North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.
rzrrs ; -
j- . . . A .-- 1 .
- .'""'" ' " .' ' ' '' ' ' ' .'.- " ' ' ' ...
i Published every Tuesday, by Allwand Hall, at Three Dollars Vear, payable in advance, or Four Dollars if not paid within a Year.
tM C&wntiSOcTCM : 1 10th YjlaiuJ;
'TICK, t9X. KXHTUCT A4KTTC "
Tht foUovnngUiter tptymufiicated ia ijit t.
ditor bfrAUta B. Magwfat fgent cfihe.p
niud -States for thi investigation of land
cam in, the yetteH country of. jtoiper laUi::
' iana. J, ','' ;
7 Biimjtft, Oietjusast
. X Zotr LouittJna, July .St 1806.
F.AR SIR, " .. .": "r
I have been engaged for a cmislderabls
time in collecting matei iaU for a minute and
accurate description oEihe delightful country
"Wbere I 'reside, ; My public eaigagemefJU)
however haTC preceded roe froqi -scquir.ing
ijiat extensive information, which 1 am anx
ious to diffusc through the medium of your;
paper, for the benefit of those who may be
inclined tc remove to this part pf our domi-
. lu'ons. What knowledge I have obtained,;
with respect to the advantages of this coun
try, has been, in some measure, derived frpm
UncHuUed collateral authority, and much of
it from my owrt personal observation.; "'t.
. The subjects u,pon which I shall touch, are
ta general nature ; but they are communi
cated with that candor and sacred regardto
truth, which every man should ftel w hen he
attempts to prescribe the means of pronVotinjj
tbe felicity of others ; '
. , I have looked enough into society to know,
that our countrymen are fond of new territo
rial positions ; and having heard that many
of them in your state, were inclined to emi
grate to this country, I cheerfully embrace
the earliest opportunity to give them all the
encouragement in my power. It Unot my
intention, however, to invite . t'nem to a
change of ; situation, whore long establisli-
roent, the acquisition of wealth, and; the en
joyment of property, have "-afforded the
means of living comfortably, where they are.
such cases a change would doubtless b
' imprudent ; becaiue, in calculating the chan
ces which fortune yields, of rendering our
condition in life better, by frequent changes:
of either occupation or position, I am apt to
' believe, that the result would be in favour of
permament local establishments, und . em-
ployment, where life could be passed away
in the enjoyment of an agreeable mediocrity
of fortune, equally exempt from the cares of
s useless and redundant opulence, and the
' -wretchedness of poverty and dependence.-
3Sty communications are particularly address
ed to those, who have not been placed in this
. happy condition ; to young men who have
to make their way in the world by enterprise
and industry, and to those whose fortunes
are not sufficient to maintain and portion,put
numerous family of children in circumstan
ces that may plce them beyond .the tempta
tions t-f vice. To such, I cheerfully offer ray
band, to conduct them to an asylum, where
the greatest degree of happiness can be ac
quired and mainuined upon the cheapest
The western parts of Lower I-ouiiina,
compose, without doubt, the most charming
portion oCthe American continent, north of
the equator. The climate is uncommonly
healthy, for these latitudes. It is soft, mild,
and delightful beyond description. The
heat of the spring and summer months, is
most agreeaMy atttrapcred by refreshing
. breezes from the Gulph of Mexico, which in
crease in proportion as the seasons become
mire sultry. The autumnal k winter months
partake, in a great measure, of the soft tem
perature of the preceding portions of the year ;
and are attended with but very little snow or
tleet. The advance of the seasons is, in ge
neral, vrry gradual ; and therefore, prepares
the human body ior the change of atmosphere.
