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PUBLISHED (rtiKLT) 3T 'ALLtlim. IIALL
-TUESDAY,. FEBRUARY-. 4 1 806.
l 1 f
Raleigh, January 13.
Circuit Court of the United States.
NORTH-CAROLINA DISTRICT, f
DECEMBER TERM, 1803.
jGeoroi V. 'CottKTkr, 'Tfilsfte
for the d.evisees of the Earl -Gran-
' ville, ' . Versus '
JoSIAU COLLIXS. ' '
'Thisliause, -which f has excited so : ta'iSc.li'in-
' terest in the state, and which we noticed
in bur lHt, was brought toTecover a tract
s of hndviying within the' 'district "cfv'iKe
lr GranvilleV'and is a parcel of that ter
ritory which was chartered toi .ord Carte
ret by King Car. Tl. The dedii-
1 .' ced his title from'' John :L6rftrfivin.
- rho heM of cW.-ri. By grant', hearing date
in 174. The proprietory claim, 'derived
' from Car. II. had been surrendered to tit
. crown, and a grant takefi'for ihe same
.' - lands as above ; and ' whether the grant
contained prerogatives Or only ' the usual
appurtenunces to a fee simple, appeared to
l" be the question with' the Court, and upon
. Hh-it point hung the decision of the cause. '
The object in bringing tills suit, wis mere
': ij tu fry the principle i and should 't.lit
' ptiinMif ultimately succeed he will claim
' all (ha land -within lm district not granted
i or conveyed by the late Earl Granville cr
his ancestors' '""' '
UDon th'i dole of the arguments, Judge
.ottkiI addressed the 'Jury 'arid remarked,
that the meanest individual of whatever na
tion or clinic, had iright to demand a. fair
" impartial trial of his 'cause thikt it was
WcuTtarly tlie duty xf the Court and Jury to
WvCst thehrselvVs, as'nKichas feossible, of all
biiu, whether from fuyour or prejudice that
It -was particularly necessary m the case e
lore theiihHfd'rfrlurd a.rnras;f-ach' an influ
-enee, as popylar cla'mdur had been loud, and
tehtimentsof the merits ol the cause precon
fcwvcdr- fie therefore advised'them to con-
. Vider the hitionaf charac'ier ofthfp -?i Cl'ii'tnx'-
t treat, them )S en;TfTy KC;'in, to- tlrtm7
oAo c6hsiderfieninycrfcc:Iylel iubint.
avorV I' X " '. t
f: Heathen rnftrm'eVfthe Jurying theVporf-
eestd the richt At finding either a geiMfUl or
.'special vlrdici thil the latter was a finding of
to the Court; and that the former was to
'compound ihc'ir verdict of the law and facts.
Jle observed that though it were his wUh as
'an individual, that the determination of tlu
"court should undergo teviionT that the
law mieht he settled ; 'el he wbuU nvt un-
"cTe'rlake to advise the finding of spv'ul ver
diet Inertly Fir the purpose of affording
means for carlyine up the cause to the Su-
. t),vnie(Hlrl B,ul nc thought it his iluty.to
inform them too, that the principal reason
for a special verdict was wanting in this case i
'he was ready to declare the law to them as
lie understood it, and that the opinion he had
iormcd was prccistly the me, in all proba
biiitr, as that which he should deliver on a
r?rUI verdict; hut that thcr might take
which ever course they thouglK proper, vhc
ther hy finding a Special vcrdittj or by fin
ding a general verdict, concurrin? or not ,
concurring with the opinion of the Court.
He then ssid, that the charge which he
, tra about lo give them, he had prepared In
the founof.il opinion in order that the'oun
il might uldcnund diitinctly the reasons
for' that ouinfon t he then delivered the fot-
v.!; V II A RG B: .
