The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, June 08, 1927, Image 1
The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. JUNE 8, 1927 THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. E.C. Branson, S.H.Hol,b,. J,.. L. R. R. w. K„«h.. D: D. Ca.roU. J. B. Bum,., H. W. Od„„' CHAPEL HILL, N. C. the university of north CAROLINA PRESS VOL. XIII, No. 30 CARING FOR THE FEEBLE-MINDED CAaiNG FOR FEEBLE-MINDED The table which appears elsewhere ranks the states according to white inmates in state and private institu tions for the care of the feeble:minded per one hundred thousand population. The parallel column gives the number of negro inmates in institutions pro vided for the care of the feeble-minded per one hundred thousand negroes. There is this point to keep in mind while reviewing the table: The rank of the states is due almost altogether to difference in provision made for the care of feeble-minded, and is no evi dence of the extent of feeble-minded ness. As a matter of fact the states do not vary greatly in the proportion of the total population that is feeble minded. Out of a hundred thousand inhabitants there will probably be as many feeble-minded in North Carolina as in New Hampshire, but New Hamp shire's rate of inmates in institutions for the care of feeble-minded is more i than five times as high as North Caroli- ■ na's. Which simply means that New j Hampshire is more adequately caring for | such unfortunates in institutions pro-1 vided for their care. j Few in Institutions Only a small part of the feeble-1 minded in the United States are in, institutions provided for their care. ! The vast majority are in the com-; munity, where many of them get along : reasonably well and are partially or j wholly self-supporting. Numerous others are found in almshouses and in penal and reformatory institutions. The feeble-minded are usually di vided into three classes: idiots, im beciles, and morons. An idiot is a mentally defective person having a mental age of not more than thirty- five months, or, if a child, an intelli gence quotient of less than twenty-five. An imbecile is a mentally defective person having a mental age between thirty-six months and eighty-three months, inclusive, or, if a child, an in telligence quotient between twenty- five and forty-nine. A moron is a mentally defective person having a mental age between eighty-four months and one hundred and forty-three months, inclusive, or, if a child, an intelligence quotient between fifty and seventy- four. Caswell Training School North Carolina has one institution for the care of feeble-minded, the Caswell Training School, located at Kinston. This school was authorized in 1911 and opened in 1914. There is no private institution in the state for the care of feeble-minded. The Cen sus Bureau reports that on January first, 1923, there were three hundred and eight inmates in the Caswell Training School. Our rate of inmates in this school is 17.3 per one hundred thousand white ihhabitants in the state. Thirty-four states provide for a larger proportion of their feeble minded. The states that rank be low us are seven Southern states, and five far western frontier states that are too new and young to have developed much beyond the individual istic point of view. An outstanding fact is the rapid in crease ip^ recent years in the number of states providing special institutions for their feeble-minded. The first state to establish such an institution was Massachusetts, in 1848, followed by New York in 1861. Fourteen states were maintaining separate state in stitutions for their feeble-minded in 1890, twenty-one in 1904, twenty-six in 1910, forty in 1923, and forty-four in 1926. South Ignores Negroes A most glaring fact is that although about ninety percent of the negro population of the United States live in the South, no Southern state had provided an institution for the care of feeble-minded negroes as late as 1923. There was a private institution in Louisiana that had seventy-one in mates. North Carolina has a training school for negro boys similar to the Stonewall Jackson Training school for white boys, but no institution for the care of feeble minded whites, also have institutions for feeble-minded negroes. In three of these four excep tional states there are practically no negro inhabitants. Seventeen states have higher rates of negroes than whites in institutions for feeble-minded. Were feeble-minded negroes admitted to institutions on the same terms as feeble-minded whites it is probable that the rate for negroes would be higher in all the states. The establishment of separate state institutions for the care of epileptics is a comparatively new development in the care of this class. In 1923 there were only nine state institutions for epileptics, located in the following states: Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Mass achusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Texas. In North Caro lina the institution for epileptics is not a separate one, but a department of the state hospital for mental dis eases at Raleigh.