where Graduates areJFew The counties that rank low in high school graduates, as well.'as ;jin college; students, are all the counties west of Granville along the Virginia border, and all the mountain counties ex cept the four mentioned above, which rank well in high school graduates a- ione. Other counties which rank low in high school graduates are to be found scattered over the entire state, some rich and some poor, some urban and some with only small country towns. In this list come Forsyth, Gaston, Lin coln, Rowan, Cabarrus and other great industrial and largely urban counties; Johnston, Sampson, Pitt, Edgecombe and other great agricultural counties; and some very poor counties like Dare and Tyrrell. It seems that there is little or no re lationship between county wealth and high school graduate rates. Some of the richest counties rank lowest, while some of the poorest counties turn out many graduates, and send many sons and daughters to college. The nature of the population, desire for ed ucation, local leadership and disciple- ship are some of the real factors that Count. Recent Progress The high schools of the state have made remarkable progress within re cent years. Perhaps more progress has been made here than in any other part of our school system. Not only has the quafity of high school work been greatly improved, but the in crease in high school students and in high school graduates has been unbe lievably rapid. In 1912 the enrollment in all high schools in the ^tate totaled 14,401, while the fourth-year.high school stu dents numbered 818. In 1916 the stu dents enrolled in all high schools num bered 16,788, while the fourth-year students numbered only 1,313. At the present time there are about 45,000 stu dents enrolled in the high schools of the state, and last year the white graduates alone numbered 6,317. The graduates this year will probably be far in excess of the 1923 graduating class. We Cannot Boast But even with our remarkable prog ress within recent years we have far to go before we can begin to boast of our high schools. We do not lead, we do not rank high, we do not even ap proach the average of the United States in high school attendance, or graduates, or in the quality of high schools, referring mainly to teachers. It is authoritatively stated that of the entire school population of the United States, 10 percent are enrolled in high schools. Of the children of school ages in North Carolina only 6 percent are enrolled in high schools. On the basis of white high school grad uates per 10,000 white people rank far below the average of the United States, *nd so far below the rate of such western states as Washington, Oregon, Minnesota, Colorado and oth ers as to make our rate of 33.7 gradu ates per 10,000 white population look rather small. Several southern states rank above ours in this respect. A study of the table carried else where will reveal the rank of the coun ties in North Carolina in white high school graduates in 1923. The cpun- ties rank from Northampton which leads to Graham which graduated no one, and has only one student in col lege this year. Five counties still have no standard high school. Their stu dents must go elsewhere to seek a standard high school education, or they must do without. The rate of high school graduates for 1923 for the entire state was only 33.7 per 10,000 white people. This means that upon an average it took 63 white families to supply one high school graduate. Plain common sense tells us that the rate is ridiculously low. Too many students drop out before the raceis'run. And many are the boys and girls in North Carolina who yearn for at least a high school education but who are denied the opportunity to get it. Especially is this true of country children who live long distances from high schools an(j who are unable to leave home to attend school. A stand ard high school should be within the reach of every boy and girl in North Carolina who desires a high school ed ucation.—S.H.H.,Jr. ' THE IDEAL FARM In the final analysis the ideal farm—the truly successful farm—is the one which yields to the farmer and his family a living—full, ade quate, complete—liberal in material rewards, but not lacking in the so cial, aesthetic, and ethical values which make for character, content ment, and genuine happiness. The soil has the capacity to produce these returns if the hand which turns it but knows how to sow the seed. The key which will unlock the wealth of the fields and bring forth the treasures material and spiritual is the intelligence of the farmer.