In fine, I perceive no causes in nature, from
which, we can rationally deduce any effects
of climate or situation, prejudicial to healih
in this part of America t'ppn cfet, eaer
cisj-a peaceful mind, and a pure stroos.
phere, depend the blessing of a long and
happy life. Common industry will procure
the two first, so as to render them in every
aspect salutaryt good morals will secure
the second, and nature hat furnished the
, In the tame manner, that we areto judge
of the state of morals in a naiion, from its
. code of criminal laws, so are we judge if
the Impressions cf climate upon the human
system, from the state of medicine in any
particular country. There are few phyii
ciantfcert, and so very seldom isihtir me
dics! aid required, that none of them attempt
to live merelr by their professions. In Ken
tucky Tour physicians are numerous j many
of them lite upon their avocstiiil rev-nue,
and some of ihem have, grown weal.hy by
the practice of physic.
The ern country of Lower !nuisiana
lies exceedingly level, with f dierifica
ttonsoihill and vslltr. ThiMn-issre vni
form I v fertile I the soil being from ttn to S3
fret deep la msnypUceaj composed of a
dirk grry loam, with a foundation nfMnd,
Ttry soft and potms, and admirably Cued
fjrtht Ubor of the hoe and plow. Two
thirds f these regions are levtl pr'nie Jalnli.
The where art lorest sn! well timbered
iih every kind of wood, that may be employ
ed in all useful and ornament! architecture.
Scared; a7 krtit lands, KcjiU;e swamps,
are unfit for cultivation 5ome Pr. the pra
ries are jrery rich, and ill oi then) sufficient
ly so, ,toyitd 4 profitable crops pi' coUqqi and
man ir.crt.h5p1- useful commodities. -T
I viftieasoh to believe, .that most of thty
UnifiUes here will.be confirmed by Con
gress. It i the objtct of an equitable and
enlightened government rather to consult
the happiness of the citizen in deciding up
on bis claims, than to acquire large portions
of public lands,: by oppressive laws, or rigid ..
adjudications. In this case, the purchaser
will, in most cases, be, sure of procuring , a N
ice simple estate. It is true, tbat there W(
cases prebe'nl themselves, where, from the
incadxlous method ofi-ing tut land undtr
the Spanish government, some interfet't;nr
ces will be discoveredi These will be, sub
ject to the controul of our comm'in courts of
judicature. The mode of aoju itrnent howe
ver, under our laws, beso very simple,
that none of those loiigSnru ruii'ouii litiga
tions, with respect t-j. real property, in many
parts of tho United Suites may be appi then
The best lands, with Hie most undoubted
titles, can be procured in most parts, of the
country, upon the lowest, and mrt desirable
terms. Most of these aresituated upon naviga
ble watercourses, which m'eiioi kwiih streams
of superior magnitude, that five hundred a
cres cfland, even in a comnvM.-ly slclvnn age
ou situation, in maBy pans of the. Wtsiern
States would jicld , a ':tliit.'nt 'fund "for the
purchase of five hundred ai res a pii r , for a
family of six' or seven cluMrt-n, in Lower
The above described lands will yield to the
hasd of cvd(ivdtion. piuli.tal)le crops if cotton
rye, oatu, hey, 'grass) of various kinds, to-,
bacco, particularly suitable for 1 he Dutch,
the French and the Baltic markets, and indi
go all of which will fiourWh well upon por
tions of ground, selected from the general
mass of territory, best adapted to the Ma
ture of each of thoe commodities. Our
principle staples here, however, are cotton
and cattle. The raining of these, far excreds,
in point of profit, every other article that.U
produced in the country..' In good seasons a
negro man will yield from his labour on a
cotton plantation, from 250 to 300 dollars,
nett profit. The stock of a cotton estate will
double itself every three years, the stock of a
vachery, every four years, tottcn, at mar
ket, will everage one year with another, from
twenty to twenty-five dollars per hundred.
A man is growing wealthy, when he receives
fifteen dollars per hundred every year, at
market. Beeves will average from ten to 12
dollars-per head. Nothing can be mor va
luable than this kind of propel fy. 1 here are
men here, who make every year from five to
1 500 calves ; and this remarkable product is
attended with such little expence, that it, is
too triP.ing to admit into our calculations on
r this subject. Cows, txcept barren ones, are
never sent to market; but the male beeves,
at proper periods, are selected from the heid,
and driven by land to markets that are always
ready to receive them.