Imlecidinga caw of much importance,
.even between iniliviJu-U whoe riihts alone
-ureto be affected, it is to b .supplied that
. .the Court mut possess great nliciude,
IvkUbya migu'idrd jiiJgmitit it tjiav do a
wrong to one of the parties for 'liit!i it
.. uuy relent wien it is tod Uiu. JIow much
nor must be the concern 'if the Court in the
present ce. where on the one lund, not -It
an indivduul may be greatly iijuud,lut
the national honour qucs'loned ; and on t'oe
tiher hand, the riglus of thousands depend
jMhthi dtciwon. . -
rs any ease of such cenersl concern avl
Jic tsffclsi'un, 1 fchHjld piiMlrr, Ib'-oh
ltat shuild be tler j 1 should hei'o'.e
t'-oujtli cy mind d uurd not; u 1 thmihl
!i.tri'st my own J'!gf.fn', iiuv,;U 1 hd
cnfidence iu Jt . J.nd,rrst!m(,
lli-rfr, wsli,C 4.UW under judmnrM,
.iichh'lrr"U'.t a rnnnicy opinion
amh?ther si learned m the livr, atd '!
h iHywrd ny own inuli4vH wjtn mucb dvSt
ald dirfMiihy. This .weight un I rtifficipy
treatlf lncrf3ed ', lv the lo ftf lt
f tiiUnf c an l su.i.Ktt which t fondly esjccu
. , ed. and, to'it for the ptrtVisr (CtHin in
.. s'.h In i pUccd. I liull Lavt derived
fcrnna ihrt'ltW Jlkc -t
Huthi'dhnl Mftpleajnt as tSe fak wns, !
tha imjgl ff duty hoit down nil diiTful y (I
at.-l by iht Iv'tt ! U c ct4iiikl 1 thoi'ht 1
Ji.ititi lb Uuil tf tha C4iu m lUa-
,f,i' . ...
. 1 1 ot rwvt lr.trrred upon tb auhjent ihs1
f Mtlsirf ninl fjf a'.Mhrt a mceisry
t.,he "! in ssment tm ei'hrr side," was
amp!f isU by t con at lh br
i( rvicxl tvo in tttms fot(iUe) 4a tue
Ihrtrl: cfesri aivd in imadhation. holdr An
Lit is to this instructive argument that I otifc
. mucn ior ine iniormauoM iju3bci.i'"
L subject. -With this advantage I ftavemade
hit 'my birsiness, as it was tny duty; to assay
: the Various points on. which the tSus'e might
' possibly tumr and to ahalyate to' the 'utmost ,
of mv abilities the true matter' df the Sase.
I In-doing this, I hate followed' the order a
i donted by the counsel i but as mr opinion
will only be" delivered on one of the points
made- in. the cause, I ' slhl! very ; cbwcisfciy
touch upon the others. Full of 'error as this
oninion msv passiblv hey ii was formed ;by
the best fights of my inin ;j and ' I, have at
lenStthe consolation, 6f reeling.thaf It is an
twelfth- of Febuary, 1776, was noi denied it!
in thetii'ument, because it pppeared to be H
SAtisiactor V moved out, ii was contennea
iVt.l:,. IaiA fcifiA UMi.rtt tlra!
lhafhe had Since been1 divested of his title ,
fo" bhe of the ' fbllowihjy eausei : - !
; " 1st That hit title was vested in the state
by the tffect of the revolution bf 'Biir. Of
Ri-jrhts. - : ' " -; .''."
'2d. ' Thu ifwasonn'stared. " '
3d. That the pTai.Vtift" was disabled hy a.
lienaije to hold lands.' ; ; , .
