North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.
: : -TiLMINGTGN GAZETTE, -
Publishedyeor Tuesday, by Allmakd Hall, at Three Dollars a Year, payable in advance, or Four Dollars if not paid within a Year.
Wilmikgton, N. C. Tuesday, October 21, 1806. ..y ";
y jff J S S y f -f ff.r' J f " J j 'm-r-w'- m - irvirvfvwwvwwvTwrirwvwVV11
1 v from lAtf National intelligencer
THOUGHTS on ihe' iulject -NWAL'
FftVYTiP TM?TUBJlMITgn-STA i'Et,
ni m certain means 6 encouraging and pro
moting their Commerce and Manufactures.
No. I. ;Y-.
The leading id$as in the following papers are
produced by a sincere nd thorough convic .
tion, that no branch of commerce, or even
trade . in, general, thould b so pursued,
permitted, encouraged or defended by the
" United States, as to kard the public li
berty; at home, the principles of freedom
abroad, r taxes oii the, whole nation, Dear
Ijr as gre an, rqii tl, or snpwrlor to, the
exclusive profit ui the mercantile body.
We iiaye re tcted the example of Europe
s to itartdwig-- armies, political churches,' jf
tne penat coae, na otner .oaagerous.errors
,ani aberrations from right jHjut the splen
dors and temptations of naval power and
external commerce, as established and ex
tended in Europe, have their full share of
influenco over many persons of great worth
nd judgmsiit in the. United Stales. '.'
-t . 1 I I , II
"A. revieir of the nature and practice of the
-European Government will fullyrconvincc us,
that their public authority is the principal
mean to procure seamen for their navies.' .
Tha most eoergetic navy (that 'of England)
is manned by impressment." This opera
, tion U considered in the United Slates to be
. ; conducted on the principles of mere arbitrary
Government. The' happiness of the seamen's'
families, their comforts and their necessities,
do not seem t be objects of any consider a
tion. The mariner's personal rights, and
even lus written and signed engagements to
vervt private, persons," British or foreign, un-
der shipping papera or poriaje bills, are vio
lated without any allowance of damages ei
ther to the teaman or the merchant, without
punishment, U without censure, tc indeed, of
ten, without justification or applause, In man-'
nlng Her navy, G. Britain is rrunifestlr and
completely despotic over her own merchants,
tea captains and mariners, and acts, at pre
ent, in like manner even with respect to fo
reign merchants, captains and seamen. She
undertakes to dictate to her nautical subjects
lone, that they shall neglect or violate all
their engagements and serve her, and upon
terms tlso dictated by her; for impressed
Brit'uh seamen's wages are fixed by that Go
vernment, To consult together merely for
procuring higher wages, would be treated as
mutiny. If her seamen were to be at li
berty to ask and obtain their own rates of wa-'
ges, and were to be paid thine wages, their
navy could not be continued on its present
calei Will the seamen of the United States
ubmit to t single regimen in this case, like
that of Great-Britain I Will the rest of the
peoplfr of this country consent to such an ex
mpla of corecion and limitation of wages I .
Will our Legislatures and Courts permit or
sanction such a regimen to one d:s of cit
izens I Will our Courts of I mpcachment Sw
Courts Martial "allow the orders and conduct
of civil and military- officer, in conformity
with such a regimen, to pass unnoticed and
upMtik4) u not tneie contiUralt
. daeply affect the practicability of a great t.a
tslpowrr, on the principles of the conititn.
tion of the United Ststcs f It may be fair
ly and prudentlyaiked, Whether a standinr
naval establishment is not liable to a largo
proportion of the objections to a standing ar
my; and whether iti not entitled to tV.t
name and character in n very considerable de
gree? The use which was mad of the Iiii-
tishnaty, in tha war of 1775, sxiiutth
American colonics, even wl.ile it was confes
sedly a civil war, will prove that a naval force
cm be openly and actively used to destroy the
public liberty of a nation at home ; and the
te which was made af the British navy in the
peaceable year 1792, and in the war of 1793,
gainst France, will prove thstitcan he used
to destroy the principles of public liberty a
broad.t Tha dreadful condition of Ireland,
upon various occasions, and for many years,
it, in a considerable degree, lole atcritmt
to the Mate of controul in which it lus bem
fcclJbv means ofthe Ilritith navy, in which
tent of Ibouisnda of Irish seamen were etili.
