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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, February 01, 1928, Image 1

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The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTER Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. FEBRUARY 1, 1928 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. THE US'IVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS VOL. XIV, No. 12 Editoriul Board: E, C. Branson. S. H. Hobbo. Jr.. P. W. Wager. L. K. Wilson. E. W. Knight. D. D. Carroll. H. W. Odum. Entered as second-class matter November 14. 1914, at the Postoffice at Chapel Hill. N. C., under the act of August 24. 1912. SURitL GRADED SCHOOLS We are presenting this week a table ; showing the percentage of rural ele- , Bientary school pupils in each county | who are enrolled in schools with seven j ®r more teachers. Since there are seven grades, a school with seven or more teachers may be considered a fully graded school. Our figures are supplied by State School Facts, which Hi turn is indebted to L. L. Williams, a University of North Carolina student, who made the compilations. Last year there were 376,473 pupils enrolled in the 3,B49 rural white ele mentary schools of the state. Of this number 164,602, or 41.1 percent, were in schools with as many as seven teachers. The number of and enroll ment in each type of school is indicated below: Type of school Number Imrollment One-teacher 1,172 37,300 Two-teacher 1,031 62,423 Three-teacber 447 41,760 Four-teacher 219 29,398 Five-teacher 166 27,276 Six-teacher... Ill ■•••■ 23,816 Seven-teacher 121 31,137 8-10 teacher 182 60,693 11 or more teacher.. Ill 62,672 Total 3.649 376,473 There are seven counties which have no rural elementary schools with as many as seven teachers. These coun ties are Alleghany, Ashe, Chowan, Dare, Hyde. Tyrrell, and Washington. Fifteen counties have only one such school. On the other hand, there are 33 counties with at least five rural schools of the larger type. In Stanly county 83.6 percent of the rural elementary pupils are enrolled in these larger schools. In Pasquotank the percentage is 88.2. In twenty- seven counties at least half of the rural children are enjoying the privileges of the larger type of school. Many Large Schools Altogether there are 414 rural ele- mentary schools with seven or more teachers. It is true that in 298 of these schools high school departments are maintained, so there is not always a full-time teacher for each grade. Nevertheless a seven-teacher school approximates a graded school. Indeed a fair degree of graded instruction may be given in schools with four, five, or six teachers. Many rural children are at tending schools of this size, although the tendency now is to effect larger con solidations. Less than ten percent of •ur rural white pupils of elementary grade are now attending one-teacher schools and each year the ratio is be coming leas, it must be remembered, too, that this study is concerned only with rural elementary schools. Many children living in the country are at tending school in special charter diS' tricts, so the ratio of underprivileged children is even less than our figures show. The consolidation program in North Carolina has proceeded very rapidly, in few states has it gone further. In a few years more, if the movement continues, there will be no one-room schools left except in a few remote and isolated sections. Most educators favor the larger school units. The greatest objection to consolidation has been the cest and dangers of trans portation, and these are objections which have not yet been fully over come. A New Community There is one aspect of consolidation af undoubted benefit. The consolidated rural school is furnishing a center or focus for the larger rural community which is coming into being. With the appearance of the automobile, the R. F. D., the telephone, and the radio, the old “neighborhood” has been dis integrating. In many respects this is saddening, for there was much that was lovely in neighborhood society and neighborhood activities. But with new modes of travel and communica tion, multiplying the rural dwellers’ social contacts, the break-up of neigh borhood society was inevitable. The larger school district offers a new unit of organization and the consolidated school with its larger program a new community center. Those consolidated rural schools which recognize their op portunity will develop a program of education, recreation, and social activ ity that will reach parents as well as children. In some instances the rural consolidated school is enriching and rejuvenating rural life in a most en couraging fashion. It is peoviding the community life which the country has so badly needed. Where this Is not the case the rural superintendents and teachers need to cafch the vision and direct their efforts toward its realiza tion.