4th. That he wrs barred by the statute
bf limitations. ' ' '
'If in-the trrant from Rrn George the 2d
to John Lord Cavteret, there ts a'ty transfer ,
bf 'sovere'nrty of ihi givenun-nt, property,
orterritoriil rights of tlje Ifntis m qqUonj',
then the plaintiff -certainly was 'divested by:
the Treaty "of 1'eacJ, V MVTHthmX of the -
Dicliration of Independence, or of the Lon
stitution ufthis s'.ate. If there 'was nei
ther sovereignty nor . any. royal' forevilegea ,
whatever'granted, Chen the pbinHxis. to )e
conslden d as a mere S'ii'5ect an'' assucnhis'
. . . . . ... . . . i
rlglrt wassave'rt by the llLol intf JWwe-,
ver ii-might.be afffcttd 'arrwrtV.. It is
important therefore to k'noV,. if any'afid what
roy id I mmumies ..wee hestowed upon 1 ord '
Cavteret, (afterwards fTonf ('.Jativnic)byUie
gfanf, arid this knnwleflgs'will lad u to a
true conWrrictjotvOf the lhtl of Rijht'sVas U
hlc.Trr "tirMftii'-fhu rntp. t ' . ' T'- i'-
Iver:'o 'iWf shirft'aux of tli&'f&l
fees it chanueV t(i'jif3chare,l.be!n( (o;
IhVlKTng ;' h is nbthouitd by an act of Par-1
nameni, unless neoe nameO, inerein o$ spe
j.cj; ad-PjtJftUuf ;Vprdf 7 mUum iempu oc
ifffK. . t? . nVy.r tfcer . regalia oQte
"Irriaprt-' No w let ' Us consider lite plaintiff i
-P-?l?se r.th6e royalties , as parcel of the 9
Krajit, anf see it Ivc was aifected by the Kevo
ltwu'.o'rte 6i'll of Rights, , ; .'-.',
.. Xae UecUratioa of Kiarhts and Indepen-
.de'npf theTJnitqd Sta,tea wete not tha of-1 1
1C011 sequence, of t,le , Uev)tiou, ,'ay jl.
morfi iLaa tnetuonsttttioi) qt una tat2,;waat . j
iKen',I TOnndt'peWeive thf least colour, fp; -
:.jbe appjUq4btWrjlff .fa...d'f ea-.
,t?d by the. mera tfifect of W JVkyaluiiop.-uH-.
JW!V."Ov1h..-:guoH f alienage jpf ;
jnjpn tme itwe ,w,i Ue,tai;vn In, Us Hipper
t :i "a
Afttf Vraritir and cOhflrminff
and usuttt orivllffgis ';and,'i?Aiirte'Saffr:es .Jt(
the. uranjee, jhec'lause : riins tlvis,'" tbgethef :
withal, and lingular the liKe and as amptu .
nit'.s, privileges, roymars unenies immu-.
r.itics and 'f-anichises of -what kind soevct,:
wuhin the said onc-eignm part ol . me said
provinces or errltorie rfo (Jlvided, set out an4.
allotted to the said John Lord Carteret as a
fore;iid, in as ample munner and form as
th said John Iird Carteret', together with
the sai l D ik jof Beaufort, kc. (naming the
several Lords proprietors) any or either of
themcosld have held, used or enjoyed the
Same by virtue of the said Utters patent, Sec.
exc pt nevertheless,' out of this grant the
powrs of making laws, calling or holding
of Assemblies, creatinoj Courts xt Juitke,
ap;Toining Judges or Justices, pardoning
ci-niimU. creating or gmnting titles ol ho
nour, making ports or havens, taking cus
toms or duties on goods laden or unladen,
making anJ crectine counties, forts, csttles,
and cities or furnishing them with habili
ments of war, incorporating cities, borouhM
towns," villjts or any other place er'pl.KTS,
nisin?, rinploving 01 directing the militia,
miking war or executing martial Juw, exer
cising any of the r-p.l rights, of a county pa
latine, and of (Vn., tuinf, or exercising a
hr other ihe prerogatives, pre-cmin'entes,
rights, jurivlictloni and authorities of, belon
ging or relating to tlie adminUtr.-tion of the
government of the said one-eigl.th part of the
said provinces, fee. to have and to hold ihe
'id onc-eichth part. Sec. and all Other the
roya'titiyfr iHchiiis, poers, prifilegts, kc.
txcept as belief ireptcd."
