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North Carolina Newspapers

The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, September 30, 1925, Image 1

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I The news in this publi- i cation is released for the I ; press on receipt. SEPTEMBER 30, 1925 i HE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA CHAPEL HILL, N C. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS Published Weekly by the \ University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. VOL. XI, NO. 46 Etliiortat lioardt E. C. Branson, S. H. Hobbs. Jr., L. K. Wilson, E. W. Knight, D. D. Carroll, J. B. Bullitt, H. W. Odum. Entered as second-class matter November ll, 1914, at the PostoiRce at Chapel Hill, N. C.. under the act of August 24. 1912 ntND-MADE .^GRICULTUHE | In the use of farm machinery in the , production of agricultural products 1 North Carolina stands almost at thej foot among the states of the Union, j and also in the use of electricity on j farms for lighting purposes and for i operating labor-saving farm machinery 1 North CaroHna is almcst last in the , United Scutes. Only four states have; more developed electric power than! our?, but precious little of tiie power is , used by the seventy percent of ourpeo-: pie who live in the open country. 1 More so than almost any other state in the Union North Carolina’s agricul-1 turol wealth is wrung from the soil' by | the sweat of human h.ands and human ; backs. Labor-saving, proht-producmg, farm machinery is the exception, not: the rule, on the farms of this state, and ; the same might also be said with refer-; ence to home comforis and conveniences in North Carolina farm homes. Witness the almost univei^ai absence of running water, electric light and power, bath tubs, and sanitary sewage disposal in our farm homes. The following facts, as reported by the United States Department of Agri-, culture, throw a flood of light on the vast amount of back-sweating North Carolina farmers must do in producing our large annual aggregate total of crop wealth. How We Rank In investment in farm machinery per | farm only four states rank below us. In average primary horsepower per farm only four states rank below North Carolina. There are several states that average ten times as much horsepower per farm as North Carolina. In other words it takes ten farms in North Caro lina to exhibit as much power as one farm in almost any middle-western state. In average primary horsepower used per farm worker only four states rank below us. In North Carolina the aver age farm worker is reinforced v^th 1.4 primary horsepower. In North Dakota the average farm worker is reinforced with 14.1 horsepower. In average horsepower hours per farm per year only two states rank below North Carolina, namely Alabama and Mississippi. ^Virginia uses nearly twice as much power per farm as North Carolina. There is a strong correlation between machinery available and value of crops produced per |arm worker. Alabama ranks last in farm machinery and next to the bottom in cmp wealth per worker. South Dakota leads in machinery and in crop wealth per worker. Back-Sweaters For the most part North Carolina’s agricultural wealth is produced by the sweat of the back. An enormous amount of human labor is exacted in producing opr two great hand-made cash crops — cotton and tobacco. Very little machin ery can be used in the production of either of these two crops. Small Farms Three-fourths of the land area of North Carolina is not used for any agri cultural purpose. Barely more than one-fifth of our land area is under the plow. In cultivated acres per farm North Carolina ranked next to last in 1919, and more than likely our cultivated acres per farm now average less than in any other state. Our average farm worker tills fewer acres of land than the average for any other state in ^he Union. The cause, of course, lies in the crop's we choose to grow, intensive hand-made crops in the production of which very little machinery can be used, accentuated by the presence of over whelming tenant ratios in the cotton and tobacco belts. Some Results The results are seen in the relatively low rank North Carolina occupies (1) in gross agricultural wealth produced per farm and per farm worker, (2) in the net wealth produced after production costs have been deducted, and (S) in the value of farm, property per farm. We rank far Im^er in retained wealth than in produced weallh. Our high rank in aggregate crop values gets our farm ers nowiiert^ in particular. The thing that counts is the net wealth produced ann/ally per farm worker, and the accumulated wealth per farm over a long period of time It is the net wealth produced and accumulated per farm worker that determines the standard of living of our farm people, and not the gross production for the entire state. Ours is a machine age. The people of the earth who by choice or necessity fail to reinforce human labor with other forms of power have low standards of living. Those nations and states whose individuals reinforce human labor with a judi lious use of labor-saving profit- producing machinery are the ones which enjoy high standards of living. It is • just as true in agriculture as it is in | industry, ! TRUE SCHOLARSHIP What counts in a man or in a nation is not what the man or the nation can do, but what he or it aictuaily does. Scholarship that con sists in mere learning, but finds no expression in production, just as ability to shoot well at clay pigeons, may be of interest and value to him, but it ranks no higher unless it finds expression in achievement. From the standpoih^. of the nation, and from the broader standpoint of man kind, scholarship is of worth chiefly when it is productive, when the scholar not merely receives or ac quires but gives.