—Paul W. Wager. THE PRESS AND FARM LIFE No civilization languishes when its agciculture flourishes, and no civiliza tion flourishes when its agriculture languishes. There is scant room for doubt or debate about this truism. It is as old as the race itself. It is therefore assumed that the Newspaper Institute of the^State Press Association will like to comeoBt once to consider definite constructive sugges tions. Live-At-Home Farming First. Organize a state-wide cam paign for the production of cash-crops on a live-at-home basis. The Dallas, Texas, News has for five years con ducted contests for prizes in farm ing of this sort. The annual book lets of the Dallas News are familiar to every editor in the state. The | results in Texas are spectacular and j very little that is not spectacular ar-1 rests the attention of anybody nowa-1 days. The prize winner in 1927 pro- i duced fourteen bales of long-staple cot- j ton on five acres within boll-weevil lines, ' at a cost of six cents per pound, and at the same time he produced around $20,000 worth of food-and-feed stuffs. It is safe to say that Mr. McFarlane is not only making money at farming, but is having a fair chance to retain and accumulate wealth on his farm. The prevalent farm system in North Carolina is notedly strong in wealth- production, but it is weak as water in wealth-retention and wealth-accumula tion. Which after all is the most im portant matter for our farmers, and in the long run for the Commonwealth and the Nation. As an effective detail of this newspaper campaign, it is worth while featuring our twenty-four Master Farmers, one by one, in our newspaper columns. They are all live-at-home farmers and two of them have risen out of tenancy into owner ship on this basis. Front-Page the Farmers Second. Carry brief, graphic stories throughout the year of other success ful farmers within the curtilage of each paper. It is good business policy to feature farming and to blue-ribbon individual farm achievement. Already it is being done by the press of the state from time to time. The sug gestion here is that it be definitely a newspaper program for 1928. And the suggestion is made because of the nature of human nature. It is better to teach by example than by precept. Indeed the farmers will not submit to lecturing from editorial offices. A year of the campaigning suggested will make plainer than a pikestaff the fact that ownership-farming on a bread-and meat basis is safe farming, that ten ancy-farming is extremely hazardous, and moreover that cropper farming menaces our civilization, for civilization is rooted everywhere and always in the home-owning, home-loving, home- defending instincts. The Crisp-McKellar Bill Third. Illustrate the fundamental necessity for community life among home-owning farmers. For lack of such farm-life centers, in the State and the Nation, our farmers are innocent of the impulse, the virtues, and the arts of group action in both life and liveli hood. As a result our farmers dwelling in solitary farmsteads are without defense in the distribution of farm commodi ties and farm incomes. The choice is between farm blocs in farm business or farm blocs in politics. The boy up the apple tree, as you may remember, wisely preferred turf to stones as missiles of dislodgment. And here your attention is directed to the Crisp- McKellar bill in Congress (House document 765, sixty-ninth congress, 2nd session) on Rural Development in the South. It is not a soil reclamation but a'social reclamation project of farm THE LOOM AHEAD Phil. 3: 13 I am done with the years that were: I urn quits: I am done with the dead and old: They are mines worked out, I delved in their pits; I have saved their grain of gold. Now 1 turn to the future for wine and bread; I have bidden the past adieu. I laugh and lift hand to the years ahead; “Come on! I am ready for you!”