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The University Student
Vol. 4. No. 3.
LUX ET VERITAS
JOHNSON C. SMITH UNIVERSITY, CHARLOTTE, N. C., DECEMBER, 1927.
Price 10 Cents.
THE PASSING OF MARCUS
By T. A. Steele., ’28.
On the second of December, nineteen
hundred and twenty-seven, as the steam
er, Saramacca lifted anchor (ind slowly
drifted out of the harbor at New Orleans
there was standing upon the deck one who
with sad and wistful eyes watched the
fading shore. This one was Marcus Gar
vey, being deported as an undesira
ble alien. Just a half hour before,
perched upon a cannon as a platform, in a
setting of dark, low clouds and blue water,
he had delivered his farewell address to a
band of his faithful followers, thus clos
ing in dramatic fashion another chapter in
a brilliant and eventful life.
Coming to America in 1916, unknown
and without money, but imbued with the
idea of world wide organization of colored
people and the establishment of a Negro
Provisional Government in Africa, he
formed the first local chapter. of his or
ganization, which he called the Universal
Negro Improvement Association, in New
York City and met with amazing success.
He came upon the scene at the psycholog
ical moment. The great war was shaking
the foundations of the world, old traditions
were being cast aside, nations revolution
ized, anything was possible in the minds
of men. Then, too, he brought a message
which met the hopes and aspirations of
the colored people. Being denied full par
ticipation in the governmental affairs of
America, and feeling that their only hope
for political freedom lies in a government
of their own the Negroes have long
dreamed of a Republic in Africa, main
tained by members of their own race and
to which they can look with pride and a
feeling of being a part of it. Thus they
received Garvey with open arms. The or
ganizations grew overnight. Chapters
were formed in all parts of the United
States. Liberty Hall in New York City
became the temple of Garveyism. Nightly
meetings were held in which Garvey orat
ed to his followers in fiery language. He
pleaded with them to become a racial unit
and to fight for economic and political
freedom. Sometimes in his flighty speech
es he pictured to them a mighty empire in
Africa of which he would be the emperor
and the highest of his followers, Dukes
and Counts. Mammoth parades were held
in which Garvey rode, surrounded by a
gi'oup of his trusty lieutenants. But de
spite all this form and outward show there
was a serious and business side of the
Association. A chain of bakeries and
laundries, a department store and apart
ment houses were bought. A newspaper
was established and the Black Star Steam
ship line was formed. The mehibership
grew into millions while thousands of dol
lars poured into the treasury. The name
of Ga.vvey was whispljred, not .only in
America, but in Europe, even in the snow
covered huts beyond the Sahara. Much
opposition arose against Garvey. Some
said he was trying to get all Negroes to
go back to Africa. Others opposed the
unsoundness of his plans and the extract
ing of money from the masses. It was also
rumored that European powers holding
possessions in Africa feared that Garvey
might stir up a rebellious spirit among the
natives if his plans should materialize.
Finally the watchful eyes of his enemies
discovered a flaw in his armor. He was
advertising stocks for sale beyond theii
worth. He was' arrested on a charge of
using the mail for fraudulent pui’poses.
After a bitter legal fight in w'hich Garvey
dismissed his lawyers and attempted to
act as his own counsel he was convicted
and sentenced to serve five years in the
Federal Prison at Atlanta. With his in
carceration the organization split and lost
What judgment shall we now pass upon
him? His effort to build the Black Star
Line was a failure. The other business
firms went to the rocks. The government
in Africa was a wild, fantastic dream.
Thousands of hard-earned dollars of the
common people have been squandered and
wasted. He has been convicted of a crime,
confined in a prison and deported as an
undesirable alien. An utter failure and a
disgraced ci'iminal, but lest we forget, the
Universal Negro Improvement Association
was the most significant oi'ganization ever
formed by Negroes. It had for its pur
pose the unification of all the colored rac
es scattered throughout the world. It
sought to create among the diversified
groups a common racial feeling. Garvey,
by his natural ability and genius to or
ganize and lead, created among his fol
lowers such a spirit of love that the!
were willing to fight and die for him. For
the first time in the history of the modern
world Negroes were willing to follow a
Negro. Then the very audacity of the
man, w'ho, though penniless and unknown,
dared to attempt the fulfilling of an im
possible dream cannot be ignored. Like
the empire builders of the past his vis
ion pierced the sky. He was convicted
and branded a criminal, but he was guilty,
not of crime, but of imprudence. We say
of him as Carlyle said of Mahomet, “He
\va.= no imposter, for only a truly sincere
man could have done what he did.”
His courage and undying spirit which
even the prison 'wmlls could not dampen,
his belief in the possibilities of his race,
are all elements which must not be for
gotten. The spirit of Garvey w'ill go
marching on. Some day Africa will be
free. Some day the Negroes the world
over will come together and throw off
their common yoke of oppression. And in
future ye.ars when the history of the Ne
gro is written Marcus Garvey will be num
bered among the great men of his race.
