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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, November 10, 1927, Image 1

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The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. NOVEMBER 10, 1927 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS VOL. XIV, No. 2 Editorial Board: E. C. Branson. S. H. Hobbs. Jr., P. W. Wager. L. R. Wilson. E. W. Knight. D. D. Carroll. H. W. Odum. Entered as second-class matter November 14. 1914. at the Postoffice at Chapel Hill. N. C.. under the act of August 24. 1912. MOTORIZED AGE A report from the Automobile Bureau of the State Department of Revenue snows the automobile registration on October 4, 1927, to be 411,296. Of these 32,095 were trucks and 379,200 were passenger cars. The accompanying table shows the distribution among the counties and tixe number of inhabitants per car in each county. The counties are ranked according to the latter factor. It will be noted that Guilford leads with an automobile for every 3.9 people. Pour other counties average a car for less than five people. Quite naturally the ratios are not so large in the moun tain counties where there is a limited mileage of good roads, and in the tide water counties where boats are to a considerable extent substituted for automobiles, both for commercial and pleasure purposes. Carteret ranks lowest with 32 people per automobile. Only ten counties have less than one automobile for every ten people. A Car per Family The American worker has a higher standard of living than the laborer of any other country in the world. His present standard of living includes a car to drive to and from his work and for family use nights and holidays. A few days ago the writer drove by a factory employing negroes mainly, yet there along the curb was the usual line of cars parked. It is true they were mainly Fords, some of them old and dilapidated, nevertheless they qualified as motor cars. Across the way from my home a colored cook drives to her work each morning in a very attractive coupe. An automobile is a part of the equipment of the average American household, and will remain so. This fact is going to change the nature of our whole social and economic life and all our institutions. The changes are already appearing. Annihilates Distance The automobile removes or reduces the barrier of distance which has been the greatest obstacle to the integration of American life. Indeed it is this barrier of distance which is mainly re sponsible for the rapid motorization of America. It is distance and isolation which have produced the individualism of the American farmer, it is distance and sparsity of population which pro duced the one-room school, the tiny rural church, the crossroads store, the justice of the peace, and nearly all of our peculiar rural institutions. In the cities, the barrier of distance has been overcome, or sought to be overcome, by tenements, by sky-scraperfe, by concentration of industry. The automobile, with the help of the telephone and the radio, permits the people to spread out without losing their contacts. The cities of the future will be less congested, the streets will be wider, there will be fewer tenements and sky-scrapers. The suburban movement will be accelerated. Indeed, industry itself will be decentral ized. There will be many small cities rather than a few large ones. Cities will be more beautiful, more healthful, more desirable in every respect. Transforms Rural Life Likewise the automobile will trans form the country, indeed is already doing so.. The consolidated school has already come; the consolidated church will soon follow. The crossroads store has given place to the gasoline station. Township governments, where they exist, are being abolished. The country people go to the county seat to trade, to attend lodge meetings, to consult a doctor or lawyer. The rural community has been suddenly and marvelously enlarged. It is true that the readjust ment is not yet completed. Old insti tutions are dying in some cases with out new and better ones to take their places. The situation has changed so suddenly that a lagging in readjustment is not surprising. The reorganization of rural life in terms of the automobile and a larger community* is the task of the hour. It is a task that demands statesmanship and leadership of a high order. Is such leadership appearing and will it ha^e the vision to build wisely? Not only will the automobile j change both the city and the country but it will blend them. The mingling of farmers and townsmen is I breaking down the provincialism of both. The