— Edwin Markham (The Expositor). owners under expert direction, one colony in each state, financed by a federal revolving fund of ten million dollars as an aid to ownership and operation. It is modeled on the Dur ham Colony in California. The general public and in particular our own Con gressmen must thoroughly understand this bill or it stands little chance of passing. The West has 160 millions of federal money invested in reclamation areas and to the extent that farm colonies in irrigated areas have failed, they have failed for lack of expert guidance.' It is the South’s first chance at a federal reclamation fund and it is distinctively planned to have the seven colonies of the South succeed at the point where the Western irrigation colonies have failed. The press of the the state can alone give to our people the publicity that is requisite to success in this matter. The North Carolina Press Association would do well, in my opinion, to appoint its own committee of four, say, to investigate the measure and to act with the present state com mittee of twenty-five in securing ade quate publicity. Better County Government Fourth. Hammer hard the neces sity for improved county government in North Carolina. The five state wide county government laws passed by the 1927 Assembly are in print, but they are far from being in full or even in partial effect in 60 odd counties. These laws could not have been enacted without the unbroken and outspoken unanimity of the state press. But the hardest part of the work re mains to be done, the work of showing our county officials and shoving them forward into competent public service under these laws. The County Advis ory Commission of the State is perform ing a function that is almost unique in the United States, but ita office and field agents cannot hope to cover the state effectively in many years. If our local papers can get whole-heartedly into this job of adoption, they can won derfully quicken the pace of the state in a matter in which North Carolina is already distinctly in the lead. Our county bond debt approaches $200,000,- 000, and the cost of county government approaches 1)40,000,000 a year. Only scrupulous, competent service in our court-house offices will avail to save twenty-one counties of this state from approaching bankruptcy. The matter is extremely important in all our counties. —E C. Branson before the Newspaper Institute of the State Press Association. are often higher than the mills will sell 1 for, and as a result the mills are forced i to move out or cease operation. The : Governor of Massachusetts in his, inaugural address said, “Tt is an open! question whether we have not imposed j such taxes on our industry that there is nothing to do for many of them but quit. ’ ■ On the other hand Southern towns and cities are doing all in their power to attract new industries. Chambers of Commerce are advertising the ad vantages of their respective localities in glowing terms. South Carolina and Alaoama have state laws allowing the local authorities to exempt new indus try from taxes for a period of five years, and it is being done. Pennsyl vania, too, is bidding for industry by almost completely exempting manufac turing establishments from state taxa tion. As a means of determining the rela tive tax burden on a textile industry in North Carolina and in other states, Mr. Macon took a hypothetical case. He assumed that the actual value of the capital stock in the corporation was $807,000, and the net income $64,660. The real estate and machinery were estimated at $616,000. The local and state taxes paid in various locations would be as follows: Fall River, Massachusetts Local taxes $14,626.00 State taxes 2,751.20 Total.., 17,377.20 Greenville. S. C. Local taxes $12,493.76 State taxes 4,862.24 Total 17,346.00 Charlotte, N. C. Local taxes $12,962.36 State taxes 3,712.20 Total 16,664.66 Chattanooga, Tenn. Local taxes $13,607.88 State taxes 1.208.96 Total 14,816.84 Montgomery, Ala. l.ocal taxes $5,709.60 State taxes 1,911.60 Total ‘ 7,621.20 Reading, Penn, Local taxes $7,387.88 State taxes None Total 7,387.88 If the information on which these computions are based is reliable,, we find that the South as a whole is not a low-taxed region and that the lowest taxing state of the group is Pennsyl vania. State and local taxes in Massachu setts and South Carolina take 27/r of the net income; North Carolina 26.6 ; Tennessee 2c'; Alabama and Pennsylvania 11%. These percentages do not include the federal taxes. Exemption Questionable These percentages are sufficiently large to bear directly upon the location of industry. Not all of the South will be industrial. Does North Carolina desire industry to the extent of being willing to make special concessions? Industry enlarges the opportunity for employment, raises the wage level, provides better markets and better business for the farmers, merchants, and all classes. On the other hand any concession is a definite step into un equal taxation. Pennsylvania has ex empted manufacturing corporations from taxation and the result is that the farmers are complaining of the dis crimination and the heavier tax which they pay as a result. Non-manufactur ing concerns have registered a com plaint and as a result the State Tax Commission