Skip to Content
North Carolina Newspapers

The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, April 13, 1927, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation of this newspaper page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE U.NIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. APRIL 13, 1927 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS ' VOL. XIII, No. 22 Editorial iloai-di E. C. Branson. S. H. Hobbs. Jr.. L. E. Wilson, E. W. Knight, D. D. ChitoH. J. B. Bullitt, II. W. Odum. Entered as second-class matter November 14, 19H. at the I’ostofTice at Chapel Hill, N. C., under the act of Augu-st 24. 1912, THE COUNTY FINANCE ACT A comparion act to the county fiscal control uet is the County Finance Act. This measure is designed to prevent the accumulation of an unwarranted in debtedness and to otherwise safeguard county cr'^dit. Three types of borrow ing are permitted, namely, (a) notes in anticipation of taxes, (b) notes in anti cipation of long-term loans, and (c) serial bonds. A county may borrow for ordinary expenses in anticipation of taxes up to eighty percent of the amount of un- cullecteu taxes and other unrealised revenue for the current fiscal year, provided such loan is repaid not later than thirty days after the expiration of such fiscal year. A county may borrow fir the purpose of paying' the principal or interest of bonds or notes due or to become due within four months, and not otherwise adequately provided for, and such loan shall be payable not later than the end of the next succeeding fiscal year. A county may borrow money in anti cipation of the receipts of the proceeds of the sale of bonds to an amount not exceeding Uie maximum authorized amount of the bond issue. Such loans shall be paid not later than three years after the time the order authorizing the bonds takes effect. Notes matur ing in less than six months may be disposed of by public or private negotia tions, after five days of public notice. Notes maturing more than six months from date of issue shall be sold in the same manner as bonds, that is, upon sealed proposals after the sale has been advertised for at least ten days. All bonds shall mature in annual series: and a tax sufficient to pay the principal and interest of the bonds when due shall be annually levied and collected. Bonds shall mature within the life-time of the improvement for which they are issued. The act estab lishes what shall be considered the maximum life of each type of building and of each type of roads which may be constructed. The present floating indebtedness of any county may be funded if such funding bonds are issued before July 1,1927; otherwise such debts must become an item in next year’s budget. All funding bonds must mature within fifteen years, and all refunding bonds within twenty years, and the first installment become paya ble within two years. Debt Limitations After the introduction, and at least ten days before the final passage of an order for the issuance of bonds for school purposes, a sworn statement shall be prepared by a person desig nated for the purpose, showing the existing school debt and what percent age of the assessed valuation it con stitutes. The total school debt of the county shall not exceed five percent of the assessed valuation of such county; provided, however, that if the net school debt at the time this act is ratified be in excess of four-fifths of the limita tion mentioned above, the net debt may be increased as much as two percent of assessed valuation: Provided further, that if any county shall assume all outstanding indebtedness for school purposes of every subdivision the limit of the net debt of such county for school purposes shall be eight percent. For all other than school purposes there is also established a five percent limita tion, with the provision that an exist ing debt in excess of four percent may be increased as much as two percent. These limitations do not apply when funding or refunding bonds are con templated, for such bonds do not add to the net debt. They merely substitute one form of obligation for another. Bonds issued for other than necessary purposes must be submitted to a vote of the people by virtue of a clause to that effect in the constitution. Bonds issued for necessary purposes do not have to be sanctioned by popular vote unless in particular instances the legislature so enacts. Bonds issued for necessary purpose under the provision of this act must be submitted to the voters only when a petition to that effect, signed by fifteen percent of the voters, is filed within thirty days after the first publication of the order. If a; majority of the votes cast in the elec-! tion are opposed to the bond issue the order must be repiealed. No referendum is necessary in order to issue funding or refunding bonds. The act also contains a detailed ac count of the procedure to be followed in floating bond issues, safeguards against the misappropriation of the proceeds, and many other points. ~ Paul W. Wager. LAWLESSNESS DISCUSSED The Trend Toward Lawlessness was the subject under discussion at the last meeting of the North Carolina Club. Mr. J. F. Ashby, a student from Mount Airy, read a paper which be had prepared on the subiect. Whether this generation is any more lawless than earlier generations or whether the country is actually in the throes of a crime wave is uncertain. It may be that the newspaper reporters are more diligent than formerly in recording crime. It may be that crime is being played-up by the newspapers more. Even so, there is too much crime, and America has acquired the unenviable reputation of being first in crime and lawlessness among the na tions of the world. The ratio of homi cides to population