—Theodore Roose velt. MECKLEHBURG SURVEY A comprehensive survey of Charlotte and Mecklenburg county will be made this fall by students at the University of North Carolina. 0. 0. Kuestor, busi ness manager of the Chamber of Com merce, yesterday closed ijegotiations i for such a book with E. T. Thompson, ; instructor in the department of rural I social-economics at the university. j Mr. Thompson will first endeavor to j interest members of the Mecklenburg | county club at the institution in compil-, ing the data. Studei^'ts in his depart-1 ment will do much of the work in re-1 search. Several of them will be sent | here to go over the field with the pur pose of gathering information to be in corporated in the book. Mr. Kuester will visit the university early in the fall to address the county club and describe what he has in mind about the sur-vey. Copies to Schools The Chamber of Commerce will have 3,000 copies printed at a cost of about $1,000. The book will go to press about February 1. Copies will be furnished the schools of the county for use in their work. Such a survey of Rocking ham county, Virginia, is used as a text book in the schools of that county, while other surveys are used by club women ; in their courses of study. It will be a ; valuable publication, Mr. Kuester points | out, saying that he wants it to be the'j most comprehensive and best of any county survey yet made by the uni-1 versity. , ; There will be about a dozen chapters ‘ in the book, which will be printed orx: good paper The first chapter will like ly consider the historical background of | Mecklenburg county. Its towns will be i described and natural resources consid-l ered. Industries and/opportunities will come in for considerable attention, while facts about the people will be an im portant portion of the publication. Wealth and taxation, schools, farm con ditions and practices, food and feed production, evidences of progress, social ^ and civic organizations, city and county ' government, churches and schobls, • markets and problems and their solu- | tion will be described with considerable ! detail. j Thirteen Such Surveys “Self-acquaintance” is the primary object of the county survey, according to Mr. Thompson. Such a book, he saj s, has in convenient form practically all the principal facts about the county. Thirteen such surveys have been made in North Carolina, seven in Virginia and seven in South Carolina. The Uni versity of Tennessee and the University of Arkansas have taken up the idea. The students at the University of North Carolina under the direction of Dr. E. C. Branson, head of the depart ment of rural social-economics, and his assistants have made surveys of Davidson, Buncombe, Rutherford, Pitt, Gaston, Rockingham, Forsyth', Ran dolph, Durham, Wake, Johnston, Samp son, and Halifax counties. Oliserver: Grand Commandery and the Scottish Rite acting together. The fund, now amounting to $35,000, is growing at the annual rate of $10,000 and will receive regular increments until the grand aim of building the fund to the point when there will he in the various institutions Masonic loan funds equivalent to $20 for each student taking a teacher train ing course, $10 for each girl student and $5, for each boy student is reached. Wi^h 14,000- students under the condi tions described $35,000 represents a per j capita of only $2.60. The objective of ! Prevalent and dreaded diseas^ the committee in charge of the loan ; The records show more is the measure of society’s unselfishness. I FOREST ROADS Whether he will or no, man cannot exist: More than 1,800 miles of roads and as a separate and distinct unit. He is | nearly 6,000 miles of trails were con- subject to the effects and reactions of ^ ^ au -i*-t i J , -A ;structed within or adjacent to the 147 exchange and these have no existence apart from social contact. The things I "ational forests during the fiscal year of collective community life are whole-I June 30, 1924, according to the some and valuable ohly m the proper-1 annual report made by the Chief of the tion that the individual units contribute Forest Service to the Secretary of Agri- of their unselfish desires. Finally, the matter is this; A pro gressive community is one of highly de veloped community spirit, and a highly developed community spirit is the ratio of unselfish individual contribution.