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THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Published Weekly by the
University of North Caro
lina for the University Ex
APRIL 25, 1928
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS
VOL. XIV, No. 24
cdi E. C. Branson, S. H, Hobba. Jr.. P, W. WaKer, L, R. Wilson. E. W. Knight, b. D, Carroll, H. W. Odum.
Entered as second-clasa matter November 14. 1914. at the PostofRce at Chapel Hill, N. C., under the act of August E4. 1918.
govesnoe s proclamation
North Carolina has been endowed
by nature with various and abundant i
natural resources. Our streams are j
numerous and powerful, our wild life, '
once plentiful, still holds wonderful pos-1
sibilities for furnishing food, fun and i
recreation, our soils are fertile and our
forests, influencing all of these, produce
as great a variety of commercial trees
as any state in the Union. Our indus
tries dependent on timber are scattered
over the entire state and yield a
revenue to our people of more than
$100,000,000. More than 76 percent of
our people are financially affected by
timber production. More than 60 per
cent of the average farm and more
than two-thirds the total area of the
state is forest land.
Unfortunately, destructive methods
of cutting, followed by forest fires,
have prevented regeneration, cut down
the annual yield to one-half or ,pne-
third of what it might be, and even
reduced the capacity of the soil to
Each recurring spring, with its serious
fire risk and with nature’s renewed ef
forts to re-establish the forests which
man has destroyed, the necessity for
co-operating with nature in this effort
is borne in upon the minds of those
who are responsible for the ^^future
prosperity of the state and the nation.
This state, through what is now the
the department of conservation and
development, has for many years been
engaged in skirmishes against forest
fires. This campaign has developed
into a war. The department has set
forth before our people the advantages
to them and their children of growing
timber and only recently it has in
augurated the policy of assisting land
owners to plant waste land upon which
there is no adequate forest growth and
which is not needed for agriculture.
The federal government is not only
co-operating with the state in this
work, but it has also established na
tional forests in western North Caro
lina for the protection of our water
supplies, for production of timber and
for demonstration in practical forestry.
Eastern North Carolina is soon to share
this benefit with the mountain counties.
In accordance, therefore, with my
practice in previous years and follow
ing the example of the President of
the United States, I hereby proclaim
the week of April 22-28, 1928, as
American Forest Week and call upon
the people of North Carolina to ob
serve it in some appropriate and con
structive way.—'Angus W. McLean.
PROGRESS IN N. C.
North Carolina has made more actual
progress In forestry and forest fire pro
tection during the last few years than
any ether state in the Union, Axel H.
Oxholm, director of the national com
mittee on wood utilization of the de
partment of commerce, declares in his
report to the department following a
recent visit in North Carolina.
Greater diversification, however, of
forest industries in the state, together
with close coordination of these activ
ities with a view to better utilization
of the state’# timber resources are the
greatest needs at the present time.
North Oaroltna must effect these ob
jectives, Oxholm declares, if it is to
continue its position as a prominent
This state as a whole presents an en
couraging picture of natural resources,
it has been pointed out, despite the fact
that only 16 to 20 percent of its forest
resources are of virgin growth and the
balance represents timber of small
dimensions. The committee on wood
utilization which made these observa
tions was established by order of the
President, and Secretary of Commerce
Hoover is its chairman. Its object is
placing reforestation on a commercial
basis through increased ^utilization of
The entire staff of the Appalachian
Forest experiment station at Asheville,
is now at work in various parts of the
state in the interest of forest repro
duction. It has been pointed out by
members of the forest service that the
education of the public to the great
value of forests has’, gone far toward
curbing the ravages of fire. The
principal work of the experiment sta
tion now is to find what trees will take
A people without .children would
face a hopeless future; a country
without trees is almost as helpless;
forests which are so used that they
can not renew themselves will soon
vanish, and with them all their
benefits. A true forest is not mere
ly a storehouse full of wood, but, as
it were, a factory of wood, and at
the same time a reservoir of water.