THESIS ON COLLEGE
By A. W. Waddell, ’29.
The word Hygiene comes from Hygeia,
the name of the Greek goddess of health.
The term, therefore, carries the idea of
absence of disease. In trying to state in
a vivid way what a course in College Phys
iology should consist of, it is necessary to
discover a few points in personal hygiene.
and to emphasize such points that are ne
cessary and essential to all College stu.
The human organism is composed of
many organs that are grouped into sys
tems, each having a definite function. It
is only when these organs of the body
function as a whole that one can have a
To have a healthy body calls for the
proper treatment of the human organisms,
and this required knowledge comes only
through the studying of the physiological
mechanism of the human structure, and
by the application of its laws to the human
Diseases are divided into two main
groups—constitutional and communicable.
Constitutional diseases are those ailments
like diabetes, rheumatism, ‘and epilepsy.
These diseases are caused by improper-
functioning of certain organs of the body
which cannot be transmitted from one per
son to another.
Communicable diseases are those like ty
phoid fever, diphtheria and measules which
can be easily transmitted. All communica
ble disease are caused by germs, and yet
there are other diseases to which the
human organism is made susceptible.
In further discussing physiology, diges-
t' -n should be considered, as this is the
source from which many ailments come to
Digestion is a chemical and physical
change through which our food must go
before it is changed into blood.
The processes of digestion are as follows:
mastication, digestion in the stomach
sorption, assimilation and excretion.
The needed elements for the body is con
tained in distinct classes of foods: Carbo
hydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, mineral
salts and water.
The salinary glands secretes ferment
called pepsin and reisin, which is necessa
ry for digestion by special peptic or en
zyme cells of the glands.
Secretion is the elaboration of complex
juices, which contain digestive enzymes.
Thus when these secretions act on sub
stances at the temperature of the body the
food substances are broken down into sim
Indigestion is a name generally applied
to the derangement of the digestive sys
tem. The most frequent cause of indiges
tion may be traced to improper diet, or
badly balanced foods. It may be caused
by improper exercise or worry. The effects
of indigestion may be divided into two
classes—physical and mental.
^ The relief of indigestion involves the re
moval of the cause. The diet should be
balanced and proper exercise should be
Colds are extremely fatal and are us
ually not of themselves fatal and are,
therefore, neglected. Colds may be the
beginning of contagious diseases.
Colds are caused by the lowering of the
resistance of the human body, or by ob
structions in the nose and throat. Care
should be taken that the body is properly
protected at all times by wearing proper
clothing and by avoiding persons with
The heart is controlled by a very delicate
nerve mechanism which automatically
causes it to beat faster or slower in ac
cordance with the needs of the body. The
muscles of the heart should be kept in good
condition. Severe exercise indulged in sud
denly, when the heart is not in condition,
may throw too much strain upon it, thus
causing rupture of the heart.
No severe exercise should Ue attempted
without a reasonable long period of train
ing in which to prepare the heart to meet
the demand which will be placed upon,
Thus physiology is an advantage to all
students. It presents the essential facts
concerning the body and gives a deeper in
sight into those vital points which every
one should know. It explains how the body
should function as a unified organism, and
how to prevent diseases and how to treat
When one has acquired this knowledge-
through the studying of the physiological
and anatomical structure of the human
body, it will bring a solution to some of
the problems that have confronted most
of us concerning ourselves.
lows: ^ C
By C. M. Thorpe.
Merry Christmas to the world;
Let every heart be free
To celebrate the will of fate,
Saj's Smith University.
Not only Smith, but also Fisk
Has this philosophy:
That every soul should make its goal
To realize this lofty prize
And know the things worth while,
From day to day, they’ve paved the way
0, boundless deep! 0, lofty height!
To do it with a smile. ‘
0, spacious scope, tell me!
What jolly boy? What laughing girl
Can be content with thee ?
Progress! is the watchword;
Progress! says the Queen;
Progress for the business man
And for the social king.
We always look for recreation
Through the Christmas tide.
And have unstinted celebration
By laying work aside.
But when merry Christmas shall have
And merry holidays gone,
We’ll turn again merrily to our tasks
And still go merrily on.
By J. T. Wilson, class ’29.
The proverb found in the Ne-w Testa
ment, “a tree is known by the fruit it
bears,” which served its purpose so ■well
in helping the world to recognize the true
followers of Christ and to distinguish them
from the outside world, might well be util
ized in the recognition of the “cultured
youth” from the or-dinary free and easy
going “dude or flapper.”
In this particular ease the student repre
sents the “cultured youth.” Surely he or
she wants to distinguish himself or Ifer-
self from the ordinary “dude or flapper.”
(Continued on page 8)