Theie exceptions are numerous and com
prehensive, but they are at list, nothing
mo-ethn exceptions, and therefore cannot
be said tocompithend all th King's prert
gatives 1 for it would have been idle to grant
certain royalties with ah exception as broad
as the grant, and absurd to sat thaltn eicep
iion which is acomiitucnt part, is equivalent
to the integer. It is not an eay thing 9
enumerate alflhe prerogatives and rrjtal dig.
itilies of a OMtsrrh, whose' power is lo mtst
purjx)ses undefined hy any wri'len Instru.
ment i nor at any rata can U he supposed
that the aolicitor who. drew" this grant
'nned at a full enumeration. The excep
tions my possibly comprehend all the direct
wern?v'6'rnCtv'wn ,neT eertaln
Iv do not include' M the i-tilttnial 'prrrogt-
tivcs. A few of the Utter, and such at p-
prarnntio b Included Irt'the xep'kns, I
1 . a. 1 V.
wnu ncre inusnae i nmmrnni iv
cofs tsa V rrcovrred agxinst the Kinfr
his i!M shall he nreferr! before that of a
tl.l,',-ftwhf re the title of the Kimr and a
comnW 'rsm'rur the rUng'stiile shall
! pfleredt no diiress cm N mi'le upon
thi Kins r,st4oiis no entiy will bir the
Kn-4 in bis pleadin J, hi ,wc4 tiH plead
an ac of I'trfumrnt, at " subject Is bound
! trtilot h? is Hlb."imll join in dtmurttHo
j eUdrncf. and thecmi my itirtct tne jury
j lofi-xlth- muter ip tII $ In is. exempt
I (ivimtlscii he ttcvsr, ciiibt I n'n.r if a
' v' "
WAHifi;Pia of .nj?s,)?.Korth-CWl,
which is part of the Consljtutioa of thsT.&t!
ftow present itself, If the- convention who
'.forfned this instrument cpusidered the gtf .
Tinville.as, a merp individ'JaJ ;pr svihject,
disVohed'orall tlie royal.disrnities and fran
chises vhi,cb he posse,sscjd under he Liters !
jFatetit from Car. 2, jtheji J have, no bepita-,
tiohin saying that his tight wa preserved by I
,tjhe 'savine:.(dause in the 25th section. i'fhis
opinion, however, I declare, with much d-.
ference and respect for h.e deep learning itnd
solid judgqient, of, 3 gentleman, .eminent in '
'the Jawi" who' I iindrsifvnJ. Jias, ,, ruld-.the !
'co'itrary-;, but rs his, ppijons. have not,'a;bin
tling foixe upon this court, and as I cannot
' yidopt theni without an eivtire; svirrender of
,my own-opinion I I.ayc no aUemative. :
j No reason or argument is r;quirf d to sup
port the positjon I have laid 'down the
words of tlie proviso arc iimple and compre
hensive . not, in themselves capable .(as it ftp
pears to 'nieO of misconstruction ; and' by
the generality of the exoressious. the sub-'
jrtsofireat-nriraiilasweiras the citizens
of North-Carolina,' wi-rii .'certainly included.
; To restrain the generality 'of these cxpVet-'
stons,' by bthei' paVts of the. constitution and
f'hy the supposed intent of the Convention,
-collected liom extraneous circumstances his
becrf thelibor and-study cf many : but none
Mive succeeded to my satisfaction. In this
l-caseinroulit be as tinneccsviry as"ir would"
! oe tedious to co thrraish nil the neirative rea
soning against this restraining principle';
hut t will endeavour to give tfietrue construe
i'Ioi of this section as it regards the piesclit
I believe that the plaintiff possessed royal
ties under the grant from George 2d. . It is
then fair to suppose ttat the Convention t,D
tcrtained the , sariie .opinion. Indeed the
grant itself was implied notice of the (act
it waa apu'dir and notorious thing, gf which
the Convention' must "be'presumcd to have
knowledge. They "moreover bad express
notice; for as early as tlur year 1743, the
grant was recognized by sn uct of Assembly,
j In this point of view let us see if the plain
; tifTs title is affected by the Hill of Rights.
T he Constitution ' of North-Carolina, like
those of other Mates' in the Un'mp, KsstniVs
the entire sovereignty of the .tatc, and pla
ces it in the bands of the collective body c-f f
ine ptooic menninK ine civizcoi increou-
I 1'. declares that all political powers is vts
I led in and, derived from the people only .
