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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published Weekly by the
University of North Caro
lina for the University Ex
JULY 20, 1927
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS
VOL. XIII, No. 36
Editorial Boards E. C. Branson, S. H. Hobbs. Jr.. .L. R. Wilson. E. W. Knight, i). D. Carroll. J. B. Bullitt. H. W. Odum.
Entered as second-class matter November 14. 1914. at the Postoffice at Chapel Hill, N. C.. under the act of August 24. 1912.
LUXURIES VS. EDUCATION
The American people spend more
money in a year for tobacco than they
do for education. They spend more for
drug-store products than they do for
tobacco. They spend a billion dollars
a year for movies and theatre admis
sions. For trivial luxuries they spend
nearly twice as much as the cost of the'
federal government. At least such is
the case if the estimates prepared by
the United States Treasury Department
are reliable. The estimated expendi
tures for certain luxuries in 1924 are
Item U. S. N. C.
Tobacco $1,847,000,000 $19,024,100
cream 820,000,000 8,446,000 |
etc 934,000.000 9,620,200
Candy 689,00b,000 7,096,700
Chewing gum 87,000,000 896,100
Jewelry 463.000,000 4,666,900
toys, etc. 431,000,000 4,439,300
metics ... 261,000,000 2,688,300
Totals $6,622,000,000 $56,876,600
The figures for the states were in
dependently estimated by distributing
the national expenditures for these
luxuries among the states according to
such guides as value of intangible
wealth, average annual income, taxes
paid in connection with admissions to
theatres, and taxes paid in connection
with purchase of jewelry. The amounts
given for each state should therefore
be considered only as approximations.
We are reproducing here only the esti
mated expenditures for tobacco and
the total estimated expenditures for
all these luxuries. A parallel column
shows School expenditures for the
same year in the several states.
Evidence of Ability
It will be noticed that North Carc-
lina’s expenditures for these several
items'is estimated at $56,876,600, and
for tobacco alone $19,024,100. The
total current expenses and outlays for
‘ schools in 1924 was $30,980,022. Our
tobacco bill was thus more than sixty
percent as much as our educational bill
and our total luxury bill was nearly
twice as much as our entire school
expenditures. Nor does this group of
luxuries, so-called, include any of the
more costly type of luxuries, such as
automobiles, victrolas, radios, expen
sive furniture, elegant clothing, and
It is neither necessary nor desirable
that the American people forego these
luxuries. It is gpod that we have a
standard of life high enough to permit
such indulgences. On the other hand
we cannot spend these huge suras for
non-essentials and then plead poverty
when it comes to paying taxes for
schools or supporting other worth-while
causes. We are spending in North
Carolina fifty-six million dollars a year
for knickknacks and we groan terribly
when it becomes necessary to increase
the state budget by a million or two
dollars. We say we cannot afford an
eight months’ school term, yet our
candy bill alone would more than pay
for the increased terra. Our tobacco
bill each year exceeds the total cost
of the state government. Our luxury
bill would pay the entire state debt in
two and one half years. If we would
reduce our expenditures for these non-
essentials by five percent and increase
our taxes by that amount we could add
$2,800,000 a year to the equalizing fund.
It ■ is unnecessary to make further
comparisons. Enough has been said to
reveal that we are not a poverty-
stricken state. A state that can af
ford fifty-six million dollars a year for
tobacco, movies, and certain drug-store
products can afford to spend liberally
for more substantial things. What we
spend on*tobacco alone is almost equal
to the current cost of all the public
schools in the state. What we can
afford in North Carolina depends en
tirely upon how badly we want it-
KNOW NORTH CAROLINA
North Carolina is the largest pro
ducer of tobacco and the seventh largest
grower of cotton, but the rise as a
producer of agricultural products is
only a part of a more widespread prog
ress. The real measure of the state’s
economic progress is, to be found in its
industrial growth, according to Elmore
F. Higgins, vice-president, The Bank
of America, New York.
In a study which appears in The
Bank of America Review, Mr. Higgins
finds that the manufacture of tobacco
products, furniture, lumber, and partic
ularly textiles, has been responsible
for a general growth of trade and com
mercial activity throughout a large
part of the state.
“Two years ago, North Carolina be
came the leading cotton spinning state.
Massachusetts has stili the largest
number of spindles in its mills but in
operation of spindles and i.a the con
sumption of raw cotton, North Caro
lina now ranks first.
“Second only to textile manufacture
in importance to the state is the manu
facture of tobacco products, and North
Carulina farmers have found tobacco
one of the most profitable crops to
raise. Last year’s crop, valued at
$103,000,000, represented nearly a third
in value of the principal crops in the
state, yet less than one-tenth of the
cultivated area was given over to.it.