is only one-half as great in Italy; one-eighth in Ireland; one-ninth in England and Wales, one thirty-sixth in Switzerland. Further more, the ratio of homicides per 100,- 000 population in the United States increased from 7.2 for the period 1911- 1921 to 10.3 in 1924. This is indicative that there is a trend toward lawless ness. Mr. Ashby quoted Judge J. M. Oglesby to the effect that in North Carolina there was cause for concern in “the lack of respect for constituted authority and the growing tendency toward lawlessness.” “The alarming amount of lawlessness” in the country and in the state was recently comment ed upon by Judge J. B. Finley. There is a steady increase in lawbreaking in Charlotte, the News of that city reports. The cost of crime, however measured, is stupendous. Some investigators estimate that there is an annual pro perty loss of ten billion dollars through crime. The cost of crime in North Carolina has not been carefully ap proximated, although studies are be ing made in regard to the administra tive cost thereof. Causes of Crime Among the causes for this growth of lawlessness and crime Mr. Ashby men tioned a complacent public sentiment, lax enforcement of laws, improper laws, the failure of home, church and school to do their duties, the World War, loss of faith in religion, the inability of man to adapt himself to his new complicated civilization, and many other causes. Perhaps the first mentioned cause is the most important and far-reaching. Public opinion appears to be against the enforcement of law; the people fail to support the police officers. They break the minor statutes and ordinances when it is convenient to do so, and they, resent rigid enforcement if they are affected. Least of all will they accept any responsibility. Those who are not hostile to law enforcement are apathet- [ ic. “Democracy cannot continue and be successful,” said Mr. Ashby “if citizens fail to shoulder the responsi bilities that are required of them.” Sociologists ascribe the cause of crime almost wholly to lack of know ledge in preventing crimes, and in treat ing criminals. There has been a serious lack of facts and figures relating to crime. Recently numerous crime com missions have been constituted and their findings are enlightening. For instance, the Missouri Crime Com mission has found that crime in Mis souri is not a hazardous occupation. In St, Louis in one year there were 149 cases of homicide and 23 punishments; 2,701 burglaries and 107 punish ments; 2,076 robberies and 86 punish ments. The chances of escaping the penalty for crime are far too great. There is an insufficient amount spent on crime prevention in comparison to the expenditures for punishment. The criminologists and welfare workers are beginning to penetrate the breed ing places of crime, and the preventive work should be encouraged. Foolish sentimentality in respect DUTIES AND RIGHTS People who begin by surrendering their duties to a government, end by being compelled to surrender their rights. The American nation has kept its rights by attending to its duties. But fashions change. It is a bad habit to run to Wash ington for everything, just as it will be a bad condition if ever Wash ington comes to run everything. — Dearborn Independent. to the criminals must cease. With more definite knowledge of crime and criminals, a change in public sentiment, stricter enforcement, and the adapta tion of mankind to new conditions, it is felt that the present trend of law lessness will be effectually halted. OUR NATIONAL WEALTH The national wealth of the United States, as estimated by the National Industrial Conference Board, in 1926 amounted to 366.3 billion dollars. This is the first estimate of national wealth published since the census estimate of 1922, which was 320.8 billion dollars for that year. For 1912, the census esti mate of the national wealth was 186,3 billion dollars. Stating the amounts for 1912 and 1926 in terms of 1913 dollar purchasing yalue so as to eliminate the difference in pur chasing values of the dollar in the pre war and post-war periods and to make the two figures comparable, the Con ference Board places the national wealth in 1912 at 188 billion dollars, and in 1925 at 223.9 billion dollars of 1913 purchasing value. The nominal increase in wealth of 90.7 percent during the thirteen-year period thus becomes a real increase of 19.1 percent, or nearly one-fifth. The term “national wealth” as used in this estimate represents tangible, physical objects only, and therefore ex cludes credits and currency. It specifi cally includes land and the structures and other improvements thereon, the equipment of industrial enterprises and farms, livestock, railroad and public utility land and equipment, personal property, motor and other vehicles and gold and silver coin and bullion. Of all of these, real property, that is land and improvements, constitutes more than half, or 172.7 billion dollars' worth. Approximately three-fourths of the total wealth of the nation is in the nature of fixed assets, devoted to use as dwellings or to industrial and trans portation enterprises. Of the 172.7 billion dollars inland and improvements, about 22.7 billion dol lars’ worth is tax-exempt property, in cluding the land, buildings and public works of the federal, state and local governments, municipal enterprises and the land and improvements belonging to religious, charitable, educational organizations and other property ex empted by state laws. Railroads and public utilities, accord ing to the Conference Board’s estimate, represent a total investment of 89.2 billion dollars of physical property. Of this total value, land represents only 13.3 percent or 5.2 billion dollars; im provements, 66.4 percent, or 