—S. H. H., Jr. HOMES FOR TEACHERS There were 436 teachers’ cottages in the state of Washington at thg end of the school year 1926-1926, according to the state Department of Education. This is an increase of four over the number reported one year previously. Thirty-eight of the thirty-nine coun ties in Washiagton now have teacher- ages. The number of teachers’ homes in.Mississippi increased from 226 in in 1923 to 330 in 1926. Throughout the I United States the number of teacher- ages in connection with rural schools is steadily increasing. School patrons are finding that comfortable and attractive rooms or homes must be available if desirable teachers are to be secured and retained in rural schools. Modern buildings, varying in size from the small two room cottage for the teacher of a one-room school to the large type building for the dozen or more teachers of consolidated schools, are found in nearly every state. Fre quently there are one or mere large teacherages in connection with con solidated schools located in small vil lages or in the open country and in addition one or more small cottages for faculty members with families. Cali fornia, Oregon, Utah, Colorado, Texas, Kansas, and Minnesota, among other states, are providing teachers’ homes in many rural communities.—Rural America, May 1927. feeble-minded negroes. Exclusive of the Southern states, all other states except four that have institutions for A LIBRARY ON RAILS The Library Car operated by the Missoula County Free Library in coop eration with the Anaconda Copper Min ing Company is a new development of library extension service according to the American Library Association. The library on rails is a freight car twelve by forty feet, painted grey, and carries the sign Missoula County Free Library, re ports Elizabeth B, Powell, the librarian. A pair of wooden steps lead to the entrance and when the car is moved from one camp to another the steps are raised and then lowered when the librarian is again ready for business. It is moved by a locomotive as the log ging advances and the men are work ing farther in the forest. The inside of the car is well lighted, heated, and comfortably furnished with a long table with arm chairs. Open 1 book cases extend around two-thirds of the walls and at one end is the libta- rian’s office. Here the necessary cleri cal work is done and small bundles of books are made up to be packed, either by man or by horse, to camps perhaps five or six miles from the car. The librarian is an employee of the company and being a lover of books is thoroughly interested in the work, re ports regularly to the county librarian and sends in special requests as they are made. One man was helped to obtain a patent on a water-power device, another supplied with material for his ■ correspondence course, and to a young ' college student were sent plays and books upon the drama.—American Li brary Association. KNOW NORTH CAROLINA Our Cotton Mills North Carolina leads the nation as the greatest cotton goods manu facturing state, according to the recent biennial report of the State Department of Labor and Printing. There has been a substantial growth in the textile industry during the last ten years, but it was not until two years ago that the state at tained first place in the manufacture of cotton goods. Massachusetts has more spindles in place than North Carolina, nearly twice as many, but North Carolina leads Massachusetts in cotton spindle hours by more than a billion spindle hours or about six percent. During the last five years the aggregate spindle hours per year for Massa chusetts has decreased more than four billion, while North Carolina increased her aggregate spindle hours by three and a half billion. The aggregate spindle hours for North Carolina is now approximately twenty billion per year, against less than nineteen billion for Massa- ^ chusetts. I Gaston county leads the state in spindles in place, her eighty-eight mills have 1,116,760 spindles, (.)f the seventy-three counties in the United States with more than one hundred thousand spindles twenty- one are in North Carolina. The cotton mills of the state re ported 83,528 employees, with about two dozen mills failing to report on this item. Of these employees 49, 792 are men, 30,582 are women, and 