ted orimarciieJ. Had that country teen
1 "lined t this continent in 176, or to that tf
Europe in 1792, JrrUnd would hive had
complete DritiiS conititotionsl liberty or a
if psration. ' It is in evidence, that grtat
navy msy destroy liberty at home and abroad,
by kf it, while the pstronage of the appoint
mentl and supplies, and the willing df pen.
dency fit whole apnropris:e iudicirv Uw.
er, with the fruits of Itt rapacious and law
. list isliattons carry servility and corruption
tnt) evsry clsrf the nsiinru Similar re.
Sections arise concerning tSf ue of the na
vy in the slits trade, islands and colonic v
These )srvsti":)s are not made from any
unUteureMe epieiins ofthe individuals ho
U a pemVnf a rclioit soristy princU
p'e l against war, or ne believing the war
cf the time unjott, he impremd, the rigbta
tf conscience are vicTaKd.
It U no eonsunce to this argunuM,
that Trance arerwarJi departed from the
jriocipJci of liberty, -
-compose our navy, or that of any other na
tion; bui are merely intended to prove, that
although a naVy has not been -thought to en
daiger public or general liberty in the present
form and manner of an" army, it is ao justly
exceptionable on that score, at to require a
constitutional prudence in relation to it, as a
standing armament in the hands ofthe Go.
vjit'nment. Every standing publia force re
quires caution, whether it be on the water or
on the land. . - '-v-: '
Bu it may be observed,' that commerce
- exists, that it is absolutely necessary, ana that
it is profitable. The cartiage.pT our produce
by ships into the consumer's markets, is as
nseful j.0 the growers of that produce as the
carnage by waggons. I he rights and inter
ests of commerce, as well a the interest of a
gricuiture, therefore, require that our ships
1 1 A I.. ..U'.. i MI.H..IVIi.t.t
be kept as free as possible irom impedimenta
. to their, voyages, thejr cargoes from spolia
tion," and their crews, whether natives or a
liens, from Foreign Impriment. For this
purpose, som6 persons have desired that the
United States should be innnedmtely made
artd permanently maintained a considerable
naval power. We have suggested for due
' Consideration some difficultits and some ap
parent impediments. It' will be determined
how f;r riicy rc inherent -in the nature of
things i'r. the United States, how far they are
real, and how fur they cui be acquiesced in or
obviated. ' ..
I f it be fttpposed for a moment, that these
objections are not real, and'ihat they may be .
obviatrd thn let i's coiider the vast ex
ptnee of a nval establishment.
Great-Britain Kpends mhiupI'v from seven
ty to eighty-fue millions of dollars on her na
vy. One-tenth of her navy would cost usUa
or twelvi millions of dollars, vhich is Irem 1 1
to 12 percent, on all our export, foreign ind
American, in the greatest year. It is the
whole net profit of our trade, tnd, it is pre
sumed, more. Yet vich'a limited naty loiild
not, ef course, resist a fifth of the fleets of
England, nor could it reswtthr navy hid by
several other powers, till tl.t lirihsli Icvintjian
lately devoured all the oiln r navies tf tlic old
world. The navy of G. Britain is indeed a
brilliant instrument of stupendous power;
but it has proved, to her finances, a splendid
instrument of ruin It costs her from severf
ty to 85 millions of d'nllara per annum in di
re of expenditures, under regular appropria
tions, besides a grraj indirect amount, in
bounties on sail clo h on fisheries, and nu
merous other thm in their complicated sys
tem of commerce and finance.; . It la a stan
ding army, asoppri.sive to foreign nations
as the standing armies ofthe Stuarts and the
Crom wells were to the Uritish nation. It has
become hostile to the liberty of ail at sea, and,
, io far as it spares the British people them
selves, it it becaute it it employed upon ali
ens. It involves Great-Britain in great odi
um, and in incessant, bhody and exprnsive
quarrels and wars of pride, power ard ava
rice. It facilitates her immense participation
in the commerce and slavery of the b'arks,
and in the cruel and extensive tyranny excr-
'cised over India. ,
D the United States want' such a navy ;
ueb an instrument vf crnrirn ; such an
instrument of defence ; sue h en instrument of !