— Wilmington Star. NORTH CAROLINA HOMICIDES North Carolina contr4butel more than its quota to the crime wave of the nation daring the past year, 299 deaths being designated as homicides in returns made on death certificates filed with the Slate Board of Health for 1924. Chicago, with a record of more than a njurder per day for the y^r, may have le'd the country, but thiff slate ranks well up in the forefront. Typhoid fever not so long ago was a large factor in the death rate of the state. It has been one of the causes of death against which both state and local health authorities have waged a major offensive. Now murjlers and automobile accidents each levy a greater annual ' toll of numan life than does this once jyilture. In addition maintenance work was performed on 7,423 miles of roads and 32,105 miles of trails. Including the construction work com pleted within the last year, the total mileage .of national forest roads con structed by June 30 of this year stood at 8,707 and the total mileage of trails at 15,856. The sum of $9,351,142 was expended on the road and trail work vf the Forest Service during the last fiscal year, the report says. This sum was augmented by funds from cooperative agencies, such as states, counties, and local or- i ganizations. Thirty-one states and Alaska .-hare in the pro rata distribution of funds made each year by the Forest Service to those states and territories containing na- tioiial forest lands. —Press Service U. S. Agriculture Department, funds; therefore, is seen to be a high one. Many annual additions must be made before the aim is attained to, but such is the temper of the Masonic fra ternity that time is the only factor in volved in the matter. The Masons have blazed the way. If the other friends of our colleges will put a shoulder to the wheel and do their part no young man or youn'g woman in North Carolina will fail to receive ade quate help through college or training school when it is needed. Particularly should alumni arouse themselves to the need for cooperation. In building up loan funds the Masons desire that they shall not only be a direct help to stu dents themselves but it is the hope that their activity will bring about more general public activity along the same line. The loan funds are not established to serve the sons and daughters of Masons. They are literally pro bono publico. The Mason does not consider whether the student applicant’s father or brother or grandfather has passed the '.Tyier’s door or not. than double the number of negro victims among the homicides as compared with the whites. The distribution is 94 white, 201 negro, and 4 Indian. The homicides are divided into four classifications. Of the total, 236 were killed with firearms, 47 by knives or other piercing instruments, 6 were babies killed closely following birth, and 11 were killed by other means. —State Board of Health. COOPERATIVE MARKETING The Department of Rural Education of the National Education Association at the recent meeting in Indianapolis, announced a vigorous new policy look ing to the preparation of farm childrefi for intelligent participation in coopera tive agriculture. The important facts concerning cooperative marketing which should be taught in the schools are be ing selected and put into text-books and courses of study. They will be taught as far as possible to all pupils in the public schools—city and .country alike— that all may have an intelligent and sympathetic understaiiding of the co operative mode of agricultural life, A com-mittee consi.sting of two groups has been appointed. 'Group I will assemble the salient facts about cooperative marketing. The duty of Group II, con sisting of educators, will be to write these textbooks into courses of study. Ex-Governor F. 0. Lowdeii.-of Oregon, Illinois, is chairman of this'joint com- NURSING IN MARYLAND Organized public health nursing, under the direction of the state department of health, is now carried on in 21 of the 23 counties of Maryland, according to a statement issued by the department. The total number of nurses engaged in the county "work is 42. In view of the j mittee, and Macy Campbell, head of the importance of the work done for moth-1 Department of Rural Education, Iowa era and children and ihe large proper- ! State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, tion of the time of the nurse that is j /[owa, is secretary. The work of the spent in service of that character, the'/committee is going actively forward, department of health has made appro-' It is proposed to keep at the \ask with priations in 11 counties to supplement! the same devotion that characterized The committee in charge i the amount each county was able to I the thirty-ye'ar campaign of the W. C. of the fund does not have anything to j raise for the purpose. These lappro-| T, U. to secure the teaching of the do with making loans. i priations are made with the understand^-; effects of alcohol in the schools of It takes no part in passing on the ] ‘hat as the work develops and