22.2 billions and equipment 30.3 percent or 11.8 bil lions. The total value of the equipment of farms, including livestock, and of fcctories is placed at 26.8 billion dollars, lands and buildings belonging to them being included under the general national asset of land and improve ments. All merchandise and industrial products on hand were valued at 40 billion dollars. Personal property, con sisting of such objects as furniture, clothing, jewlery and the like amounted to 44.1 billions or more than the physi cal value of all our railroads and public utilities, and considerably mpre than the entire equipment of all the farms and factories. Automobiles are classed with gold and silver coin and bullion as “miscellan eous”. But the total value represented by our entire stock of gold and silver bullion and coins plus all the nation’s automobiles, numbering nearly 20,000,- 000, together make up by far the smallest item, a total of 9.8 billions, or less than two and three-fourths per cent of our total national wealth. RURAL AMERICA Did you know that in Rural America: There are forty-five million people? Thirty million people live on farms? There are more children per thousand of population than in the cities? Only one person in five goes to Church? One seventh of all town and country communities are without non-Roman Churches? Seven out of ten rural churches have only a fraction of a pastor apiece? One-third of all rural pastors have to supplement their income by secular work? Two out of five rural churches are standing still or going backwards? There are four million boys and girls who never go to Church or Sunday School? Eighty-three percent of the members of the Episcopal Church live in cities and towns? County after county in the United State.s hasn’t a single Episcopal Church? The Episcopal Church is awakening to the challenge at its doors? The Division for Rural Work at the National Council, 281 Fourth Avenue., New York City, stands ready to help the Churches’ Rural Work, anywhere and everywhere.—The Church at Work. EXPENDITURES OF OUR STATE GOVERNMENT FOR 1925 The following table, based on Financial Statistics of States, Federal Depart ment of Commerce, itemizes the governmental cost payments of Nortb Caro lina’s state government for the year 1026. Expenditures are classed under nine heads, with sub-heads showing the amounts spent on various items. A study of the table will familiarize the reader with the many activities of our state government, along with the amount spent on each item in 1926. Interest on state debt, $4,421,994, is not included below. The bulk of our state debt has been incurred to build highways, and interest on the highway debt is specially provided for. The total cost of operating the general departments of our state in 1925 was $16,679,744. The per inhabitant cost was $6.09, and on this basis North Caro lina ranked forty-second among the states. S, H. Hobbs, Jr. Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina Total Expenditure of general departments $16,679,744 1. General government $1,463,460 a. Legislature $203,400 b. Legislative investigations 10,677 c. Chief executive 53,417 d. Auditor 66,964 e. Special auditing state accounts 29,973 f. Auditing accounts minor civil divisions 66,262 g. Treasurer 34,182 h. Collection of revenues 469,997 i. Other financial 42,860 j. Law offices and accounts 28,665 k. Secretary of state 32,317 l. Supreme court 62,379 m. Other courts 209,768 n. Elections 14,629 6. General government buildings 149,700 2. Protection to person and property 664,146 a. -Police 6,699 b. Militia and armories 132,368 c. Fish and game warden 87,410 d. Regulation of financial institutions 47,441 e. Regulation of insurance companies 45,994 f. Regulation of public ser\;;ce corporations 68,340 g. Regulation of professional occupations 4,067 h. Regulation of sale of feed, seed, fertilizer 81,366 i. Regulation of sale of oil and gas 62,223 j. Regulation of weights and measures 100 k. Regulation of labor 16,917 l. Fire warden 23,013 m. Prohibition enforcement 61,288 3. Development and Conservation of Natural resources $927,221 a. Agriculture: supervising, extension, experiment stations, etc 809,727 b. Geological survey 117,494 4. Conservation of health and sanitation $780,315 a. Supervising department 114,479 b. Vital statistics 23,746 c. Prevention and treatment of communicable dis eases 426,879 d. Conservation of child life 114,716 e. Food inspection and regulation 6,903 f. Regulation of professional occupations 13,073 g. Other health and sanitation 81,619 6. Highways (construction not included) $3,310,684 a. Supervising department 260,971 b. Roads maintained by the state 2,821,682 c. Bridges 236,707 d. Waterways 1,424 6. Charities, Hospitals, and Corrections $3,051,175 A. Charities a. Supervising department 39,692 b. Care children 67,290 c. Blind, deaf and mute 283,736 B. Hospitals a. Insane 1,178,217 b. Feeble-minded and other special 221,660 C. Corrections a. Institutions for adults 1,127,157 b. Institutions for minors 142,002 c. Pardon and parole boards 1,632 7. Education $5,233,447 A. Schools a. Supervising department 160,962 b. State institutions 3,072,413 c. Apportionments to minor civil divisions 1,842,788 d. All other 83,104 B. Libraries a. State 69,931 b. Other 4,249 8. Recreation $11,092 a. Education 8,246 b. Parks and reservations 2,847 9. Miscellaneous $1,238,204 a. Pensions, etc. to former state employees 16,900 b. Pensions, soldiers and sailors 1,122,826 c. Mothers’ aid 29,603 d. Other special relief 13,676 e. Administration of public trusts and investments ... 21,005 f. Printing and stationery 32,716 g. Other miscellaneous, 1,678

North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.

Digital North Carolina