offence; such a drain' for tf air wt.hh ; a
mill stone slung around the public neck, to
deal destruction to all w e may chnse to insult,
and at the same time to bend the public nerk,
and link the public tw!v in the abys i.f mili
tary expence I Tha British plea of defence,
for the fatal cxpt-ncos of a nay, does not ex
ist in the cav of the United Stair. They
. are not an LUnd rf 70.L0u square miles ; ni-r
arc thy near to any foreign enemy ; nor have
they concentra'.topi of novlle property t
tempt and cnr'uti ii-vst'i is ; nor keys ofllmr
cutin'ry in the shai- l f-nresrs or mftr-
I Tuliti.n ritif. liV u lili-It ii,i-i!um l.rlil
and command the Ir licmiriors ; nyr nc
they lrtinarine rol in:c; r.or ar.y com
me.ee whUh the Po'g'- V r J can do i !.
but. The lt.Urei.ttf I, uresis wi'l prtvent
the atitiihilis'ion f a cumrv's ira.lf, vthiih
pre u-nts them with ahundinre ff f-od nd in
creaHg raw mf.f risl fr hir ro'-'it, ar
mies, navies and rraM.Hctur'v, rnd which
affords a steady ten! art. I an imirxnie con
aumpUon far their rcanufbcturcd tomraodi-
) It it difT.eult in pwyre eoTrect state
ment! of the Britist) navtl txpenes dtwa
totbe present time ; but a recurrence to the
British New Annual Hrgiitcr, for the yean
1831, 1832, and 1101, will shew, that the
mmt of I J.Q0O.rVKl. s'srline. equal to 70,350,
(KX) dollars, ind 19.0I2..171. alerting, equal
tois.isw.oT ir,nars, were iptrnphited for
the naw depjnn'cntin two of those years,
ll It also staiod, that 330,COO,000 nf poundt
in navy biHt were isucd by tat Gnvf-rnmerU
in nne ef thoie yesrs, butthal3,non,')oore
msiped locked up in the hsnk. It is preen.,
mrd fnnm these facte, and the wonderful ei
niotttof 1104, Sand six, that the direct, ind
indirect naval cipencesof Great-firitain arc
much greater than h.s been tuppoKiZ.
Bui if it mod Iftereflirf inilmpif.
tin conCsc'itioci fcible tbecUrjuoui
tvir-crialing and expenfive inflrumentali
ty of a large navy to. protect: our com.
merce, and fince trade is highly dcfirable,
and iodifpeafably neceflaiy to the alantcrs
anrl ttrmers, it is proper to devife a fyl,
tem .f proteclion for it ; and this is anob.
jecl demanding the temperate inveftigatien
snd careful reflection of every defcription
or our citizens.
The followine oueftioni rnav hclo to
lead ut to the true ground :
.1, Should the United Ststcs bay any
navy, and how ftrong or numerous lhould
it be )
t. What fbrmld be the commercial
purfuiis of ih United Saet )
3.' By what means, ether than s navy
can the United States promote and protect
To the fiilt qucRion, requiring. much
Cain invefligation, it is conceived that the
following ideas may ferve as an imperfect;
anfwer. It is not by force, that vc can
L proec1 oajt trade from the great navies of
the prrmaTp riiaritime powers ; for it is
conceived that lve canmit prrftnlt and
ought not to rftabiiih a naval force equal
10 ttteii'i, on. account of the' monftious
cxpenfe, the danger to our civil institu
tions, ana tor the other rttfons before as.
fignrd againfl t lie elUiilifhment of a great
nv powar ir,wihe Ui.itcd States. - But
we miy piotecl our trade by forte from
the setty and irrteular flatej, whofe com.
mrrce with us affords iiq. means of adiirig
upjn ihem; fuch, for example, as the
feveral Ih'ci of Barbary. A fleet cobw
menfurate witii fuch objecls and no more,
appall 10 lie that limited force which
we may cflai lilh without any of the cb-
irDion? to a great navy, which have been
fitjsrrcd. If we trs to go further in this
daicrut and Cull I y operation, it if ref
pslfdlly, recommended, that the fuhjefi
be fir 3 iI oroygb.lv examined aad well con.
