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The University of North Carolina news letter. online resource (None) 1914-1944, July 18, 1928, Image 1

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The news in this publi cation is released for the press on receipt. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA NEWS LETTEK Published Weekly by the University of North Caro lina for the University Ex tension Division. JULY 18. 1928 CHAPEL HILL, N. C. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS VOL. XIV, No. 36 Editorial Boards E. C. Branaon, S. H. Hobbs. Jr.. P. W. Wager, L. R. Wilson, E. W. Knight. D. D. Carroll, H. W. Odum. Entered as second-class matter November 14, 1914, at the Postoffice at Chapel Hill, N. C.. under the act of Angnst 24. 1915. HOW N. C. STANDS TODAY A HANDSOME BALANCE The general aaaembly of 1927 author ized maximum expenditures under the appropriation act aggregating $16,- 716,690. Under the terms of the executive budget act, these appropria tions are in eifect maximum authori zations, subject to supervision and control by the director of the budget, who is directed to supervise the ex penditures and permit to be spent out of the appropriations only such amounts as are actually needed for the proper conduct of the various departments, institutions and other agencies of the state government. Instead of spending the total amount of $16,716,690 authorized by the legis lature, the various departments, insti tutions and agencies actually expended only $14,842,831, thus saving out of the aggregate of the appropriations the sum of $873,709 for the.fiscal year just ended. The cash surplus or credit balance for the year ending June 30, 1928, is $2,237,988 as compared with a cash sur plus or credit balance on hand June 30, 1927, of $1,403,683. Of the total amounts expended out of appropria tions for the year, interest on that part of the state debt allocated to the general fund was $1,934,246, the amount paid on account of the princi pal including sinking fund and serial payments chargeable to the general fund was $1,314,260,'making the total expenditures for debt service for the year $3,248,496. Income taxes g [actually collected amounted to $8,176,000, as compared with $7,000,000 estimated by the 1927 legislature. Franchise taxes actually collected amounted^ to $3,640,610, as against $3,831,000 estimated by the general assembly. License taxes ac tually collectedjamounted to $1,420,140, as compared with $1,679,900 estimated by the general assembly. Inheritance taxes actually collected amounted to $700,636, as compared with the esti mate of $1,000,000 made by general assembly.—Governor’s statement as it appeared in the News and Observer. counties. All are now operating on a budget basis so that it is possible to know how the expenditures of each compared with income. I It must be gratifying to the citizens j of the state to learn that the state closed the year with a surplus of about two and a quarter millions of dollars in : the general fund. This is due in part, to an excess of revenue over that! anticipated and in part to keeping ex penditures below the maximum authori-1 izations. Of course not all this sur-' plus was built up in one year. It ■ represents the savings of the three: years since the state began operating j on a cash basis. | For several years the schools—county and district—have been operating on a budget basis, or at least were presumed ' to be. Unfortunately current deficits j have been all too common and are not. yet entirely unknown. The county fiscal control act, if rigidly enforced, will prevent further abuses of- this kind, at least so far as the expenses of the six months’ term are concerned. Last year was the first year in which all departments of county government' were required to operate according to a budget—that is, live within th.eir in come. Tl^e county fiscal control act promises to put county administration on as sound a financial basis as that which has characterized the state for the last three years. If budgetary con trol can produce a surplus for the state it is not unlikely that it will do so for the counties—amazing as that may now appear. Of course, the fact that a county’s tax sources are less subject to fluctuation than the state’s makes it possible to gauge more exactly what they will yield. Counties Conform A FEDERAL SURPLUS The federal government enters the new fiscal year with a treasury sur plus of $398,000,000. Summarizing the nation’s