has recommended that all corporations be exempt from the fran chise tax rather than that the tax be restored on manufacturing concerns. North Carolina should hesitate before granting exemptions to any single form of taxables. RURAL WHITE GRADED SCHOOLS Percent of Rural Pupils Attending Such Schools, 1926-27 In the following Itable, adapted from information contained in a recent issue of State School Facts, the counties are ranked according to the percentage of rural white elementary^school pupils attending schools with seven or more teachers. The table also indicates the number of rural elementary schools with seven or more teachers in each county. There are 414 such schools in the state with 41.1 percent of the rural ele mentary white pupils enrolled therein. In twenty-aeven counties more than half of the rural pupils are enjoying the opportunities of a fully graded school. In Stanly county 83.6 percent of the rural children enjoy this privilege, and iu Pasquotank 83.2 percent. On the other hand, there are seven counties which do not have a rural elementary school with as many as seven teachers. These counties are Alleghany, Ashe, Chowan, Dare, Hyde, Tyrrell, and Washington. Paul W. Wager Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina TAXES ON INDUSTRY At the last meeting of the North Carolina Club at the University of North Carolina a paper was presented by H. L. Macon, a graduate student at the University, dealing with the Tax Burden on Industry. Mr. Macon took a hypothetical cotton mill and computed the tax to which it would be subject in several different states and at different points in the same state. Even after making every possible effort to check his sources of information, Mr. Macon said that he could not verify his con clusions. It is fairly easy to compute state taxes, but it is extremely diffi cult to ascertain the real rate of local property tax because of the variations in assessments. Mr. Macon quoted the New York Journal of Commerce to the effect that the New England cotton mills were in dire straits due, in part at least, to burdensome taxes. It is claimed that taxes are twice as high in Massachu setts as la the South, that assessments Rural Percent of Rural Percent of schools rural schools rural Rank County with 7 pupils Rank County with 7 pupils or more in such or more in such teachers schools teachers schools 1 Stanly ....11.. 83.6 61 Martin 3... 84.7 2 Pasquotank .... 2.. 83.2 52 Orange 2... 84.1 3 Edgecombe .... 4.. 79.9 58 Hertford .... 2... 32.9 4 Lenoir .... 6.. 79.3 54 Warren 2... 32.2 6 Wilson .... 8.. 77.0 55 Randolph.... 6... 81.6 6 Gaston . ..13.. 76.0 66 Swain 3... 31.2 7 New Hanover . .... 3.. 74.7 67 Graham .... 1... 29.7 8 Forsyth ....10.. 73.6 58 Haywood.... 6... 29.5 9 Avery .... 4.. 72.7 59 Onslow 2... 28.6 10 Buncombe ....17.. 70.3 60 Alamance ... 3... 28.6 11 Mecklenburg... ....14,. ^.....69.1 61 Mitchell 2... 27.7 12 Pender .... 4.. 66.6 62 Burke 3... 26.2 13 Rockingham.... .... 9-. 64.0 63 Chatham .... 3.. 26.1 14 Granville .... 6 . 63.8 64 Caldwell 4.. 26.0 16 Greene .... 4.. 61.2 66 Currituck ... 1.. 26.1 16 Johnston ....13.. 61.1 66 Pamlico 2.. 24.8 17 Durham .... 4.. 61.0 67 Clay 1.. ......24.1 18 Catawba 13.. 60.9 68 Stokes 4.. 23.9 19 Guilford ....12.. 69.6 69 Halifax 2.. 22.7 20 Montgomery ... .... 6.. 57.8 70 Alexander.. 4.. 22.6 21 Jones .... 2.. 66.4 71 Iredell 4.. 22.6 22 Wayne 7.. 55.4 72 Perquimans 1.. 22.1 23 Duplin 7.. 66.2 73 Lincoln 3.. 21.8 24 Camden .... 2.. 62.2 74 Anson 2.. 21.6 24 Vance .... 2.. 62.2 76 Northampton 2.. 21.1 26 Caswell .... 4.. 61.7 76 Yadkin 3.. 20.7 27 Cumberland .... 7.. 60.4 77 Jackson 2.. 20.2 28 Wake .... 9.. 49.8 77 Madison 3.. 20.2 29 Nash .... 9.. 49.4 79 Union. I.... 4.. 18.3 30 Cabarrus 6.. 49.3 80 Surry 3.. 18.1 31 Bladen 4.. 49.1 81 Carteret 1.. 17.6 32 Craven 6.. 48.9 82 Gates 1.. 17.3 33 Davidson 9.. 48.8 83 Polk 1.. 16.7 34 Henderson 7.. 48.0 84 Watauga.... 2.. 14.4 35 Bertie .... 6.. 47.9 85 Brunswick . 1.. 13.1 36 Richmond .... 4 . 47.0 86 Beaufort.... 2.. 12.6 37 Hoke 2. 46.3 87 McDowell.. 4 . 11.4 38 Rutherford, ..... 8.. 46.8 88 Cherokee.... 1.. 9.2 39 Harnett .... 6.. 46.6 89 Macon 1.. 9.1 40 Columbus .... 8.. 46.0 90 Moore 1.. 8.8 41 Sampson 9.. 43.8 91 Yancey 1.. 8.4 42 Person 4.. 43.1 92 Franklin .... 1.. 7.9 43 Davie .... 2.. 43.0 93 Wilkes........ 1.. 2.7 44 Pitt .... 6.. 42.8 94 Alleghany.. 0.. 0.0 45 Scotland 1.. 41.8 94 Ashe 0.. 0.0 46 Lee .... 2 . 41.1 94 Chowan 0.. 0.0 47 Robeson .... 7.. 40.4 94 Dare 0.. 0.0 48 Rowan 6. 37.1 94 Hyde 0.. 0.0 49 Cleveland .... 6.. 36.6 94 Tyrrell....... 0.. 0.0 60 Transylvania... 2.. 35.4 94 Washington 0.. 0.0

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