7 he fecond qoeflion propofed is, v. bat
fbould be the commercial purfuiis of the
United Stales ? To this it may be general
ly replied, that no trade whatever, inier
external, mhichinjurtt agriculture,
r ien'Jtti ifo mtrckanti tnlj, at a great
exfenjtto the rej tf f he community, Inould
It is ur intfrefl to import implements
and materials fM manufactures, and man
ufalutci theintVlvcs, which wilt employ
mary vtirc!f, rather than to import ma
n 11 filmed goo Js which will employ very
I ia our intc'cft to promote aid eflablifli
intertill ind?, of which - mauufacluvei are
a rrii.d ' valuaMc pari, rather than rxier.
r.al traie ; hcCai.fe the rawmaerial and
familv fu;vlit t-f ihe Anrrican ir.ai.uf.c.
turrfs, f ltifincn ai d roatUrs r;e draw n
from our lc! vet. or fiom our rtiniiw tia 'e.
hicb. iatt i ry. Utile i.romn'rd by the
imptirtaiion f compai'l liiign cianulac-
Every a cf nilswlul irrrediment, in.
juiiic?, embarrafTir.ei.t, cr iijuiy to -ur
krnjMi 11 ate and navig'-iion, and to our
"Jt might to be 1 fi rou atij at imaiiiig
ircei.tive ta nrrntcfe i!cn:cfiic trtJrsnJ
n'aiuifcTiir'i, becaufe tt.ey are Itfi fub
jeil toihofs loiein ii.jurict, and brcaufe
use tuiuva'irti 01 nicrf.it trade and ma
rt iaftifrtsT.lenlly Operatei tia fne 4rft.
mil; upon the lore ga- ioeadeis of o; r'
rrutiiine richu and the foreign violators
of cur commercial Intcrefli, We fhonld
tender it ptifcflljr msnifift snd abfolutely
certain to Europe, that io far si tit Ame
rican tmmertial jf 'iril it checked or inju.
res' aljtt, ii will beunra(Iingly turned to
and, f romoteJ tn iht &iri. Our citlsi.
tovit, snd villagtt mud be fcenei oleom.
metce or of msnufaflurci. If foreign na.
lior.s iaterrupt ui in a Iri'ti'mate tturfe ii
air hat 1 of the bufir.eftof fur-plying our.
felvtt fiom the chcspel snd aiofl conve
nient fourccs abroad, we flail, inderen
dentljt sod f necelfitv, fuppljr ourfclvcs
from exifling or new lourcet st home.
Wereafcnabiy deCie to frcore loour
feUes s Cure of ths carriage of our own
nr wrought goods to the foteign mtnufac
tures, snd of their raauufsiurct 10 our
mttittt, and iiliourwifh 10 promote
the foreign cenfumptien of our produOi.
So far si we prevent the Amsrtcin con
fuenptien ef foreign rrsrufaclnrcf, mt
madtjrm lur sue frtJute, we promote
our cirilige fcurowofiw matcriali,
out esrtlige of foreign msr.ufiAurci, and
the fabiUationcf oar raw maitilali by fo
reign minufafliirei. Thr.i, foreiample,
the recent scl of corgtefi en Mr. Nichol.
fon'i rtfotuiioni, by prohibiting rsrtsin
articles of wool, linto, L!k- sad leather.
(which art nude abroad eat it'll from fo.
. f. ...
iciga taatcruli ibat wineiihtr gtovv rf
earry) occafions ctthn gloves, haf;, fbir-'
tipgfheeting, toweliing, tabling and fur
niture fluffs, to be tiled, wljich are made
chiefly from the cotton produced n our
farms, and U the carriage of which to'
. Europe, we largely participate.
And here we obtain a view ot very
imfiriant principle, which may affji us 1,1
anlwering the third queftion, By what
mns other than .0 navy, can wt frtmate
andptiteil our ctmmerc ?" icmembcririg
always, that fuch com metce muHbefree
jfrom injurious effects ujon agriculture, ic
not unreasonably burdenfome on the na
tien, to be entitled to promotion' and prr
teetion by our federal legjflaune I
By well dWifed at of coi gref?, it is
' firmly -believed that, we ean do much frr
the 'promotion and protection of "our trade.