—New Jersey College of Agriculture. VIRGINIA AND CAROLINA More than $1,000,000 will be expend ed by the University of Virginia during the fiscal year of 1924-25, according to announcements made today by Presi dent Edwin A. Aldermarr in connec tion with the April meeting of the board of directors. A budget carrying total appropria tions of $1,127,643 was adopted by the board. This amount includes $56,000 for capital outlay as well as provision to expand the teaching staff of the uni versity by the employment of seven faculty members of professorial rank and a superintendent of the university hospital.—Greensboro News. The Gniversity of Virginia will have a current operating fund for the year 1924-25 of $1,071,646. If our University is to continue to expand in service to the people of the state its present op erating fund must be increased by at least $260,000. The annual mainte nance fund at present is $716,000, or $366,646 less than that of the Univer sity of Virginia. percent take daily papers, 20 percent take weekly papers, 10.2 percent take church papers, 26.8 percent take farm papers, 1.6 percent take children’s pa pers, 19 percent take magazines, while 47.5 percent take no paper or magazine of any kind. In our state last year there were only 64 counties which had within their bor ders a library of some kind, 46 counties had no public library of any kind, and only 11 counties had a public library of more than 6,000 vblumes. Thus it is seen that the great majority of the people of North Carolina have no ac cess to public libraries, and can be served only by traveling libraries pro vided by the North Carolina Library Commission. The above data indicate the low position which North Carolina holds so has been tried in other states are en tirely satisfactory. If there are ex treme rural sections where book sta tions cannot conveniently be established, a book truck is operated and makes regular trips over the country carrying needed books into the very homes •f the most isolated farmer. The Washington county library, with its center at Hagerstown, Maryland, is a good example of a county library system which ought to work well in the counties of North Carolina. Every thing there, as in this state, is run on a county basis. The county is the main unit of government. The county library has been found to fit in per^ctly in that state. The people report that they would not do without their county library and their book wagon. A simi lar system is operated in the state of far as her books and libraries are con-?CaIifornia, where it has been a marked cerned. If the 1,820,000 farm popula-[ success. In California, by July, 1918, tion, of which 43.6 percent is of the tenant class, is ever to acquire reading facilities, it seems that such must come to them through some form of loan system. It seems then thatthe county traveling library must be employed in order to reach the entire rural popula tion. Since the county is our main unit of organization, it seems that the county library is best adapted to North Carolina needs and is the only one which can readily conform with our state situation. Hence whenever we think of the library rnillenium in North Carolina it seems that we must visual ize a county system consisting of a strong tax-supported, free public libra ry in each of her 100 counties, with branch stations at various points in the different localities. In Other States The results of this system where it 42 of the 68 counties had established county libraries under the state library law; 38 of the 42 received an annual maintenance fund of $539,458, contained 945,856 volumes, maintained 2,890 branches, served 1,649 school districts, and were directed by trained certified librarians under central state supervi sion. \ It is some such system as this that we propose as the nearest solution for North Carolina’s reading problem. It is the most feasible plan in this day of easy communication. Of course it can not be hoped that this system would usher in the millennium, but it seems to be a great step in the right di rection. It would inevitably lead to greater literary progress and eventual ly solve our book problem.—E. D. Ap ple, before the'North Carolina Club. COUNTY LIBRARY SERVICE In the year 1700 Thomas Bray, a missionary from England, established at Bath a small library for use of the clergy of the colony of North Carolina. From this small beginning in 1700 un til the year 1897 our state library de velopment represents a slow and fairly uniform growth. The modern library movement had its beginning in the year 1897 when the city of Durham opened the first free, tax-supported library in North Caroli na. It began with only a small wood en building and a few thousand books; but today it has a new $45,000 building, a reported book collection of 10,890 volumes, with a circulation last year of 79,469 volumes, and has broadened its service so as to include not only the city but the