“The future for the growing of to
bacco and manufacture of its products
is exceedingly bright. Not only is
scientific study being applied to its
cultivation but improvements are also
being made in the methods of mer
chandising, evidenced by the growth of
marketing centers and better ware
“The furniture industry also plays
an important role in the industrial life
of North Carolina. In 1925 the value
of household furniture produced in the
state amounted to $48,149,403. Allied
to this is the lumber industry which
cuts over a billion board XX feet an
nually. Saw mills are scattered
throughout the state and while for the
most part of moderate size their total
output is large.
“One of the biggest factors in the
recent expansion of North Carolina’s
trade and industry has be'en the advent
of good roads. Tne construction of
hard-paved highways throughout the
state has opened up its farming com
munities to the world, stimulated trade
and accelerated the growth of indus
trial centers to such an extent that
their importance is hard to over esti
mate. A recent survey of state in
debtedness made by The Bank of
America shows that North Carolina has
issued bonds for highway construction
aggregating $85,299,600—an amount ex ■
ceeded by only three states. While this
expenditure has raised the bonded debt
of the state to $143,392,600, the second
largest in the Union, its results are
already evident and North Carolina
promises to grow with its roads.
“Notable progress has also been
made in adding to and improving edu
cational facilities. And it shows that
the progressive citizens of North Caro
lina are laying down solid foundations
upon which to •'ontinue building for the
A VIRGIN PAGE
If a man’s memory is not a virgin
page for his own perceptions, but is
written and crossed over with the
thoughts of former persons, he is in
constant doubt as to whether he is
‘original’, or is merely giving a fresh
wording to old stuff; whereas, if he
write from the heart, he is free from
anxiety, for one man’s heart can
never see or fee! like any other’s.—
Julian Hawthorne, in The Dearborn
North Carolina ranks twenty-eighth
in size and fourteenth in population but
only seven states rank ahead of us in
the number of miles of surfaced high
ways maintained by the state. Further
more, only eight states rank ahead of
us in the number of miles of surfaced
roads maintained by local governments,
which happen to be counties in North
Carolina. The United States Bureau
of Public Roads reports that on Janu
ary 1, 1926, North Carolina had 6,311
miles of state-constructed and state-
maintained surfaced highways, and 14.-
705 miles of surfaced highways main
tained by counties. This refers to a year
and a half ago. The mileage of surfaced
highways has been increased consider
ably during the last eighteen months,
and due to the rapidity with which we
are constructing state and local high
ways it is very probable that our rank
is higher now than at that time.
five in 1897. The record of tragedies
in 1926 was 20,000.’’
i\Ir. Schnering recently launched a
national safety movement for the spe
cial purpose of preserving the lives of
children. Five thousand children, he
declared, are killed by motor cars an
nually in the United States. —News and
According to the 1927 edition of Facts
and Figures of the Automobile Indus
try. National Automobile Chamber of
Commerce, North- Carolina ranked
eighteenth in number of motor vehicles
with 386,047 January 1, 1927. This
total involves an estimate for the last
six months of the year as our registra
tion begins on July 1.
In persons per motor car North Caro- ;
lina ranks thirty-eighth. Ten Southern |
states rank below North Carolina. j
The numerical increase in motor ^
vehicles for the calendar year 1926 is i
reported as 44,760, with only fourteen j
states showing a larger numerical gain. ;
The increase in motor vehicles for the
year was 13.1 percent, and only twelve
states showed larger gains. North
Carolina’s motor cars are increasing
about ten times as fast as our popula-
j tion. It will not be long before we shall
I average a motor car to the family in
i North Carolina. Already there is one
I to approximately every six and one-
NORTH CAROLINA PEACHES
According to a survey made, by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture,
there are 2,190,894 peach trees in the
commercial orchards of North Carolina.
Of this number 1,843,228 trees are lo
cated in Moore, Montgomery, and
Richmond counties. In 1926 these three
counties shipped 1,806 cars out of a
state total of 2,072. Candor in Mont
gomery county is the heaviest loading
point, moving 6S0 cars.
In volume of carload peach shipments
North Carolina, during the 1926 season,
ranked sixth, being preceded in turn
by New York, Arkansas, Illinois, Geor
gia, and California, and followed in
order of importance by Tennessee,
Washington, Colorado, and New Jersey.
Georgia, shipping 18,000 carloads a
year, is North Carolina’s greatest com
The destination of 1866 cars shipped
from North Carolina during the peak
of the season, July 12 to August 14 in
clusive, was as follows: N. Y. 687; Pa.