financial condition at the close of the old year, which came' at midnight of June 30, Secretary Mellon declared late yester day that the period “witnessed a fur ther improvement” in the country's position. “There was a substantial surplus of receipts over expenditures,” he said. “The national debt was redilced by over $900,000,000, accompanied by a material cut in interest charges. The vast refunding operations begun in 1927 were continued and have been well nigh brought to a successful con clusion. Taxes were again cut by over $220,000,000.” The total of ordinary receipts for the fiscal year was $4,042,000,000, Mr. Mellon announced, with expenditures of $3,644,000,000 chargeable against this amount. The two figures for the previous fiscal year were respectively $1,129,000,000 and $3,364,000,000. Tax receipts totalled $3,364,000,000 or $111,000,000 leas than in the fiscal year of 1927. Receipts from income taxes aggregated $2,174,000,000 as compared with $2,226,000,000 in 1927. In this connection, Secretary Mellon called at tention to the fact that the treasury's estimate of this total differed fr6m the actual figures “by thq narrow margin of $9,000,000.” Including disbursements under It is not likely that every one of the one hundred counties came through the year without a deficit. It is probable that some counties, inexperienced in budget-making, erred in overestimat ing revenues or in underestimating expenses. It is probably true, too, that a few counties have not made an absolutely sincere effort to carry out the law in every detail. On the whole. POPULAR CONTROL From the day of our independence the soul of the American people has been growing more and more demo cratic, and where the spirit of de mocracy is, whatever the institu tional maladjustment, even a klep- tarchy can not go far wrong. The spirit of rightness in a democratic people must in the end prevail, how ever maddening may be the condi tions which stand between the spirit and^ts goal. The spirit of the nation cannot be reconciled with “invisible government” in any of its forms. - For the first time in our history the people are beginning to think in terms of the underlying prin ciples of the mechanism of popular control. The people are beginning to demand that the acts of the govern ment be made '^‘visible”; that ob structions to the effective use and maladjustments of the mechanism of popular control be removed; that an effective use be made of the instrument of visibility set up by them in their constitutions. —From The Budget and Responsible Govern^ ment by Cleveland and Buck. Today fish and game are one of the important items of the people’s food supply in Great Britain and on the Continent. Today the sale of game is prohibited in the United States. Forests gone, waters poisoned or dried up—these are the shameful reasons why the New World forbids traffic in its wretched remnants of wild game. !—Robert W. Chambers in The Ameri can Legion. TWO NEW RECORDS By collecting nearly $14,000,000 dur- :ing the fiscal year just ended the state revenue department is able to announce that previous high records for North \ istratlon fees $10,636. HIGHWAY FUND Collection of gasoline taxes, auto mobile license taxes and automobile title registration fees in North Caro lina during the fiscal year ending June 30 totalled $18,900,126.02, it has been announced. This is almost five million dollars above the amount collected during the previous fiscal year but about four and one-half million dollars was collected incidental to the Change of the state automobile license year from a Ju)y-to-July to a January- to-January basis, June collections totalled $932,210.56, subdivided as follows: License $128,- 474; gasoline taxes $793,199; title reg- states, ran from Carolina, to $484.00 policy-holders, by $194.00 for North for New Jersey. This statement is not very encourag ing, in view of the fact that death will come to all of us; yet we of this state can comfort ourselves that,our families can bury us cheaper than the people of any other state. This is another instance where North Carolina is first, as it is claimed she was at Bethel. This increased cost of funerals is a serious question worthy of careful consideration. Much of this increased expense is due to the love of display, the besetting sin of our day. The profits on caskets and funeral accessories are unreasonably high, we Carolina tax collections have been ! broken. Exceeding collections last year by more than two and one quarter million dollars the department said collections for the year just closed totalled $13,- 937,286. A comparison of 1926-27 and 1927-28 collections shows: 1926-27 ■ 1927-28 Income taxes $6,339,762....