ease with which the farmers get to town and the ease with which the urbanites get to the country means closer acquaintance and better under standing between the twb groups. Furthermore, many farmers and farm ers’ sons are finding employment in the Cities, driving back and forth fif teen or twenty miles each day. On the other hand, the business and profes sional men of the cities are buying farms and living on them several months in the year. This movement is not so pronounced as yet in the South as in some areas. It is very common in New England.' Indeed the automobile has already gone far in transforming and revitalizing the rural life of New England. The farmers of Pennsylvania, New York, and New England sell great quantities of produce to the tourists from their roadside stands. They open their homes as lodging places for the tourists. The automobile thus helps to carry the wealth of the city into the country and at the same time to break down the barriers of suspicion and mils- understanding between rural and urban dwellers. The automobile is likely to prove the greatest integrating force that America has known. It makes for diffusion of prosperity, diffusion of cul ture, and unity of interest within the nation.—Paul W. Wager. A TRUE NOBLEMAN The instant I enter on my own land, the bright idea of property, the exclusive right, the indepen dence, exalt my mind. Precious soil, 1 say to myself, by what singular custom of law is it that thou wast made to constitute the riches of the freeholder? What should we Amer ican farmers be without the posses sion of that soil? It feeds, it clothes us, from it we draw even a great exuberancy, our best meat, our rich est drink, the very honey of our bees comes from this privileged spot. No wonder we should thus cherish its possession....This former ly crude soil has been converted by my father into a pleasant farm— and in return it has established all our rights; on it is founded our rank, our freedom, our power as citizens, our importance as inhabitants of such a district. These images I must confess I always behold with pleasure. I know no other landlord than the Lord of all land, to whom I owe the most sincere gratitude.— Crevecoeur, in Letters from an American Farmer. RURAL COMMUTING The rural folks in this part of North Carolina have come into appreciation of the word “commuting,” a word whose usage had been confined to the larger cities, where people living in adjoining towns would ride the train into the big city to work in the morning, and ride the trains home after work hours in the afternoon. The rural population of Mecklenburg has turned commuter to a large extent, if we are to believe the report made in this week’s issue of The Mecklenburg Times. In fact, that paper indicates that a system of com muting has developed into large pro portions. The good roads and the autos, that paper says, make it possible for the people to work in the city and con tinue to live at their homes in the country. They like to do this, says the paper, adding that many who feel that some of their time must be given the farm, work in the city the balance of the year. The Times sees in this circumstance “one of the reasons for the prosperity of Mecklenburg county, for its farmers are among the best in the state, and the income from the; farms is supplemented by the steady income of those who work in the city.” The commuting privilege- is particularly good for young people of the county, for the reason^ as stated by The Times, that it provides a steady ; income, out of which they buy the ' things they want, from automobiles to clothing, and are enabled to complete their school work with the savings, as ' well as to supplement the family in come when needed. And as for the young clerks from the country, they have a habit of develop ing into Charlotte’s most progressive and prosperous business men, as history has proved.—Charlotte Observer. their prebaccalanreate days. This is not an entirely new venture. A like plan was adopted a few years ago by the alumni of Amherst. Vassar and Smith and perhaps still other insti tutions have also done something of the kind in certain fields. But here is an organized and subsidized effort to make the continuance of intellectual contacts between the graduate and his college permanent. Other contacts are main tained by most graduates out of filial devotion to their alma mater, social, financial, athletic or political. But the highest objects for which college con tacts are primarily made, are usually cut off from view with graduation. Col leges and universities are now largely extending their extra-mural intellectual contacts and constituencies through ex^ tension courses, but these are not us ually designed for college graduates. What is now proposed for college alumni might be met through the addi tion of extension courses especially for them Consciences are not com pletely “educated” at graduation nor are minds finally trained.