447; Mass. 126; Md. 103; Va. 83; Ohio
76; Ct. '75; N. J. 74; D. C. 65; R. I. 63;
Mich. 25; N. C. 25; Me. 5; Ind. 6; Ky.
4; Del. 3; Ala. 2; N. H. 1; Vt. 1; Canada
1; Cuba 1.
“A bottle of milk and a bath’’ was
the first request of Charles A. Lind
bergh, after reaching the home of
Ambassador Herrick in Paris upon the
completion of his trans-Atlantic flight.
A. M. Loomis, Secretary of the
American Dairy Federation says this
is the finest tribute which has ever
been paid to the American cow and that
the slogan whicti Lindbergh innocently
created will be worth millions to the
When Lindbergh made his simple
request he unconsciously epitomized
our American ideals—sobriety, health,
cleanliness, character. He rejected
wine and asked for a health-giving
food, the food upon which he was
reared and which is in part responsible ’
for his superb physical manhood. Milk
is nature's most perfect food, and
American children grow strong and
ruddy by drinking it. There are mil
lions of children in France and other
European countries who never get a
taste of milk. And, alas, there
are children in North Carolina, thous
ands of them, who are denied this
nourishing food. The last agricultural
census reveals that there are 100,000
farms in North Carolina without a
single cow. Think of it—100,000 farm
families, a half million farm inhabi
tants, among whom are a third of a
million children, who hardly know the
taste of milk!
EXPENDITURE FOR LUXURIES AND EDUCATION
The following table, based on estimates of the federal Treasury Depart
ment as reported by the National Education Associaton and on statistics of
state school systems issued by the federal Bureau of Education, shows for 1924
the total expenditures for schools of all sorts, compared with expenditures
for luxuries. Included under luxuries are only the following: Tobacco, soft
drinks and ice cream, theatres and movies, candy, chewing gum, jewelry,
sporting goods, perfumes and cosmetics. Automobiles and numerous other
things which might be included in part or in whole do not enter into the
The third column shows the estimated expenditures by states for tobacco
Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina.
Few of the farmers’ organizations or
their leaders have the vision to see that
the current agrarian agitation is not an
effort to save agriculture and the
country so much as an effort to help
industry and the city
These few know that the only solution
of the farm problem is not to devise
ways by which the farmer can get more
money, but to free him from the bonds
of artificial debt and desire which have
made him want it at all.
For the land is not only our ultimate
natural resource so long as we have to
raise food, but it is our ultimate hu
man spiritual resource so long as we
wish to raise men. The problem of its
cultivation is primarily a problem of
culture and only then a problem of eco
nomics. It is whether we shall culti
vate soil and souls or dollars and desires,
whether we shall have men or mere
consumers on our farms.—Virgil Jor
dan, in Forum.
DEATH FROM MOTOR CARS
Automobiles have killed since 1895
more than half as many persons as have
been killed in the six major wars in
which the United States has engaged
in its history.
This was the startling statement of
Otto Y. Schnering, safety expert of
national reputation, in an address here.
Total deaths from automobiles in 32
' years have been 170,612, according to
: Mr. Schnering, whose figures are based
on National Safety Council records.
Total number of men killed in the six
: great wars of the United States were
I Mr. Schnering gave a tabulation of
deaths in wars in this way:
American Revolution 2,000
War of 1812 1,877
Mexican War 19,315
Civil War 243,891
' Spanish War 6,619
World War 60,000
I Total 323,702
“No records exist of those killed in
the Revolution and 2,000 is perhaps a
i fair estimate, as 288,200 soldiers were
engaged in the struggle for indepen
dence. The figure for the Mexican War
: includes the killed and those who died
! from disease and accident. Statistics
' for the Civil War comprise deaths in
both Northern and Southern armies.
“Deaths from automobiles are a mat
ter of estimate from 1896 to 1910. After
1910 the record is exact. Four automo
biles were in public use in 1895 and 22,-
001,393 in 1926. No deaths were caused :
by automobiles in 1896 or 1896, and only I
.... 9,440,786 ....
... 124,240,978 ..
.... 22,960,826 ...
.... 24,996,771 ....
. 3,203,492 ....
District of Columbia . 6,668,393 ....
... 12,398,902 ....
.... 8,972,918 ....
.... 51,169,383 ...
.... 17,195,004 ....
.... 19,432,339 ....
... 10,129,601 ....
.... 82,858,436 ....
... 9,833,452 ....
New Mexico ....
North £)akota ...
. # 63,533,200
Rhode Island ...
.... i 9,349,616
... 4,026,666.. ..