When you help to preserve our
forests or plant .new ones you are
acting the part of good citizens.—
Theodore Roosevelt, in a Letter to
the School Children of the United
the place of the disappearing chestnut,
which will be practically exterminated '
in a short ti^e due to a peculiar 1
Oxholm explained that the furniture
industry and similar wood-using indus- ^
tries of the state could undoubtedly ■
take up the question of so-called small-
dimension stock instead of buying long
lengths and then cutting these into
smaller pieces at the time of consump-,
tion. One plant, located in Asheville,
is using small sizes of wood, which in ,
many other plants in the state are ■
thrown away or burned. The proper ■ =
utilization of every particle' of wood | private enterprise, and that all agen-
would save enough timb'^er to build a 1 cies—federal, state, and private
city every year, experts have declared. ^ should cooperate to this end.
The recent report of the utilization!: The chamber advocates the follow-
committee declared an increasing num-1 ing: (1) Adequate forest-fire protec-
ber of wood-working plants are being ; tion, (2) taxation of growing timber
established in the western North Caro-' upon the principle of the yield tax, (3)
lina section and that the excellent new: greater federal research facilities, (4)
highways will be a material aid in national inventory of forest resources,
development of the forest industries. | (6) state forestry departments, (6)
It was also pointed out that with the : forest management, aimed to accom-
growth of the industry there will be a ; push continuous forest production, (7)
demand for various chemical products, ^ reforestation of waste lands (lands not
and wood distillation seems to have a | producing) at headwaters of navigabl|
prospect in several pans of the state. I streams, by the federal government,
Oxholm said that utilization of the ; and (8) reforestation of other waste
chestnut wood is of immediate impor- , lands by stages and municipalities,
tance, since it is doomed to destruction ! This position was determined by
due to the effects of the blight. Through I referendum of the chamber’s member-
efforts of the state forester’s office, the | ship.-Forestry Facts,
agricultural extension department and ;
the North Carolina forestry association, | NATIONAL FORESTS
timberland owners are coming to real- j aggregate net area of the 169
ize that selective cutting will enable | forests of the United States
them to derive a continuous revenue, | gQ jy^?, was 168,800,424 acres,
officials have said.—Durham Herald. nearly 7 percent of the total land
area of the country. National forests
are now located in 33 states and in the
territories of Alaska and Porto Rico.
The estimated value of the resources
1 of these forests is $1,600,000,000, and
the net revenue received from timber,
grazing, and other resources during
the fiscal year 1927 was $6,166,606.
Of the total area of national forests,
more than 132,000,000 acres lie west of
the Great Plains, 21,000,000 acres are
in Alaska, and 4,000,000 along the
where favorable action is expected.
Briefly, the specific objectives of the
1. The continuation of the original
program of forest-land acquisition
m the White and Appalachian Moun
tains on an enlarged scale, which will
add 3,000,000 acres during the next 10-
2. Two and one-half million acres,
in properly distributed forest units, in
the Lake states of Minnesota, Wiscon
sin, and Michigan.
3. A system of southern forests,
aggregating approximately 2,500,000
acres, in the pine-producing regions of
Expenditures would aggregate $40,-
000,000 which would be available at the
rate of $3,000,000 a year for the first
five years and $6,000,000 a year for the
second five years.
Passage of the measure will mark
definite and substantial progress in
meeting a most important phase of the
forest problem in the eastern half of
the United States.—Forestry Facts.
Soon as he landed from the seas
And limbered up his pious knees,
The Pilgrim fell to chopping trees;
And when he died he left his son
An ax, a Bible and a gun.
The forest furnished beam and ratter
To him and all his children after.
They swung the ax with mighty strokes
And hacked down hickories, pines and
They needed wood for house and barn.
For spinning wheels to twist their
They needed wood and trees were
Where ten would d» they cut down
Yet those old boys wo should not scorn,
They wanted land te plant their corn.
They needs must break the forest
To raise a crop of Boston beans.
Though in the boughs the birds sang
The wooded land could grow mo wheat.
Alas, their sons have formed the habit,
And when they see a tree they grab it.