its i America, until farm children are being worthiness or scholastic standing of the ' usefulness is demonstrated the expense i for applicant. The money is merely placed | gradually be in the custody of the 28 institutions of | America. ^ North Carolina to be used where the I == assumed locally. — ; participation in cooperative agriculture, i —Rural America. ■ J 2l -Charlotte THE MASONIC LOAN FUND The Masons of North Carolina stand four-square for education. Not only have they, in every way possible, spoken and written and pleaded for it, but they are providing means through loan funds to help colle-ie students and teachers taking training courses where the ser vice is needed. These funds are now available to worthy and ambitious stu dents in each of the 28 institutions in cur state. This loan fund is provided by the Grand Lodge, the Grand Chapter, the college administration thinks it is most j needed and will do most good. ! The great aim of the Masonic fra ternity is to do all in its power to give a death-blow to ignorance; to induce every boy and girl, young 'man and young woman, to receive the highest degree of education possible, and to extend friendly loans to every student going through college in want of finan cial accommodation. —The Orphan’s Friend. COMMUNIIY SPIRIT Aristotle defines man as a soeial ani mal. There is no known point in humai^ development in which man was not as sociated in some loose form of social organism, from which fact the philoso pher formulated hip deduction. Reduced to its elements, this means that man’s wants, both material and social, can be supplied wholly only, by interaction, which is the distinguishing character istic of the social status. It follows, therefore, that the social fabric is high or low in the degree that the social re lation is weak or strong; and that society is progressive just in the proportion that the social relatioff is highly developed and permanently maintained. Community spirit is the collective sense of social relation, and in order that it may be an effective force in progress and development, it must be fact, not theory. As a man is measured by his personal conduct, so community Spirit is measured by its cohesiveness; and the cohesive principle is strong or weak in just the degree that the social relation is enlightened and informed. From apother angle, community spirit FEDERAL INCOME TAXPAYERS FOR 1923 Percent of Total Pppalation Filing Personal'Returns In the follow'ing table, based on Statistics of Income, Faieral Treasury De partment, the states are ranked according to the percent of the total population filing federal personal income tax returns for the income year 1923. The accom panying column shows the number of returns filed by each state. A large per cent of individuals, and corporatioii^i as well, who file returns actually pay no tax. In California 13.6 percent of the inhabitants filed federal income tax re turns. In Mississippi only 1.56 percent filed personal returns. For the United States 6.94 percent of the population filed personal income tax returns. For North Carolina, 68,191 returns were filed, which represents 2.69 percent of the population. However, the average net income per return was $3,414.84, which was practically the average for all the states. Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina. rRank States Number personal returns Percent \)op. filing returns Rank States Number personal returns Percent pop. filing returns 1 California ..517,109 13.69 25 Indiana 178,831 5.94 2 Nevada ...10,467.. ....13.62 26 West Virginia. 89,268. .. , 5.76 3 New York... 1,221,654.. ....11.27 27 Missouri. ... 192,282, .. 6.68 . 4 Wyoming... ...23,246 10.97 28 Iowa 135,864 .. 6.60 5 Rhode Island ...66,966 . 10.68 29 Minnesota.... 134,360. ... 5-38 6 Massachusetts.415,iOO . .. .10.38 30 Idaho 26,012 5.32 ■ 7 Connecticut. 149,820 • 10.15 31 Nebraska 70,646. ... 5.29 8 Illinois . . . 676,489 . . 9.96 32 Kansas 86,291. .. 4.80 ' 9 Washington.. ..136,057.y .... 9.14 33 Florida 49,691. .... 4.74 10 Michigan .. . 360,072" .. 8.80 S4 Texas 200,683. .. 4.06 11 New Jersey. ..293,503 . 8.68 36 Louisiana 67,440 ... 3.65 12 Maryland .. . 127,770 . .... 8.49 36 South Dakota. 21,928. .... 3,35 13 Oregon . . -. ., 69,123 . .. 8.40 37 New Mexico... 12,202 .... 3.28 14 Delaware 19,202.. .... 8.33 38 Oklahoma 70,189.. .... 3.26 16 New Hampshire 36,876.. .. 8.24 30 Virginia 77,451.. .... 3.23 16 Pennsylvania ..740,47$.. 8.14 40 Kentucky.. . 79,031. .... 3.21 17 Ohio .463,017.. .... 7.67 41 Tennessee.. 69,081 ... 2.89 18 Colorado. .. .. 72,366.. ... 7.31 42 North Dakota. 18,054. .... 2.69 19 Wi^-'consin.... .,194,050.. .... 7.08 43 North Carolina 68,195. ... 2.54 20 Muntana.... .. 42,809.. .... 7.00 44 Georgia 71,341. .... 2.38 2F Utah .. 30,242.. ... 6.34 45 Alabama 61,045. .... 2.11 22 Maine .. 48,435.. .... e.'43 46 ArJcaiJsas 35,788. .... 1.97 23 Vermont .. 21,752.. ... 6.17 47 South Carolina 28,225, .... 1.62 24 Arizona .. 22,899.. .... 6.01 48 Mississippi.... 27,861. .... 1.66

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