There is no country in America, so suita
ble to a young beginner, or a man in mode
rate circumstance, as the western parts of
iAwer Louisiana. 1 his description or men
have nothing more to do, to fix themselves
comfortally in life, than to purchase a small
piece of land on the cdreof a prairie, and goto
ploughing immediately for com, or rot'ou. It
is true, thatjm many places fencing will be ne
cessary. The mode of laying out buds in this
country, will always cnnble I nn t. procure a
plenty of the best timber, for alflhe purpo
ses of a plantation. Very Urge crops, how
ever, have been rfTsdc, in sui.li iliutlnti,
without any kind of enclosure. 1 lie next ob
ject of a planter in this rcseit, would be, to
furrhae a few rr.ws, 111 order to Uy the
undaticn tf a vaihcry. To support tl.it
vachery, as I observed before, at well as a
sufficient number of horses, very little trou
ble or expence it necessary. The prairies
and the woodlands, at every season of the
year, yield an ample supply of strong proscn
dcr, to keep them in tolerable order. .
Society here, is agreeable, but not very re
fined. It will become more improved every
yeari and I have noditTicul'y in believing,
that whenever the singular advantages of this
charming country arc known to our country
men, that it will assume the most desirable
form, in point of toe ial happiness become
the resort of men of letters and character
the abode of genius and the arlt, and the asy
lum ofrepuMiran virtue, when corrupt soci
eties have forgotten its influence.
An occurrence has taken plare in this city,
of considerable use tf the medical world.
Its-importance my be estimated ly the" sin
gle fct, that it tsiisfctotily decides the
lonf agitsted dispute of the origin of the y el
Uw fever. All doubl, all disputation, all le
velling must yield bt fore it.
The question i.. whether the yellow fever
of our cities It of Ftrtit or domestic origin
whether it Is Imported from the West-Indies,
or e oersted bv the noxious air cf our to was.
The last hss been the teneral opinion. It
was ctiit&t that if the fsvir ecu J be lrapor
4ed, it might be conveyed from one person to
another, or from place to place. But experi
ence has proved that it was Communica
ble in tfic countPy, either by persons underthe
i "disease, or by goods carried from, dieased
f places." Was it then reasonable to sup
tpose, ;tb,t fever which could not be com
municated from the town 40 the country,
could be Carried from one country to ano
ther; from the porta of the W. Indies to
those of the United States.
It must be admitted, however, tbat thisfact
is not of such a direct and overwhelming kind
as to put down all opposition. Ingenuity hat
eluded but hot.dcstroyed its Tprce. It is con
endcd that the ncuxiuus miasma only aits in.
Tntge cities, where the atmosphere is solm
. Dure as to be thrown into a state of nnxinnv
viiiiviihfcivii, ut nriiwtb tiuiiiaii wuim hic
enfeebled by t he impurity of the air as toe
predisposed for its action. When transpor
ted intot he country ' thfr atmosphere is too
pure to admit of its operation. It has no ni
dus to receive it.. It is without that train of
favourV)l circumntances which must concur
and assist lis virulence. The air is too pure
to be thrown into fermentation, and man too
healthy to be predisposed for its action. u It
is lor this reason," say the advocates of impor
ted lever, " that it is.not always communica
ted from the town to the country. We ad
mit that, the fever is not alone suCkient to
produce its full effect in towns ; but we con
tend, that when it does appear in our cities
it must owe its first germ to foreign importa
But the following incident is of a kind to
The city of Richmond at this time enjoys
an almost unexampled share of health. Bi
lious compluints have by no means an tin-,
common fiulify. Rocket ' landing, ouron
ly depot of foreign traders not peculiar ly
aflVctcd by any species of sickness ; much
lest by any of an uncommon appearance.