I hat the people or this stale ought lo Uve 1
! the sole and exclusive-Tight of regulating the 1
! ' 1 . . 1 - j m .
inuniai j;ovnmtncana ponce mereoi tnat .
no man is tntiikd tn txrlUsive or seperate
emoluments tr fnvHrget from the cpinnumt- (
tjl iii vwiiiiiivisiiiuti vi 1 rib puwiiw CI I
ces and, that the. property .of the soil in a
free government, being one of ihe essential
rights of the collective body of the people;
therefore all the territories &c. are the rnjtt
.and property of the people of this state, to
be held by them In sovereignty.
, Nowf this constitution must operate upon
the present case In one af the following
ways 1 1st. It must strip tlie plaintiff a
right of all its rrr stia, and ! avt the mere Ice
simple preserved by the proviso; which I
cannot imagine. Or Sndly, It protects the
whole rik-ht, by leaving it unttfertcd.
3rdly, It works a total destruction of the l
tight. , . .
That the plsiniiffs royalties miffit Itave
been "severed from the freehold, ro as 10
continue the naked fee simple in him,' I ad
mit; but that it twit done I cannot believe.
It would not have been in ordinary thing,
thertfn-c, if it had been intended, it should
have been so expressed. The royalties
were engrafud In and made part of the plain
tifTs t Ve s and a nun is tiol frttum.i lo be
dlveMrd of privileges oppurttnatit to a free
hold by any ex post facto means, unless I c
. , . .1 . 1 -. . i 1 1 1 .. . tt
U( II V) UIHIH'U VI IOC llCCIIOiq KM.ll. .cr ;
Is suih a cmisimclion consistent snh li e I1
I think lie is noV included i it the tjro
-isb j,'bt )ihktfa'fifftl is totally destroy (.
Ildrawiuthis j cnclt4soiy dsfi ijt ,fr :
gramca, os.i iuinitti nave anewm. inai P
'plaintiff did detiveV at; least 'incidental pr9ri
gatives from the Kjfig, by the gra,nt cf 174 ;
andtitfj-e in my opinion, 8rc'sufficieit to an
swer the defendaiit'si purposes. Can it be
supposed that the people took to themselvefi
vhii entire sovereignty of the slate ami c?erla
.red the territoiy thweof tobe'txoV right and
pt-vpevty ; anifyei intended to pcrmift on all- .
J?9v.iiVestd with' regal imn.uniiita, to hold -
large portion of that lernioiyV'wiiJvout' ei-'
pressing, uch . permission in plain -tef ais I
Ojvijiat, they, declared-ihe propc$yojf j.fp
soil m a free government to be one of the
mnf'o'riijhts of ihe'" Collective-"feody ; and
yet meant jat a iiv&X share of that sell
.hould be bdd and parcelled out by this t oy- ,
particular favri?..Ot cn. it he believed, r.f
V?r ihe dccldfraitionihat no manoi'aettrf men
are einitlt?ttoi.S5((;liit,iv or, seperate emolO
roepts cr jtrtvijcgns from the community, but .
,iiv consideration, of public. seiyiccs, that an
a.lieii shall bold Jands,, and have attached to
Jij tenure, many important txc low ve, ftivij.
Je,ges and pre-eminences ? Shull the plaintifT
.by his royal franchise take all derelict lands
within his boundary, to toe exclusion of the
.state ? Shall it be saidthat a Wan bhall hold
lands except from the operation of a slntute,
. .unless he be. named.lhcrein by express words?
Shal these lands be protected by .the state, ,
and yet exempt fiom taxtition ? end sbsll they
be granted by the plaintiff in fee, saving Mi
muual tribute with the t;ight..of escliO'at? In
fine, can it be said that, this vis such an indi
vidunlas was, meant in the proviso, when
unlikn other subjects and individuals, iio fu
clies can be impuicd him no time can run
against him ? . ... '
. i think the convention did not intend nil
this I think, their words will not warrant
such an exposition. And if they neither ex
pressed it nor intended lo( etfprm it, there in
.no ground even tor implication, lint the
true constructiqn nf the 25th section tf the
liiil of Hights I take to be ihis -r-Thc word
being, in the first clause, is eijui&lem lo llic
word is; and to subMitute the '..latter the
clause uould .read thus The property tit
thcT.oil in a free vtrnnitntr js one-pf-ihe-essential
rights of ihe ci llective body of toe
people,." Hy tlie u-ieof ilnpacticip!-, ciir:
the existence of tl.i right is taken Jo; prrniel
as 41 thing stlf.evident in thencwgo-.einnittit.