$8,176,000 Inheritance taxes 824,441... 700,636 Licenses (Sched ule B) 1,170,870... 1,420,140 Franchises (Sched ule C) 3,312,796... 3,640,610 Total 11,647,868...13,937,268 Gilliam Grissom, federal revenue collector, has also reported that all rec ords for collection by his department have been broken. Total collections for the year were $226,320,122, as compared with $205,- 651.675 for 1927, and $192,403,633 for 1926, Mr. Grissom said. June was a “million-dollar-a-day month,” said Mr. Grissom in explain ing that tobacco stamp sales and col lection of other federal taxes were more than one million dollars each June business day. however, it appears that most counties [ are informed. have made an earnest attempt to balance their budgets, and after a year’s experience will be able to do even better next year. Most of the skepticism, even antagonism, which greeted the passage of the law has been dissipated and there is now only praiseifor the new system. The citizens of North Carolina can generally be trusted to react sensibly when they understand the proposition before them, and there can be no rea sonable opposition to a system that de mands (1) that current expenditures shall not exceed current income, (2) that county accounts be keptin an intelligible manner, and (3) that the taxpayers be kept informed about the county finances ! and be given an opportunity to share i A dealer who had retired from busi ness assured us once that the profits on coffins were beyona all other articles in \ Collections for the year are sub divided as follows: Licenses $9,363,- 616; gasoline taxes $9,376,987; title registration fees $169,622. These funds go for the retirement of bonds issued for highway construc tion purposes and for the maintenance of roads already constructed by the state. BUS REVENUE The number of people who are using motor bus transportation has increased greatly during the last year, judgicg from the increased revenue of the bus operating companies, which is a direct indication of the growing popularity of bus transportation, according to R. 0. Self, in charge of the motor transportation division of the State Corporation Commission. There has been an increase of almost 36 percent in the amount of revenue collected by the State in the motor bus tax, the records of the Depart ment of Revenue show. For while a totil^of $167,410.88 was collected for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1927, from the bus tax, up to June 20, 1928, the State had collected $200,394.22—an increase of more than 38 percent over last year's collection.—Anson News. NORTH CAROLINA A compilation of facts about North Carolina reproduced from the Blue Book of Southern Progress—J928 Edition, published by the Manufacturers Record. Department of Rural Social-Economics, University of North Carolina 1900 1910 1927 Population X.893,810 2,206,287 2,897.000 Property, true value $681,982,000 t$I,686,408,COO tt$6,284,000,000 Assessed value property $306,579,715 $613,000,000 $2,920,000,000 Manufactures: Capital $68,283,005 $217,186,588 Products, value $85,274,083 $216,666,066 tt$l,060,434,000 woodwork, and the charge is possible i Mines and Quarries and collectible, we believe, because we hesitate to dispute a bill under such solemn circumstances. Whether this be true or not, we can not say, but we know that in our wanderings during a long life, we have never known a dealer in coffins who died poor. For the benefit of the living. Con gress ought to regulate the cost^of our departure from this terian Standard. world. —Presby- the war claims act, the total expenditures amounted to $3,671,000,000 as compared with $3,494,000‘000 for the fiscal year 1927. The increase Mr. Mellon at tributed to the failure of the second Oefici'sncy bill of 1927 and changes in 'he revenue law by reason of which a ubstantial amount of expenditures jiroperly chargeable to the fiscal year 1927 was carried over to 1928.” THE USE OF BUDGETS June 30lh marked the end of North Carolina’s fiscal year, for the general departments of the state government, for the public schools, and for the Products, value $2,676,871 Furniture Manufacturing: Products, value $1,023,000 $1,547,000 ft Lumber, feet cut 1,278,389,000 1,824,722,000 Minerals products, value $1,4156,848 $2,616,131 ** Coal mined, tons 17,734 for this Nation to solve, perhaps, are: All land in farms, acres 22,749,356 22,439,129 ft For the first time in the history of to grow forests sufficient for the Improved land, acres 8,327,106 8,813,066 ti the state it is possible to report to the ; j^-gtional needs; and how to prevent! Number of farms 224,637 263,726 tt think ahead The two most important problems Capital.. Products, value Cotton Manufacturing: $5,986,112 * $2,260,434 $924,000 $1,368,617 * $2,736,643 Capital $33,012,009.. Products, value $28,373,000.. Spindjes, number active ... Looms, number active Cotton consumed, bales ... Cottonseed Oil Mills: Capital 1,134,909.. 