Then haul it oft to saw and slab it.
So in out day the trees are few
On many hills where once they grew.
The dryads all have left their places—
At least we seldom see their faces.
0 if you have some steep hillside
Where weeds and ferns ate spreading
And pasture grass has mostly died,
I pray you give it back to wood
And set in trees o’er many a rood.
You may not live to chop the same.
But future folks will bless your name,
And fledgling birds in many a nest
By your wise kindness will be blest.
We also ought, in clays and loams.
To set out maples ’round our homes.
A tree, it is a pleasant thing
In winter, summer, fall or spring,
And we should learn and often quote.
The verse on trees that Kilmer wrote,
Before he left his poet wife
And gave in war his good young life.
In heaven I hope he sings and sees
More tuneful songs and lovelier trees.
— Bob Adams, in Rude Rural Rhymes.
SURVEY OF FORESTS
Beginning in Wake county, a survey
of forest conditions that will extend
into every county in North Carolina
has been launched by the Forestry
Division of the Department of Conser
vation and Development.
R. C. Brown, who will do the field
work for the survey outside of the reg
ularly organized forest fire prevention
districts, has started the work in Wake
county under the direction of State
Forester J. S. Holmes. In the or*
ganized districts in the eastern and
western parts of the state, the field
work will be under the direction of the
The'survey will be in the nature of
an inventory of forestry conditions,
with which it is proposed to tabulate
the amount of available standing lim
ber, the species, the uses and the
amount of forest land that is producing
and the amount that is unproductive at
State Forester Holmes stated yester
day that although the facilities and
time will not allow as thorough study
as is desired, it is hoped that it would
arouse renewed interest in forest re
sources so that counties would continue
One of the purposes of the survey is
to show the amount of available tim
ber that may be used in developing
further wood-using industries in the
state. It is expected it whl aid also in
guiding the state’s conservation policies
through providing basic information.—
News and Observer.
A Table Showing how the States Compare in Four Particulars
The following information relative to forests and lumber production in the
United States is taken from a bulletin, “American Forests and Forest Prod
ucts,’’ issued by the United States Department of Agriculture, October, 1927.
The first column shows the forest area in each state in 1920. The total ex
cludes 80,000,000 acres of juniper, pinon, and chaparral in the southwest, but
includes 81,200,000 acres of idle lands, once forested, but now incapable of re
generation to commercial timber without planting. The figure given for Ne
braska includes the forest lands of eastern South Dakota. The figure given
for South Dakota includes only the forests of the Black Hills.
The second column indicates the amount of publicly owned forest land in
each state in 1926. National forests constitute 92.6 percent of the total. Few,
if any, of the public forest reservations are entirely covered with saw timber,
hence the area designated as public forests is in some slates larger than the total
forest area. This designation does not include the forested land within Indian
reservations, national parks, national monuments, some military reservations,
and the unreserved public domain. Of North Carolina’s public forest area
77,000 acres is state swamp land.
The third column shows the amount of planting done in each state up to
and including the year 1926. This is done by the Forest Service, by states, by
municipalities, by industrial organizations, by non-industrial organizations, by
schools and colleges, and by individuals. In North Carolina most of the plant
ing has been by done by individuals.
The fourth column gives lumber production in each state in 1926, the last
year for which figures are available. Nevada is included with California. The
Atlantic seaboard, of which some North Dakota, and Nebraska, was only about 16 mil
Department of Rural Social-Economics. University of North Carolina
Declaring that American business is
about to take into its fold a new
industry-the growing of crops of
timber by private enterprise-the
Chamber of Commerce of the United
States of America is sponsoring a
movement to arouse public interest m
this important forestry problem of the
The national chamber takes the posi-
tion that the major task of providing
ample supplies of wood for the future
needs of the Nation should rest upon
2,600,000 acres is land in the Eastern
and Southern states at the headwaters
of navigable streams which has been
purchased by the Government under
the provision of the Weeks law.