And, in a declaration of rights, if .itouh caj
he collected from the .'. to ascertniii thitf
the makers of the .instrument coi!j!en d ihe
people possessed of a ri'nt, itis the san e a
though they had diclai td it in express lrin:s.
What is this riht? I call i:ihc rilit of
dminimt. And thai rinl.l vl ich is vetted in
the people by a subsequent put of the sec
tion to be held in sovereignty, I ctdl the rm.
pvt. "The domain, (says VaucI) is ihut
riglit in virtue of Mhich.the naticn c.Viit?
jtiay use 1 he country for the supply of i'a
necessities, and. piay dispobe of it in such a
manner, and dctivefioin it such advantages,
as It thinks proper. The empire, is the
right of sovereign conumnd, by v.hir.hlhe
nation ordains and rtuLtcs at its pleasure,
ever) thing that pasus in a country. Ifma
ry free families, (says be) sprend over tn in
dependent (ouulry, tunic tou'niie, in order lo
form a nation or stale, ihry all t( gt-il.sr pos
sess the tnire over the vi hole counuy ilry
inhabit, l or they sluady possess each for
himself the domain, he" in another place,
he says, 44 Ihe right which btLnxid to the
society or lo ihe lovcrt ign, of !i;oing in
case of necessity, and Ur ihe public t-afvt) ,
tif all the wcahh contained in the stutc is til
led the eminent domain." Again (1 ssj
"the domain of the nation exitnds lo eteif
tiling it potMrsses by a just title j it rempre'
Lends its ancient and original pcsscislons,
and all its acquisitions made by meat s just
in themselves, or leccivcd s such by na.
lions; concession, purtistk, conquests
made io a r carrjed on in fotm, Lc 1 An l
by its possessions e ought not to under
s'tnd its lands hut all ihe rights it rrj'.y t
Or The general domain of the nstion mtr thJ
lands it inhabits is na'.urslly coot.ecttd stills
the mpire. ''I l.e fovful, domain, or li e i'o
main reduced to thai;ht that may brln;; ,
lo a particular perxm in the state, may he
st pirated from the empire." Thus me ar
tUat by tn( ht and uitrt p'.r it mtsi t tthoti
tjtjviLJittittfit and nmmand. Tll by d
tuna we are to understand the fotacssion of
wealth and the enjoyment thereof. And,
that domain initsusyil tense is tucc iihla
of divi.ioo fninatt Jjmoin being ike right
bf disposing of all the fvcalllt coniainsd in
the st.tr, Stc. b naturrTy connecud with M o
mpire s-And M ccf wi hire ll at
which lsifdccd to the nph's Ihat may fcr
spirit cf the BUI of .lights 1uih mskes 1.0 ;1 long to a particular person in the' lute, is
partial' d?pnaiion, bet fettroyi the right r capable of a ftptrmon from ihe enpirc.
wealth cfihs ataia in Ike colUrlha body i f
li'Cupte to.i tretnt'j cuclusHin aft
Lthen tbs t onrrMu n . got en tn fcx ih.
boii',dirttt cf Ihe -.lr' ss iit.in ahUh that
I'tjU should be held arVAt jo) td. l!ui hsv
11, vr.tf J Uc IctD2y1 of the soik aointtLitg
(Set ih Up rtt)
comrfet':ly, ur.lr:.s it be luppoK'l lobe itulu. i
drtllotlic proviso s;d to u;lc (Art in
the preirnt cue, Mould lcsct!ie pl-niiH a
thle tonf'j mif.ti:J ; conscjuen:!! he wotl.l
ictaiit his iyaliki". Ther, si hither k's
' right U wholly Srcscped or holy destroy .
' td by the 11,11 of Mi' u; 6,rih-i, nletler
he ii InduCed In the prf,'(i, Is ih jp.t;.