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' ' Words Of Wfcdon
A prudent pmoi profits front personal ex
. perfence,, a wis oac from tie experience of
others. , ;
--Joseph Cofihn, M.D.
The'ooly people wko mike up mistakes are
f . ; .Heir. Henry Alford Porter
VOLUME 60 - NUMBER 33
Durham; north ca:.:lina -Saturday, august 21, 1932. .
PRIPE: 39 CENTS
' By Pamela Banks
In Durham City Schools, junior high school died
' in May, and when school reoperis next week, sixth,
seventh and eighth grade students will attend mid
die schools. , t ' ' . . :
o' .r.The middle school concept is a new and growing
approach for improving the education of students
caught in the limbo between childhood 3 and -,
adolescence; The concept .seeks to produce better j
students by broadening the educational obectives.
The jniddle school concept also attempts to ad
, dress many of the emotional and physical pressures
. that plague; students who : are developing from 1
' childhood to adolescence. " ; - " ";. . Jy-- ;
'For example, -a key' component of the middle
school guidance and counseling program assigns '
each student an advisor who helps him gather and ;'
understand school rules and regulations and other ' ,
information vital to success at that school. r; .
During regular twice a week or weekly meetings .
with suidents assigned to them,? advisors will also .
,'. Jiscuss approaches to personality development, and ;
- Mher issues that encourage the value of education.
In another example, math in middle school is not
aught as an isolated subject, but teachers try to
lemonstrate math's relationships to other subjects, '
uch as English and social studies. Proponents say
his method stimulates students to have more in
crest in education, and to see its value more clearly.
In Durham's new middle school . classrooms.
students will have no more than three teachers, for
'the basic courses. The basic courses are language '
arts, social' studies, mathematics and science. Each
teacher will specialize In one or two subjects. :
r For. other subj ects, such as music and art,:!
students will have different teachers, ','?
As a practical matter, what this TnearfS is: ( ,
, Students will change classesJess often. Among
other things, this will reduce the number of distrac- .
tions they face. - w - ' -t ' I A,
Students will be taught to understand Jhe
various ways that subjects relate to other subjects.
Students will benefit from the fact that each Hammonds
enough focus on the needs of adolescents. He also",
says junior high schools, create too wide a gap bet-'
ween elementary schbol and the next grade level.
The , criticisms notwithstanding, middle school
proponents in the Durham ' City school system
believe switching from the junior high to the new .
concept solves several problems these students and
their teachers face.
' "The junior high age has always been a difficult"
population for school systems to handle because of
the many changes youngsters are going through,"
said City Schools .superintendent Dr. Cleveland
' teaching team plans together with the same obec
tives in mind for their students. Therefore, more.at
- tention is focused on magnifying strengths and por-
recting academic weaknesses. "
' But though the concept receives high marks in -.
Durham -where it was adopted by the board of
education earlier this year, the approach' dpes have
its critics. ' '. J Y r'
; Some critics contend that the concept pampers
students and does not place sufficient emphasis,on
However, supporters of the middle schools 1 in
cluding Dr. Frank Weaver, Durham City Schools
associate superintendent are equally as critical of
junior high schools.-Weaver says in many cases
junior high schools are just "little high schools,"
and are too heavily subject-oriented, and do not put
.The middle school program will be implemented
. at Brogden, Holton, Shepard and Rogers-Herr
r schools. ; -
.Weaver says the plan has not caused any extra ex
penses and officials believe the plan can be operated
In junior high schools. ;
This allows teachers to devote instructional time
to areas as needed. . ." ' '..
The Durham plan schedules 200 minutes per day
for the basic courses. Other courses such as music,
'art, reading, physical education and occupational
awareness will be taught during the remaining 100
The basics will be taught each day of the school
year. The school year has 180 days.
On 45 of those days, students will study reading,
art, music and other electives, along with the basics
H In addition, students will get physical education and
career awareness instruction on 90 days of the
schoot year. -' ,;
Each of the three grades will operate on a dif-
ferent daily schedule. The sixth grade classes will
have longer time blocks, with fewer class changes.
without additional costs. For example, the switch The. eighth, grade students will have the shortest
does not require any extra teachers. Since the first. ' lime blocks and more class changes as a method of
of the year, according to Weaver, middle school , preparing them for the 55-minute, seven-period
teachers have been involved in intensive staff school day in senior high school,
development workshops to prepare them for the . Currently, plans are being finalized to hold open
new approach. house at all middle school centers on August 22, a
Among the features the, teachers must adjust is , day before school opens,
"time block scheduling." ' School officials will announce the specific times
Time block scheduling is one of the unique func-, for these sessions later. The session are designed to
tions of middle schools and. differ significantly
from the standard 53 minute instructional periods
give parents and others a chance to better acquaint
themselves with the new program,
- a ii - tx . 1 L i IK h .-4 .
