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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published Weekly by the
University of North Caro
lina for the University Ex
AUGUST 3, 1927
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
the university of north CAROLINA PRESS
VOL. xm, No. 38
EiHlorial Board! E. C. Branson. S. H. Hobbs, Jr., L. E. Wilson. E. W. Knisht, D. D. Carroll. J. B. Bullitt. H. W. Odum.
Entered as second-class matter November 14. 1914. at the Postoffice at Chapel Hill. N. C.. under the act of Auffuat 24. 1912.
FACTS ABOUT NORTH CAROLINA
OUH COUNTY CHAIN GANGS
Only by calling the county chain
gang “ours'’ may we appreciate fully
that the problem is up to all North
Carolinians. The system as operating
in many counties of this state is anti
quated and should be remedied or
Grady watched the house bud in the
spring, i^row into full bloom as sum
mer advanced, and ripen with the au-
tumn. He called it a patchwork palace,
for to tbe ragpicker it meant more
than a castle to a king. Grady was a
great home-lover; to him the important
point was that the patchwork palace
r„, . . , 1 • ; filled the rag-picker’s desire for a
That county convict road working I
fails economically and as a penal iristi- ■ i
tution, except in a few counties that) Clesire to own homes is instinctive, j
have a large number of prisoners, is | Persons driven from their homes, and ;
shown by Jesse F. Steiner and Roy M. i because of their social state ;
Brown in a recent study published by i chance to obtain them, are re- j
the University of North Carolina Press. : SetJed as some of the most pitiable I
Their findings comprise a vivid picture ;/^^Aritafale charges. j
.Of the county chain gang system. j f stressing his utter lack of |
, a.- I- ao 1 worldly goods when he told a would-be
Based on data from JO of the 48, -The foxes have holes, and!
; the birds of the air have nests: but!
counties that maintain chain gangs,
and including 1,621 of the 2,600 prison
ers in these groups October 1, 1926,
the study may be regarded as suffi
ciently broad to represent conditions
generally over the state. It deals with
questions of sanitation, discipline, eco
nomic aspects and county versus state
control of convict road work. While
stressing the need of prisons where
social correction rather than mere
punishment will be the primary aim,
the research workers indict strongly
the existing practices in small counties.
In the chapter on “Health and Sani
tation,” cases revealing .almost un
believable lack of sanitation and medi
cal care at some of the temporary
camps are cited from reports of the
State Board of Charities and Public Wel
fare. It is unfortunate that names of
the definquent counties are omitted and
that few case histories are cited. “At
least three-fourths of all the county
the Son of Man hath not where to lay
Today, those who possess their abodes
seem to ingratiate themselves in a
community. They display a confidence
in their neighbors which causes people
near them to reciprocate. Home own
ers represent stability in^a community';
they are its greatest asset.
What is more, home owners gain for
themselves something that is essential
to everyone in a community—content
ment, the happiness of a lowly rag
picker who rejoices under the eaves of
his own patchwork palace.—Asheville
THE SOUTH OF TODAY
Inspiration for every Southerner is i
in the story of what the South has
achieved in the last twenty-five years.
It is a romance in dollar marks. In a
prison camps occupy quarters of such concise summary, The Manufacturers
a nature that it is exceedingly difficult Record tells the tale as follows;
if not impractical to maintain health-, “In 1900 the country had nearly twice
ful living conditions for prisoners even the population of the South of today,
under the best management, tbe in- but the total wealth if the country at
vestigators assert. * that time was only 10 percent largtjr
“Final recourse, in case bad condi- than the wealth of the South of today,
tions continue, is to the courts, a step | “The total value of the South’s
that has not yet been taken, afUough manufactured products is witinn 10
many violations of the law are of long percent of the total for the United
standing with no apparent effort by! States in 1900. The South’s cotton
the county authorities to improve con-1 manufactured product is just a little
ditions.’’ Under tbe law, it is pointed i less than three times the total of the
out, the State Health Board makes' country 26 years ago. It,s furniture
recommendations with which counties ! output exceeds by $12,000,000 that of
muse comply regarding camp sanita-1 the. United States at that time.
j “Its mineral product exceeds by
Inspecting county camps in 1925, |over $670,000,000 the mineral output of
including the permanent, welt kept j the entire country in 1900.
camps as well as temporary ones, the “Its petroleum production is seven
following average percentage grades times as large as that of the United
were recorded; Location of camp, 83: States in 1900
We are beginning in this issue a se
ries of notes on public education.