25,469.. 404,636.. $96,993,000 * $268,323,000 $72,680,000 ft $316,324,008 3,163,199 6,094,136 65,600 85,813 754,483 1,664.773 $4,432,010 * $14,686,466 $8,504,477 $17,707,000 ..$61,208,238 970,966,000 $10,993,000 and 18,693,670 7,738,826 283,482 coastal I Value all farm property $233,834,693 $537,716,210 tt$l,060,015,836 1,424,921 taxoayers within a few days after the pollution of all inland close of a fiscal year the exact condi- . ^^ters. ^ Value of farm land $141,966,840 $348,164,946 tt tion of every state and county fund. ; a sure sign of the decadence of a Farm products, value $39,310,000 $176,262,000 The financial record of the state and pggpie is the decadence of their forests, i Farm, crops, value $68,626,000 $131,072,000, its subdivisions is now an open book. Look at your maps of Europe, Asia, This tremendous gain cannot be mini-; ^nd Africa. Where forests fail people mized. ; fail. .. .u . ===== It is scarcely worth repeating that, I as a race, we have been generous to ' the point of extravagance and waste, y THE COST OF DYING We see an ascending scale in life generous to ourselves, to the stranger; from the cradle to the grave-the cost ea^eless to posterity of being born, the cost of living after . j^kes God a hundred years we are born, and the 6,609,000,. 6,736,000.. $453,«05,000 $361,606,000 7,306,000 1,727,000 867.0CO $83,5o8.(j00 cost of dying when we are through life. An honest farmer recently hundred grow a white pine. It takes ten minutes to feil it. Farm crops, acres.. Cotton crop: Acreage 1,007,000 1,478,000.. Bales, number 433,000 706,000.. Value lint $15,697,000 $49,710,000.. Value seed $2,291,000 :... $9,666,000 $14,037,000 Tobacco crop, pounds 127,503,400 138,813,163 468,000,000 Value $8.038,691 $13,847,559 $120,744,000 Acreage 203,023 221,890 ■ 650,000 jackass I Grain crops: \ 1 Corn, bushels 29,790,000 49,230,000. 63,626,000 to I to clothe plained that under the new medical dis It requires centuries mountain with noble foliage. A foo. pensation ac uiiuei Liic iitp»» 1.*,.........-. —... txiv*....4w,....- • Li J ' the cost of being born was and his cigarette can set it afire and j Livestock: Wheat, bushels.. Oats, bushels.... 6,961,000.. 6,046,000.. 6,817,000.. 4,022,000.. 6,168.000 6,733,000 day. The'truth is that we live for our-1 beyond th6 purse of the ordinary farm- destroy it m er-that in.old times it was a household Thet-_- ■ transaction, but that now it required a selves and for the pleasure of be g, stay in a'hospital for a couple of weeks, indulgent and self-sacrifimg. up y ^ with medical and nurse charges, to- Ca'tle, number... Sleep, number... Swine, number ... Horses, number . Mules, number .. 625,000.. 302,000.. 1,300,000.. 159,000.. 136,000.. 701,000.. 214,000.. 1,228,000.. 166,000.. 176,000.. 627,000 85,000 961,000 105,000 282,000 Not one in ten thousand among us j Banking: has thought to build for the remijte Aggregate resources., future and for the good of our children, their children-for the general good. That prudence, that good citizenship. Paid in capital.. gether with board, that made being born prohibitory. According to the statistics prepared by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, recently piiblished, the cost - human obligation few of us ever [ Motor vehicles, no. of coming into this world is a cheap that After us I exnenditu out. cost of $112,213,762 $503,968,000 ^ $16,376,606 $38,240,000 Individual deposits $16,768,000 $67,286,664 $356,767,000 Railroad mileage 3,831 4,932 6,337 t 6,178 430,499 have considered or practiced. After us > Highway expenditures $624,281 ftf $5,216,491 $28,250,000 affair, compared with the cost of^gmng That’s what it amounts ! Public school expenditure *Census 1920 tl912 $960, COO $3,037,000 *♦ $34,691,669 **1926 ttl926 ***1904 tttl914

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