schools and general public of Durham county as well. Following this lead taken by Durham, public libraries were started in Raleigh in 1900, Greensboro in 1902, Charlotte 1903, Winston 1906, and so on until at the close of last year there were a to tal of 68 public libraries in the state. Sixty-two of these libraries reported a collection of 231,262 volumes, or about one book to every twelve people. On this basis North Carolina ranks forty- seventh in library facilities. There ai;e more motor cars in the state than tfiere are books in our public libraries. In the June issue of the North Caro lina Library Bulletin for last year ap peared reports . from these libraries which show incomes that range from $17.63 to $11,387.60, and a total income of $103,036.00, or approximately one- fifth the one dollar per capita which the American Library Association has set as the standard. What A Survey Shows North Carolina, with its 2,690,000 in habitants, is mainly an agricultural state. It includes only 27 cities which have a population of 6,000 or more. Seventy-one percent of its people live in the open country. A recent survey of farm conditions on 1,000 farms in North Carolina shows the percent of farm homes that have no books other than Bibles to be: for the operator land lords 25 percent, for the owner opera tors 19.5 percent, tenants 33.2 percent, and croppers 62.1 percent. Of these 1000 farm homes in three typical areas of the state, 37.6 percent had no books other than the Bible. The survey also showed that of the 1000 farm families interviewed only 20.3 I HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES IN NORTH CAROLINA Per 10,000 White Population in 1923 I The following table, based on information furnished by thelJ,State Super- ! visor of High Schools, shows the number of white high school graduates from I both public and private high schools per 10,000 white population for the year 11923. The accompanying column shows the total number of white high school i graduates. ! Northampton county ranks first with 93.7 white high school graduates per , 10,000,white population. An adjoining county. Gates, ranks second. Graham , which d? one of five counties with no standard high school comes last with no j high school graduates. 1 State total white high school graduates from both public and private high I schools in 1923 was 6,317. The state average rate was 33.7 graduates per 10,- I 000 white inhabitants, or one graduate for every 63 white families in the state. S. H. Hobbs, Jr. Department of Rural Social Economics, University of North Carolina Rank County No. High !^o- Per Rank County No. High No. Per School 10,000 School io,ooe Graduates White Graduates White 1923 Popula- 1923 Popula- tion tion 1 Northampton. 88 93.7 51 Orange 41 31.9 2 Gates 37 64.3 52 Madison 62 31.5 3 Craven 85 69.4 53 Columbus 66 31.3 4 Henderson .. 100 68.8 54 Forsyth 181 31.1 5 Transylvania . 65 68.0 55 Union 87 30.9 6 Alamance ... 161 57.3 66 Washington .. , 18 30.7 7 Warren 43 64.3 57 Pasquotank... 30 30.3 8 Polk 42 54.2 57 Rowan Ill 30.3 9 Davidson 173 61.6 59 Halifax 67 30.2 9 Randolph .... 142 61.6 60 Pitt . 72 29.7 11 Iredell 159 61.2 61 Hyde 15 29.2 12 Buncombe.... 296 50.9 62 New Hanover. 72 28.9 13 Granville .... 73 50.1 63 Franklin 44 28.5 14 Camden 16 49.6 64 Carteret 38 28.2 16 Nash 123 49.5 65 Lenoir 49 27.8 16 Durham 144 47.4 66 McDowell . .. J.'? 17 Robeson 121 46.2 67 Martin 31 26.7 18 Pender 34 46.0 67 Alleshanv .... 19 26.7 19 Jones. 26 45.9 69 Cumberland .... 58 26.3 20 Guilford 306 45.6 70 Gaston 121 26.2 21 Vance 60 45.6 71 Rorkinyham Q9 22 Bladen 54 44.8 71 Yancey 40 25.8 22 Pamlico 26 44.8 73 Ashe 53 25.0 24 Perquimans .. 26 44.7 73 Harnett 65 25.0 26 Mecklenburg.. 248 43.9 75 Rutherford.... 67 24.0 26 Anson 61 43.4 76 Chatham 36 22.2 27 Beaufort 82 43.3 77 Cabarrus 61 20.8. 28 Richmond .... 70 43.2 78 Tyrrell. 7 20.6 29 Moord 68 43.0 79 Caldwell 36 19.6 30 Montgomery.. 47 42.2 80 Sampson 48 19.2 31 Hoke . 22 41.6 81 .Tobnston 7.^1 32 Wayne 105 41.2 82 Person 20 18.0 33 Chowan 22 41.1 83 Surry 64 17.5 34 Currituck 19 40.7 84 Stanly 43 16.6 36 Lee 40 40.0 85 Avery 17 16.4 36 Scotland 23 38.3 86 Caswell 13 16.1 37 Wake 183 38.0 87 Yadkin 26 .16.0 37 Watauga 62 38.0 88 Brunswick .... 16 15.9 39 Wilson 86 37.9 89 Wilkes 48 15.6 40 Bertie 39 37.3 90 Alexander 17 14.7 41 Cleveland. ... 106 36.5 91 Swain. 19 14.6 42 Hertford 23 35.6 92 Stokes 25 14.0 43 Burke 74 36.0 93 Cherokee 21 13.7 44 Catawba Ill 34>6 94 Davie 16 13.4 45 Clay ..; 16 33.7 95 Dare 6 12.5 .46 Lincoln 52 33.1 96 Onslow 14 10.6 47 Duplin 62 32.3 97 Greene 7 8.1 48 Edgecombe ... 53 32.2 98 Mitchejl 9 7.8 48 Haywood 76 32.2 99 Macon 6 5.0 60 Jackson 40 32.1 100 Graham .; 0 o.e

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