^ This is an important phase' of adult education— not that merely of the adult illiterate or even of those who lack high school or college training, but of the so-called “educated.”—New York Times. PRISON STATISTICS There are now 4,191 persons confined in penal institutions in North Carolina. In the county jails there are 1,160. In the county prison camps there are 2,301 serving sentences. Under the supervision of the State Prison there are 1,592. Ten years ago there were only 1,230 prisoners in our prison camps, compared to 2,301 today. Ten years ago there were only 760 at the State Prison and t9day there are 1,692. Whatever may be the reasons for the increase, the condition cries for study and reform.—Public Welfare Progress. EDUCATING GRADUATES North Carolina has recently made great strides in public education, and now, through her state university, pro poses a further advance. Her plan is to educate the educated, beginning with her own graduates. A committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Daniel L. Grant has submitted the project to the Carnegie corporation and has received its support in setting out upon this educational mission. The conten tion of the missionaries is that those who sit in intellectual darkness have every attention, while the most pf those who have had “intellectual contacts,” but have dropped them, wander aim lessly in a sort of penumbra, a twilight betwixt ignorance and full knowledge in the liberal arts and the sciences which they began under guidance in SAVE THE CHILDREN The final results of the children’s tuberculosis clinics, conducted by the Extension Department of The North Carolina Sanatorium, during the school year 1926-27 showed that 8.1 percent of all children examined were tuber culous. It was the first time , anything of the kind had ever been attempted in the state. A total of 7,841 white and colored children were given the tuberculin test. Out of this number 1,864 reacted to the test, or 23.79 percent. The reaction to the test meant that the children were infected with the tuber cle bacilli, but not necessarily suffer ing with active tuberculosis disease. Physical examinations were given to 1,720 of the number reacting to the test, and 1,820 of the number given physical examinations were X-rayed. Of those X-rayed 151 were found to have tuberculosis, and 304 were sus picious cases. 11. SOURCES OF SCHOOL FUNDS School moneys are now provided by states, counties, cities, townships, and districts. In all states a portion of the total cost is borne by the state. The proportional amount varies greatly, from Delaware, which provides 76.1 percent, to Kansas, which provides 1.6 percent. For the United States as a whole, approximately three-fourths of the total cost is borne by local school units. In some states the chief source of local support is a county tax. In others it is a county tax with a special school district tax. In others there is the local school district tax only. State school funds are received from a number of sources, among them perma nent invested funds, state property tax, appropriations from general state revenues, n^iscellaneous sources, such as corporation tax, income tax, sever ance tax. The permanent school funds are large ly derived from the sale of school lands. These lands were given by acts of Congress to the several states for the benefit of public education. In a- few cases States also set aside lands for the benefit of education. States are employing to a consider able extent corporation taxes, income taxes, and other types of taxes instead of, or in addition to, general property' taxes as a means of producing state | school revenues. For example, schools j in New Hampshire, Maine, New Jer-1 sey, Virginia, California, Delaware, and j Wisconsin are supported in part by one i or more of the following: Corporation • tax, bank tax. railroad tax, public ser vice and insurance companies tax. In come taxes are used for schools in Massachusetts, North Carolina, Arkan sas, and Delaware; inheritance tax in California, Virginia, Louisiana, Michi gan, and Kentucky; severance tax in Louisiana and Arkansas. , State in come taxes for schools are considered an excellent source of funds. The use of this source has not extended so rapidly as its advocates hoped, owing