3,144 are children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen. Nearly sixty percent of all cotton mill employees are adult men. The number of em ployees between the ages of fourteen and sixteen is decreasing. Making due ' allowance for the mills that failed to report, it is esti mated that the capital stock of the four hundred and six cotton mill companies of the state amounts to approximately two hundred and thirty-five million dollars. Sixty-one mills failed to report the value of output. Making due allowance for these, including the mills that were idle, it is estimated that the value of output of the cot ton mills of the state for 1926 was three hundred and fifty million dol lars, which was considerably more than the total value of all crops produced in the state last year. The above data do not include the knitting mills. | were used in the United States during the school year 1926-1926 transporting pupils to and from 14,000 schools, ac cording to a recent interesting study, the results of which appear in the Feb- ruary issue of Bus Transportation. In j performing this service these 33,000 I school busses traveled more than 300,- 000 miles each morning and evening of every school day, transporting 876,000 children to and from school. The study also shows that for this service, school motor transportation, more than $23,000,000 was expended in all the states; school motor busses were operated in each of the 48 states and the District of Columbia; the num ber of such vehicles varied from one for approximately every 2,000 inhabi tants in the three states bordering the Pacific Ocean to one for approximately every 4,000 inhabitants in the New England states; and that there was a school motor bus for every 8,226 per sons in the United States. TAXES—AND OTHER THINGS We are told that the expenditures for all governmental purposes in the country are now around ten or eleven billion dollars yearly. This is the subject of much comment. Some believe such vast expenditures are unwarranted, that they are due to waste and extravagances on the part of public officials, that public funds are being untimely and i^wisely spent, and that the burden of taxation is almost, if not quite, unbearable. I doubt if things are as bad as they are represented. We spend upwards of fourteen billion dollars annually in ' purchasing, maintaining and operating automobiles; two billion for cigars, cigarettes and other tobacco products; one billion for beverages, exclusive of amounts paid bootleggers; one billion for entertainment, and then after pay ing taxes we find the wealth of the' nations is increasing at the rate of twenty-five billion annually. I main tain that a people who can spend the amounts enumerated for the purposes named and add to their combined wealth twenty-five billion dollars yearly, can afford, without undue hard ship, to pay ten billion—a little more or a little less—for all the advantages, benefits and blessings of government. Constant repetition of the statement that the federal government is contin- . ually reducing taxes and expenditures while the states and their localities ; are continually increasing theirs, causes I many to believe that state and local ! officials are spendthrifts, while federal ; officials have the characteristics usually j attributed to Scotchmen. A fair, im- ' partial study of the facts does not sup port this assumption.—Mark Graves, in Commerce and Finance. UTILIZING COTTONSEED An early example of what chemistry has done in the utilization of agri culture wastes is the working up of cottonseed into useful commercial products. Fifty years ago, when the industrial utilization of cottonseed was in its infancy, the disposition of the refuse seed which accumulated about the cotton gins was a most serious problem. In some cases the seed was thrown into steams, but the pollution of the river water, which was caused by this practice, led to the passage of laws, still in existence, attaching a penalty to this wasteful method of disposal. In other cases the seed was allowed to decay in large piles, which because of the objectionable odors became a nuisance. Chemists were, however, busily engaged in studying the potential wealth contained in this wasted material with the result that to-day the utilization of cottonseed for the production of fertilizers, cattle feeds, oil, soap and other products is the second largest manufacturing in dustry of the South. The seed which was formerly wasted is now converted into products which are worth many millions of dollars. But the end has not yet been reached, and the efforts of chemists are now being directed to wards the study of methods for con verting cottonseed meal into a valuable food for man. A serious obstacle in this direction is the presence in cot tonseed of a toxic substance known as gossypol, which, when consumed in too large an amount in certain meals, has caused the death of farm animals. A study of this toxic substance and of best methods for its removal is now being undertaken in a collaborative research by the Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, and the Interstate Cottonseed Crushers As sociation. There is every reason for believing that the valuable protein constitutions of cottonseed before many years will be made into safe and pala table foods for human consumption.