Will the advocates of imported fever then be
lieve, i hat at this very nvuiient it has appear
ed in the Peneteniiary ; at some distance fiom
the center of the city, on the very skirts of
the country, insulated from ever other buil- .
ding, and on the opposite side of the town to
Rocket's landing ? Such however is the me
lanch ily fact.
That the fever of the Penetentiary Is the
tHow fpver of our citis, i dccidi.-d by the
two experienced and ingenious physicians
vlio have attended it. Its symptomt are the
tame in kind, though infinitely less in degree 1
he pain in the head the red eye the skin
?f a hue much darker than gold the black
vomit, or black rt according to the
Course of the bile. !n the only case where
thep.tient has hllen a victim, tht sensibility
of the stomach was so excessive, that by gen
tly touching the region of the stomach, it
ptf-duced the hiccup so symptomatic cl the
W here is there a fact more conclusive as
to the origin of the yello lever, besause so
little ennf ised by the operation of contrary
causes? It would almost be a miracle, bad
the imported gtrm of the yellow fever visited
the 1'enctentiary. Here are a set of men al
most completely cooped up from the rest of
the world. The turnkeys J tbe respectabls
supcrintendant of the Penrlintiary ; his
whole family are healthy. 1 lie guard, who
traverse the outside of the building, are too
far removed to communicate the contagion.
Few persons Irtve access into the buiU'.ing j
no ore cm tntcr it without a permit from
two inspectors; no one, who has visited it
lately, has exhibi'.ed the .symptoms f the
fever. The building is too completely cut
off from the city, to receive the noxious con
tagion in a tainted stream of air. And whence
was this slrta m to blow f There is not a sin.
;le corner in the city where the fever has
iteptd forth 1 uoicntfertjn who has fallen
There seems not a deficient link In this
chain of proof. Every thing it complete e
very thing conclusive. It is sesree possible
that the fever could approach from without;
it must therefore have been generated from
within. But here are sumtient causes for Its
production desponding minds j the want
of exercise 1 the want of something to exh'u
Icrate the spirits, and put the torpid function!
into motion t the damp weather succeeding
to a season of unexampled drought t the long
train of inconvenience inseparable from a
atat ofconftnement and labour. When can
se alike these exist, why seek for Its origin.
In the West-Indiatnsrket, whence reinfec
ted vessel had arrived ; or in a city not yd
Visaed by a single symptom F
Two advantage may be expected to result
frm this dicovery. Thysiiians being no
longer puttied about'ihe general origin of
the fever, will he at li'ieny more freely to
trice the psrticuttr circumstances which ge
ne rat ell within our country I and t apply
the fruits of their invcitlgstioti to removing
Its causes. Another advantage is, that we
rosy tucrerd In diminishing M the burthen
of qusrsntire at home as writ as abroad.
But let not our distant friends Indulge the
slightest alarm about the consequences of this
YrnJfBi'f muiet el lhtfni f tkt hit
fever. We pledge ourselves as to the spirit
of the following facts : ' ,
That not mora than 6 or T of the convicts :'
have symptoms of the fever:
That one only hat died whilst others are
convalescent:" '''.', 'i .
That the fever of the Penitentiary, though .
similar in its general symptoms, is compara
tively innocuous to that Of our large towns. ,
The only victim who has yet fallen beneath it, -r
lingered as many as twelve or thirteen days,
whereas in' Philadelphia it was. not uncom
mon for them to sink in 24 hours. Of such "
unequal virulence is the sauoe fever at differ . .
ent places f .
That there pes ails hot the slightest alarm
among the inhabitants of this city : .
That a few have even visited the Peneten
tijry for the purpose of .inspecting the disor
der, so perfectly were they convinced pf ita
harrnlessness ; -. ' t . '
And that the best established opinion is,
that the fever is not in the Ichst infectious ;
thaVU rather passes from the air to the pati
ent", than frpm the patient to the sir; thate
ven in that case it tjoes not imnVediutely ope
rate, but that it requires tirhtrtoTjreak down
the tone f the body, ere it can produce its
BOSTON, September 1C.