to the creation of the federal income tax. The severance tax is levied on all natural products severed from the soil except agricultural. It is believed by many students of taxation that when minerals, timber, clay, and other natural products are removed the state is permanently impoverished, and that those profiting by it should pay tribute which can properly be spent on educa tion of future citizens of the state. Severance tax and state income tax are steadily growing in popular esteem as sources of moneys for school support. It has been emphasized also by stu dents of taxation that whenever pos sible the state should draw its-revenue from sources other than those taxed by its constituent public. corporations. This principle has been definitely and practically recognized in at least two states, Massachusetts and California. Whenever new types of state taxation are proposed it is necessary to empha size the fact that the reason for introducing such taxes is to reduce the general property tax, both state and local, as far as possible. New sources of income should not bo an added bur den, but should tend toward a better distribution of tax burdens. —U. S. Bureau of Education. MOTOR CARS IN NORTH CAROLINA Inhabitants per Car, October 4, 1927 In the following table the number of automobiles in >each county is indi cated and the counties ranked according to the ratio of automobiles to popu lation. Up to October 4, 1927, the registrations for the year numbered 379,200 passenger cars and 32,095 trucks, or a total of 411,296. This does not 'include HOO piotorcycles. When the counties are compared it is found that Guilfo^i^d leads both in the total number of cars and in the ratio of cars to population. It has 24,866 cars or one for every 3.9 people. Mecklenburg is second in rank in both particulars. Graham has the fewest cars, 261. Carteret has fewer cars "in proportion to population than any other county, the ratio being one car to every 32,0 people. Its low rank in cars is no doubt due in part to the fact that many of its citizens own motor boats. The average for the state is one car for every 6.8 people. This table is based on figures recently released by the Automotive Bureau of the State Department of Reve^iue and estimated population of the counties. Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina Number Inhabitants Rank County of cars per car 1 Guilford 24,866 3.9 2 Mecklenburg ...22,676 4.1 3 Moore 6,720 4.4 4 Buncombe 15,720 4.9 4 Person 4,095 4.9 6 Rowan' 9,630 6.1 7 Davidson 7,626 5.3 7 Henderson 3,740 6.3 9 Alamance 6,675 6.4 10 Liifcoln 3,320 5.6 11 Wake 16,246 5.6 12 Durham 8,416 6.7 12 Iredell 7,116 5.7 14 Cabarrus 7,005 6.8 14 Nash 8,280 6.8 14 Randolph 6,475 6.8 17 Catawba 6,355 6.1 18 Chowan 1,720 6.2 19 Alexander 2,030 6.3 19 Camden..; 860 6.3 21 Montgomery ... 2,290 6.4 22 Cleveland 6,916 6.5 23 Gaston 9,866 6.6 24 Forsyth 16,466 6.7 24 Lee ...: 2,245 6.7 24 Rockingham 5,760 6.7 24 Wilson 6,610 6.7 28 Davie 2,025 6.8 28 Richmond 4,446 6.8 30 Pasquotank 2,666 6.9 31 Edgecombe '6,170 7.0 3a Beaufort 4,416 7.1 33 Harnett 4,736 7.2 34 Pitt 7,320 7.3 36 Orange 2,736 7.4 ,36 Rutherford 4,600 7.6 36 Scotland 2,196 7.6 38 Caldwell 2,746 7.6 38 Lenoir 4,735 7^6 40 Chatham 3,170 7.7 40 Stanly 4,486 7.7 42 Bertie 3/126 7.9 42 Perquimans 1,425 7.9 44 Craven 3,990 8.0 44 Jobnst^ 6,940 8.0 44 Union 4,910 8.0 47 Granville 3,450 8.1 47 Surry 4,440 8.1 49 Cumberland 4,766 8.2 49 Duplin 4,186 8.2 Number Inhabitants Rank County of cars per car 49 Stokes 2,636 8.2 62 Northampton... 2,676 8.3 62 Yadkin 2,140 8.3 54 Halifax 6,660.; 8.6 64 Martin 2,725 8.6 54 New Hanover .. 6,612 8.6 67 Greene 2,180 8.7 57 Hertford .’ 1,936 8.7 69 Burke 2,800 8.8 60 Sampson 4,600 !... 8.9 60 Transylvania... 1,260 8.9- 62 Franklin 3,110 9.0 62 Wayne 6,9^6' 9.0 64 Alleghany 810 9.1 64 Vance 2, 916 9.1 66 Pamlico 966 9.4 67 Pender 1,560 9.6 67 Haywood 2,646 9.5 67 Tyfrell .• 610 9.5 70 Polk 9S0 9.8 71 Columbus :. 3,210 9.9 71 Onslow 1,520 9.9 73 Robeson 6,000 10.0 73 Warren 2,265 10.0 75 Jackson 1,340 10.1 76 Hoke 1,286 10.2 '' 77 McDowell 1,881 10.^ 78 Caswell 1,676 10.4 78 Gates 1,022..; 10.4 80 Anson 2,880...-. 10.6 81 Washington 1,035 11.3 82 Bladen 1,846 11.4 83 Jones 936 11.7 84 Currituck 690 12.2 85 Hyde 685 12.2 86 Brunswick 1,266 12.3 87 Wilkes 2,735 12.6 88 Macon I,Q30 ..13.0 89 Watauga 1,080 13.1 50 Cherokee 1,096 14.8 91 Avery 690 16.6 91 Madison 1,290 16.6 93 Mitchell 746,... 16.S 94 Dare 304.. 17.6 95 Ashe 1,195 18.9 96 Graham ' 261 19.0 97 Clay 276 19.1 98 Swain 726 21.7 99 Yancey 760 24.7 100 Carteret 620 32.0

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