— Hon. W. M. Jardine. OUR ADVERTISING BILL Economists and sociologists have lately given much consideration to advertising as a business and social force. The American Newspaper Pub lishers’ Association calculates that last year 3,600 national advertisers invested $236,000,000 in newspaper space alone. Among these, 309 of the largest ad vertisers spent $100,317,000. A lit tle analysis of this list shows some interesting details. For instance, 21 motor car manufac turers spent $19,067,000; nine tobacco concerns spent $9,563,000; 24 drug, chemical and toilet preparation concerns spent $7,882,000; 13 oil companies spent $6,030,000; 17 railroads spent $4,979,000; six radio concerns spent $1,420,000; five steamship companies spent $800,000. Other heavy advertising buyers are electric washing machine and electric I refrigerator makers; baking powders, I meat packers, publishing houses, motor tires, clothing, and prepared foods. The complete list presents quite an astonishing variety. The Gastonia Gazette explains that “the Advertising Bureau of the Ameri can Newspaper Publishers’ Association is endeavoring to make the fullest possible survey of the advertising field, the results of which would be of much value to both advertisers and publish ers. Apparently more money is spent to reach motor car buyers and users, by the automobile and oil companies, than on behalf of any other single group. ” Advertising, and especially news- paj>er advertising, is on^ the increase for the man who has something to sell realizes more and more each year that he must give his commodity a name through advertising before he can sell it on a large scale.—Concord Times. FEEBLE-MINDED INMATES IN INSTITUTIONS Per 100,000 Inhabitants, Both Races, Jan. 1, 1923 In the table below, based on a Bureau of the Census report on Feeble- Minded and Epileptics in Institutions, the states are ranked according to the number of white patients in institutions for feeble-minded per 100,000 white population. The parallel column gives the number of negro patients in similar institutions per 100,000 negroes. New Hampshire ranks first in the care of feeble-minded whites, closely followed by Oregon. The rate of feeble-minded negro inmates in institutions is high in the New England and Middle Atlantic states where institutions are provided for such negroes. The South makes a poor showing in the care of feeble-minded whites and only one Southern state reported an institution for the care of feeblel minded negroes. The rank of the states is due primarily to differences in provision made for the care of feeble-minded, and is no evidence of the extent of feeble-minded- ness. Department of Rural Social-Economics. University of North Carolina. TRANSPORTING CHILDREN Approxiipately 33,000 motor busses White Negro inmates inmates per per Rank State 100,000 100,000 white negro popula- popula tion tion 1 New Hampshire ...88.4 322.1 2 Oregon 86.8 139.9 3 Minnesota 79.6 46.4 4 Massachusetts 77.2 211.1 6 New York 68.8 138.6 6 South Dakota 68.0 120,2 7 Wyoming 66.8 ; 8 Iowa 66.6 47.4 | 9 Maryland 64.2 10 Wisconsin 63.2 76.9 11 Washington 60.7 29.1 12 Maine 60.1 534.4 13 Rhode Island 60.1 199.3 14 Idaho 68.7 217.4 16 Nebraska 68.4 30.2 16 Michigan 68.2 69.9 17 Indiana....; 64.1 30.9 18 North Dakota 52.7 19 Pennsylvania 61.7 41.8 20 New Jersey 51.2 65.7 21 California 60.4 33.5 22 Vermont 60.3 349.7 23 Ohio 43.6 46.1 24 Kansas 43.2 46.6 Rank State White inmates per 100,000 white popula tion Negro inmates per 100,000 negro popula tion 26 Connec^jeut 40.6 42.8 26 Virginia 39.8 27 Illinois 37.7 45 1 28 Colorado 27.6 36.3 29 West Virginia 26.1 30 Delaware 26.0 31 Kentucky 24.4 — 32 Missouri 24.1 33 Florida 21.9 34 Oklahoma 18.1 _5.5 North Carolina 17.3 36 Montana 16.8 37 Louisiana 9.0 38 Mississippi 8.8 39 Texas 40 Georgia 41 Tennessee 42 Arkansas 43 Alabama (1) ... 43 Arizona (1)... 43 Nevada (1)... 43 Mew Mexico..(1)... 43 Utah (1)... 6.9.. . 2.8.. . 0.8... 0.6... (1) These states had no state or private institution for the care of feeble minded.