" ARGUMENTS AGAINST PEACE
The Bri'ith prts, in discussing the im
portant subject of Peace has. furnished in
numerable arguments, and much ingenious
inquiry and tpeculution, on both sides the
question. Among the arguments opposed
to the return of ihat desirabk ilesiirg, are the .
" If Mr. Vox flatters Hovelf, that any dis
play of confidence, smy surrender of con
quests, will induce Buonaparte toadoptasys-'
tern of modirctton, and of teal peae, he is
most egregionsly mistaktn. Tacts, and the
experience or innumerable eventn, demoti
strat this potiiion, beyond' all possible con
tradiction." " .
' It can never be ftifTicieniI)yirged, that
peace is desired by Buonaparte, only, as it
will furnish more tigwus tntans of tvur."
Buonaparte desires peace, in order to.
recruit his finances and his navy." A aoldiep
in the fufo'ijcl-trt in the fttd, he appreciates e
very thing by its vtnitj invars and much
as he averts to value commerce we shu'l see
lnm in the midtt of peace, continue tok'ip
ha'f 'a'mMlMuf his suSjfcli armed, and abstract
edfrom the pursuits of industry."
The balance of advantage, in the present
war, is, in every respect favor; ble to (ircat
Britain. To l rar.ee, war with Britain has
uecome an itigirious, and m hopeless con
test. Her fleets have either been destroyed,
captured, or are accounted fortunate, if re
turning from a fruitless enterprise they reach
their own harbour, in safety."
" To Britain,-wr against Frsnce, has been .
a scries cf briUhnt successes."
France, irresi'tr.ble by land, beccmet
inactive and Lnfuid, when '.he operations are
consigned to sea. Knlaud is triumphant
n the orrsn, and reaps all the lory tf the ac
tive M urf are."
Ti e advtnUrfs of apcace to Trarca
arc incilcuhdde. It will rtbete her from a
ilisastr us con'est, it will restore her colo
nics, revive her expiring totr metre, recruit
her exhausted finance, crtate innumerable
aramrh,nd re-sL Ifclish l.er navy in its for
mer splendour. Hut nhich of these benefita
wilt I'nuland resp from a termination of the
war ? Our -trade, our finances, and our nary,
art flcHirishir-g beyond example.-Will our
security be iarrfoirrfbr peace, or our burdena
ronsidersbly Insemi J In former times lh
advantages af pc see were solid and immc
diite, I'ltcta and armies wcte disbanded jr
both sides, and the burdens of wsr cesser!
with the signature of the definitive treaty.
At present there can be no lmportant?f
ftfi of our wsr establishment. We must
continue armed, and biar the Utdtn tf uar in
tin tsiiil ef ptate ,
The undersigned his Swedish Majesty's
commercial agent general, ftrtr the united
Slates of America, requires that the prmfeia
throughout the United States wit! pnhlUh fur
the information of merchants and others con
cerned, the following note fom his Swedish
Majesty's grand marshal of the kingdom of
Sweden, count it Fesen, dated Siralsund,
the 17th May last, with the proclamation tf
fcrred to, of the 37ih of April, do.
riiilaJelphia, Sept. I J, 180?.
Notr. Commutiitcduyotcer 01 his awe
dih majesty, to the ministers of the two aU
lied conns (Russia and Great-Britain) accre
dittd near the king.
In consideration ef the tatlous motives, de
tailed in the note f the urdcrsigacd, dated
the :7th tf April list, he has the honor by
the express order of the kir-g hismsiter, t
inform Mr. that his majesty hss
thought l nr ceissry to order out the qudte
I equ'ptat CarlttCrona. fr the rurpos m
1! hlotkadiog aUtheptlsof his Majesty Of
king cf rius-Ja, co the Bsjuc, from the fr.-
i . i
.4 . "