Within the national forests are 16
national monuments and 19 national
The national forests are managed
and protected by the Forest Service
under the policy of “conservation
through wise use.’’ Such uses include
the growing and cutting of timber on a
perpetual-crop basis, and use of range
lands for livestock, recreation, and many
other activities. The national monu
ments and game refuges in the national
forests ate also under the jurisdiction
of the Forest Service.—Forestry Facts.
The net annual growth of the forests
of the United States, estimated at
6 000,000,000 cubic feet, can be in
creased to 10,000,000,000 b'S 1960 and
ultimately to 27,000,000,000 cubic feet,
or over four times me present produc
tion, if adequate fire protection and
businesslike forestry practices are put
into e*ect on timbered and cutover and
waste lands, says the Forest Service.
The Forest Service estimates that
neatly half of our forest area is at
present producing no net growth,
either because it is virgin forest where
growth is offset by decay, or because
it is so denuded by overcutting and fire
as to be unproductive. The encourag
ing forecast is that with provision
made for a succeeding forest growth
upon the removal of the remaining
virgin forest, and with effective fire
control, care, and planting, our forest
area will again come into production.—
A measure popularly known as the
McNary-Woodruff bill, and providing
for a 10-year program of forest ac
quisition in the East, was passed with'
amendments by both Houses of the
69th Congress. Action by the Senate
was late in the session, and final ap
proval of amendments by both Houses
in the closing days of Congress proved
impracticable. The bill was again
introduced in the Seventieth Congress,
Forest area Public Forest Lumber
1920 forests planted production
acres 1926 1926 1926
acres acres millions of
...20,000,000 316,116 118 2,236
... 6,360,000 11,363,022 1,837 146
...21,600,000 968,842 1,272 1,697
...18,276,000 19,236,068 66,134 2,043
Colorado 8,682,000 13,424,828 34.676 71
Connecticut 1,461,000 44,643 11,260 42
Delaware 360,000 10 7
Florida 19.000,000 344,691 1,166 1,064
Georgia 20,000,000 238,638 103 1,366
Idaho...... 16,361,000 19,993,846 46,896 1,141
Illinois 3,148,000 42.608 40,431 29
l^aine 16,000,000 863,216 10,000
Maryland.... 2,228,000 28,764 928
18,477 8,640 179
41,284 1,800 207
204,200 16,000 .-.3,293
Massachusetts 2,241.000 209,603 40,000 110
Michij^an 18,400,000 1,210,002 46,323 798
Minnesota 20,900,000 2,037,020 181,642. 679
Mississippi 17,000,000 66 3,128
Missouri 13,820,000 71,600 10,000 187
Montana 13,926,000 16,474,330 28,227 889
Nphraska 3,600,000 221,193 213,982
jijevada 484,000 4,976,668 721
New Hampshire 3,944,000 440,674 8,843 261
New Jersey 2.000,000 80,969 3,602 10
New Mexico 6,660,000 8,666,466 2,090 162
New York 12,100,000 2,311,981 96,312 198
North Carolina 18.000.000 500,613 4,701 1,041
North Dakota 17,660 63,063
Qi^io 4,000,000 103,060 6,896 141 .
Oklahoma 8,000,000 88.780 2,619 168
Oregon 23,276,000 13,461,164 32,014 4,216
Pennsylvania 12,000,000 1,329,148 76,416 381
Rhode Island 280,000 104 400 4
South Carolina 10,000,000 68,101 66 980
South Dakota 1,173,000 1,144,367 133,738 47
Tennessee 12,000,000 318,189 60 642
Texas 16,000,000 67,682 3,700 1,678
Ut-ah 3,600,000 7,649,283 8,260 6
Vermont 2,792,000 37,340,.' 9,294 126
Virginia 12,000,000 690,297 236 709
Washington 17.660,000 10,960,677 17,198 7,027
West Virginia 8,600,000 238,124 768 683
Wisconsin 17,800,000 338,000 6,600 1,068
Wyoming 6,716,000 8,628,740 2,982 16
Total 469,476,000 148,640,742 1,626,659 38,339