It is conceived, that the principles of Mr,
Nicholfon'i bill, rightly untierfoocj, aie '
an 'exampTe of that nature. G. Etitaiu
fpinferriipts and coerces our feamen, ard
embarrafTei, obflrucls, and blockades our
trade, tbet' we aic .compelled to incrcf
ilie encouragements to our manufrtcluiea
of ceruln articles ; and in order to do this
. with prudence, and fecure reverut frtwn
conrumption at the fame time, e .'take
the fame kind of 'goods from other fo
teign nations (with little or no navy t:i
;?'mmode ut or not fo much in ihe prac
tice) lo Car as they can fupoly them. It
may be obferyed, too, that fo;ne among os
heartily approved that! law, becaufe it
would induce G. Britain to rrianufaclure
Aibfiittnes from our raw cotton for the li
neh, woolen, f:!ken, and leathern poods,
prohibited J and becaufewe Onu!d partaka
largely "m carrying that raw cotton to En
gland two cor.fideraiioci of great and
Another let of ptovifiops mifhi iemada
bv raw for the titcourapemeiu or our Ihip.
y'rt4 and comrr.ctce.. We mean hneex
pj'citly to fij'gtft, that we may ciow ado; t
many of the regulations of the Eritiflj na
vigation aft, fince we have piovicd fo
greats quintitr of tonnaj,?,, arJ. are v-eli
able to Maintain and iitcrstfe our vefTels.'
Pcfore we had fo docH tonMejur plan
ters nd farmers pru;lct.tly - feared eteif
regulation, which might tend to uimin;fh
the number of vc2eU, which uud bex
peeled to Carry off o'ir piiA-'uce, and im
port fupplits. Things are nw material
ly changed, and we have fhipi euounh to
carryall we ra'.fe, f much r. oie. i lofe
vhich might yet cjiiic hither with cargcts
from then own port v, b iubiliafl, wi i.l.f
he niir,.tions anduf.ful in li.e exportation
cf our crept, . .-, ' .
We nja adopt mrsfurei o replace li e
amount ol ilia Uriiifh four per cent, ex
port or convoy duty rmpnied on ihe ex
portation of their own . minufatlure! t
the Uniied States. It it believed, that
the tnetchantf .trading to other foreign
countries do not psy .that, ritiacrdinary
duty in Ergltnd, which is ihe more unfa-
ilifaclnry becaufe we rre tlepfirc:pal con
fume rs and vei.deri of their manufaflmej,
snd becaufe we tsnnot irrpofe 'a fimilar
duty on exports from hence for t'jeir ac
count, the confiittnion of the U. States
forbiddirg all duiicl tn exporutionl
We never aflied the protection ior which
ths jht Britifb four per C9ht. duty is
chirged, nor dews dcf.re rr receive that
protection. Wt are willing entirely to
relyon our own reutrsl flsg and vsfTelf
under the law ol naiioni. To replace tU
amount of that dm? in the trtafury ef ihe
United Sts'ei, we msy either impofe an e
cjual duty cf four per cenf, on sll impertt
Irem G. Britain fcy er on account of ErU
li fubjscls, or we may tolifh the draw
back on all goods fo imported.
In cafes wherein we sre not ae'mitli J
with a real reciprocity, iuto foreign porn,
fosi to exclude our fhips from the (freight
of srticlei which sre impo'ried in foreign
in'i'i, it ire injury ri our sgrtcunorc ana
msRuficturti, as well aiof our commerce
snd nsvigstion, it will be wife deliberate
10 revile the lifli of Imported sriicWr.
Forcximptf, we might advsnce thedutf
on fyiriti from sir csnc, or entire! ex
clude the entry from all placer, inte?
which our fhlpi sre not regularly admit,
ted. We can premie liters frem r
diQillctiesnf doroellic and foreign rrutcrl
sti, tad from rum, brme'f ard wie
coutiirSef , inf which cuf Mpi ire admit,
ted I Carry our produce, and from which
they cm brlrg swsy ihofe foreign com
It feepi expedient for 01 to cpcoutsgt
Ir.tlmportnieo of fugiri, coSVe, cocos
pieiesto, gleger, pepper, and oiVrr fpicts,
and grocer it 1 from coumttci beyond ihe
Lipe cf Uood I free, rsthtr tkia cotton
3, pices xcdr which iatsiftn with cat