These notes are printed primarily to
present to educational committees,
legislator.®, and interested citizen.®,
the essentials of a wise program of
educational legislation, state-wide in
scope, based upon the experiences
of tbe various states during the last
Conditions affecting the kinds of
school systems do not differ funda
mentally; therefore, each state
profits by the experience of others
and through the adoption of
what proves good the states are
tending toward systems more
similar than in the past. We have,
therefore, what may be designated
as a “trend in tbe school develop
ment” in the United States gener
ally toward similarity in systems
and practices. School legislation
should be passed in the light of
what has been proved effective in
othe^ states and with the knowledge
before one of what has been tried
and discarded and the reasons in
fluencing success or failure. The
United States Bureau of Education
has made a thorough study of the
state systems of education. The
series which begins with this issue
is a brief resume of what has been
found desirable and acceptable.
NOTES ON PUBLIC EDUCATION
1. THE STATE AND THE SCHOOLS
Practice in the United States as,
well as constitutional or statutory pro
visions, charges the several state
legislatures with the responsibility of
providing a system of schools for all
tbe children of the state adequate to
, their needs and efficient in fulfilling the
j educational ideals of the people of the
j state. Education with us is admittedly
a state responsibility. It follows there
fore, that it is the duty of the state
: legislature (1) to formulate a construc
tive policy for the education of all the
; children of the state; (2) to provide the
administrative machinery for a school
system adequate to carry out this
[policy; and (3) to make such changes
I from time to time as changing condi-
' tions and educational needs require.
It is well known that after-war con
ditions have brought about fundamen
tal changes in ideals for a modern
education system. Progressive states,
therefore, are providing for such
1 changes in administrative organiza
tion; in sources, amount, and distribu
tion of funds; and in school and curric- j
ulum reorganization, as the needs of j
state legislatures must help solve
Among the most pressing of those
which call for legislative action at
this time are: (1) To secure more
nearly equitable adjustment within the
state of tax burdens and educational
opportunities for all children. (2) To
provide systems of school support
which will enable the schools of the
state more adequately to meet the ex
pansion necessary in the provision of
school facilities commensurate with the
new ideals for school buildings, school
organization, enriched curricula, and
increased costs of instruction and gen
eral school administration. (3) To pro
vide such administrative systems as
will insure professional administration
and efficient and economical manage
ment of the schools. The State, as
such, is responsible for providing an
administrative system which makes
possible an elementary and secondary
education for ail children in the state.
(4) To set up certain minimum stand
ards which all schools and school sys
tems must meet, and to provide for
modern life require. The program of j such sources of support as will enable
adjustment of the school system to tbe ; all communities to maintain schools
growing needs and expectations of the i satisfying established standards. —U.S.
people involves many problems which i Bureau of Education.
construction, equipment, ventilation,
etc.,73; water supply, 71; clothing,
77; bedding, 64; sewage disposal, ^49;
vermin, 67, flies and mosquitoes, 64.
“Buncombe County’s law provides
“The value of its farm products in
1926 exceeded by $600,000,000 the total
for the country in 1900.
“The value of its exports wa^ over
$278,000,000 in excess of the exports
tharo'nly prisoners sentenced for five ^ from the United States 26 years ago.
years or under may be sent to the I “Its individual bank deposits ex
roads and further, that the Board of i reeded those of the entire country in
County Commissioners may 'in its dis-) 1900 by over $60,000,000, and even its
cretion abolish the use of striped cloth- public school expenditures exceeded by
ing as a garb for the use of prisoners $160,000,000 the entire amount expend-
in said county of Buncombe altogether.’ , ed on public school work in 1600 when , deficient in home conveniences
The same law, on the other hand, spe-i fbe country’s population was nearly j gi^jost any state. Labor conditions
cifically provides for flogging as . a 76,000,000 as compared ^with 39,700,000 : in our farm homes are hard, and large-
means of discipline, though it attempts for the South of today.’’ j jy unnecessarily so. The lot of the farm
to guard against what it terms cruei i No section of the same area any-; „ife could be made much easier by the
and unmerciful beating.” i where on the globe has ever surpassed i installation nf more home conveniences.
Doubtless many penal oflicials will ! this record. In view of it, nobody c'an | ===
not agree with the conclusions reacheo be seriously alarmed by a temporary DO YOU KNOW
by those engaged in disinterested study slowing down of business m —
' parts of tbe South at
Conservation ot time and energy
is obviously one of the problems of
the housekeeper. Time and strength
may be saved in two ways, first by
taking thought as to the way one uses
strength, and second by making use
of labor-saving equipment. This
may easily make the difference be-
tv/een a tired overworked housekeeper
and*" one who has some time and energy
left for reading and recreation after
the day’s work is done.
Home conveniences have already
been installed in several thousand
country homes under the direction of
state and county demonstration agents.
This phase of demonstration has not
only effected a real saving in the work
of the home, but it is helping the farm
wqman to get a greater amount of
happiness out of her daily tasks.
The household conveniences described
in this bulletin have been selected
because they may be made at a moder
ate cost and by anybody who has a
few simple tools and the ability to use
them. Their use also yields a large
return in comfort, economy, and sanita
tion. Full descriptions are offered for
making a large number of practical
and useful home conveniences.
Census reports and field studi.es show
that North Carolina farm homes are
KNOW NORTH CAROLINA
Important Facts about the State, 1900, 1910, and 1920
The following table from the 1927 edition of Blue Book of Southern
Progress givfes a number of important facts about North Carolina for the
years 1990, 1910 ,and 1926. The reader is urged to note especially the progress
, the state has made in nearly alf items.
Total area, 52,426 square miles; land 48,740 square miles; water 3.686 square
miles. Rank 27th in size among the states, and loth in population.
I Department of Rural Sociai-Economics, University of North Ca’-f'l’na
' 1900 1910 1926
Population V.. 1,893,810 2,206,287 2,868,000
Property, true value $681,982,000 $1,686,408,000..(2)$4,543,110,000 (4)
Assessed value property $306,579,715 $613,000,000 $2,802,000,000
Capital $68,283,005 $217,185,586
' Products, value ^ $55,274,083 $216,656,065 $1,060,434,000 (6)
Mines and quarries:
Capitai $5,985,112 $2,250,434 (6)
Products, value $924,000 $1,358,617 $2,736,643 (6)
1 Products, value $28,373,000
; Spindles, number active 1,134,909
i Looms, number active 25,469
; Cotton consumed, bales 404,636
, Cottonseed oil mills:
Products, value $2,676,871,,.
Products, value $1,023,000 $11,439,000..(2)
Lumber cut, feet
Mineral products, value
Iron ore mined, tons
All land in farms, acres
1 Improved land, acres
1 Number of farms
Value of all farm property
' Value of farm land
Farm products, value
... $89,310,0' 0....
Farm crops, value
Farm crops, acres
; Cotton crop;
‘ Acreage —
! Bales, number
of the chain gang problem. Many will
cling to the theory that a prison is in
tended primarily to punish. If this
volume helpp to break down “the de
terrent philosophy of punishment,” it
will have achieved sufficient good to
justify its publication.-—Asheville Citi
Picture the poor ragpicker digging
into a hillside to make a smooth site
for his humble hut; watch him bring
the blocks and la^ the foundation, piece
by piece. Slowly he erects the wall
of ill-matched timber unevenly cut.
Here a goods-box plank, bearing
an address in ink, and there an
old board, fits into the ungainly frame.
Its roof presents even a greater hodge
podge if possible, of boards, other tim
bers and tin. A small hole in the wall
but with no glass serves as a window.
Such a hovel, in outline, Henry W.
Grady, Georgia editor and orator, used
to describe fully in one of bis lectures.
What has been accomplished is merely
tbe running start the South has made
toward realization of her destiny.
When we realize that North Carolina
is the recognized leader and exemplar
of Southern progress, we also perceive
that this State can not even estimate
by what she has done in the past
the extent of her potential power and
wealth. So long as the courage, vision
and enterprise of our citizens are un
impaired, North Carolina’s future will
grow bigger and bigger.-Asheville
Farm Home Conveniences is the
title of Farmers’ Bulletin 927, United
States Department of Agriculture.
This bulletin ought to be in every
farm home in the state. Also city
and small town homes could get a
number of good ideas for making
home comforts and conveniences from
That libraries offer the least expen
sive and most generally used form of
That one good book in a free library
-can give pleasure and profit to scores
That you are robbing children of a
part of their heritage if you fail to
provide them with suitable books?
That it is as important to teach
children what to read as it is to teach
them how to read?
How necessary it is that a child’s
taste for reading should be developed
and directed by providing the kind of
books that will establish a desire for
the best in literature?
That a “balanced ration” in reading
is just as necessary as it is in stock
That it is more unwise to oblige
children to forage for their intelie^-tual
food than it is to force livestock to
depend upon forage for subsistence?
What the state can do to assist in
establishing and maintaining free libra
ries?—New York Libraries.
I Value $16,697,OvO $49,710,000..
I Tobacco crop, pounds 127,503,41-0 138,813,163..
^ Value $8,038,691 $13,847,569..
j Acreage 203,023 221,890..
i Grain crop:
Corn, bushels 29,790,000..
Wheat, bushels 5,961,000..
Value ' $4,888,000..
Oats, bushels 6,046,000..
Cattle, number ^ 625,000..
Sheep, number 302,000..
Swine, number 1,300,000..
Motor vehicles, number
Highway expenditures $624,381..(1)
Public schools, expenditures.. $950,000..
6.178.. (2) 385,047
;0c7,000 $30,980,022 J)
(1)' 3904; (?) 1912; (3) 1914; (4) 1922; (5) 1926; (6) 1920; (7) 1924.