' Hfi fcr ' && HI 4 k
See Page 3
See Page 4
Dips". Is The
See Page 8
Heavy Campaign Debts Dim
City School Sypvrinlvndeiil Clcvelund Hammond
Dr. James A. Clarke Named, Hal if ax
.... " ' . ' ' ' ' . . r.'.V..'": . '
County School Superintendent
clothing, but that is about man of the Congressional November," she added,
all," she added. "At least Black Caucus, Senator
City Schools Open Monday;
County Schools Follow Next Week
Dr. James A. Clarke,
director of the Division
of Communiiy Schools,;
Department'1 'of ; Public
Instruction, Ralcijih, has
Halifax County Schools.
With Dr. Clarke's ap
pointment, there arc now
superintendents in North
Carolina school systems.
Durham City and Nor
thampton County arc the
Since his employment
with the Department of
Public Instruction ' in
December; 1977, Clarke
has worked in the area of
and community schools
which includes com-:
Civi I Rights Co mm ission Issues fm
Study On Discrimination
The U.S. Commission
on Civil Rights this week .
issued part I of a two
part study on racial 'and
ethnic discrimination in
grams for older
Flderly Services: New
Program, Old Problems
Part I." the study ex
amines minority elderly'
participation in Title III.
funds arc- provided to
state and area agencies,
on aging I io provide
nutrition services (con-'
grcgatc and home-,
centers and a com
prehensive array of
social services such as '
outreach and housing,
. The . "Commission's
study was undertaken "
following the issuance of
a 1 977 age discrimina
tion study by the Com
mission.vThat study in
dicated that older
members of minority
groups were often vic
tims of age, as well as
racial or ethnic
discrimination. This hew
report is based on six '
An Area Agency on
Aging (AAA) is respon
sible for developing and
administering plans for a
comprehensive and coorr
dinatcd system of ser
vices for older persons.
The i 180-page report
points out that the AAAs ( Tucson,, Arizona;
arc not actively involved - Tulsa, Oklahoma,
in outreach activities td Commission ' also
include more minority i tempted to include F.uro
cldcrly in their pro- Ethnic Americans in the
grams. It also notes thai study but found, without,
these agencies arc not . exception. data were
collecting data efficient- i unavailable. ; i
ly which would allow s The Commission's fin
fbr effective monitoring dings and reebmmenda
and evaluation of their tions for the entire study
programs to determine will be included in Pari
the 3 extent of program , which will be publish-
participation by elderly . cd later. Part ll will also,
ol ten excluded from ag- j mg minority experiences
ing prdgram planning" In ' connection with
By Joseph E:di4en ' throughg , .Kennedy, , t of
X7While mans voters want district,; , saict-.tnat-jt)ia;K ;v I1 s Mcs- muacnuscs,. anq
Durham ' lawyer.' H.M. that she haslalked Id ,sayrowern.Tyalehtrne- Senao-r.TJary'nHart, of
"IvliclceyMichauxto run that they are going to sup- PeoP,e say 'they think they Colorado.
a Write-in campaign dur- port Marin over Valentine Can , trusr Marin over "They. hav all express
ing the fall election; the se- if Michaux does not go Valentine." 1 . , ed their disappointment,"
cond place finisher during with a write-in: - ' Since his defeat, Ms. Gill said. "Kennedy
the July 27 run off faces " Marin is ' clearly ; a Michaux. has been getting told Mickey that he
an almost insurmountable Republican? You know telephone calls from na- understood what happen
hurdle. His campaign is where he stands. Valentine "nal politicians such as ed. It's not over yet and it
more than $100,000 in is ; wearing, democratic waiter fauntroy, chair-won't be o
So the chances of runn
ing a spirited and suc
cessful write-in campaign
that would lead to victory,
in. the fall over the
Democratic candidate I.T.
Valentine , and; the
Republican hopeful, Jack
Marin, appear to be most-,
ly wishful thinking.
Yet Michaux, broke
though .his campaign may
be,, still; holds the balance
of powtr in the November
election and C"' everyone
from Valentine to Marin
to Governor Jim Hunt is
trying ib win his support
and the following of the
50,000 plus voters that
cast thejr ballots for him.
V Valentine has been try
ing to meet with Michaux
since i he run-off accor
ding to a Michaux aide,
Ms. Pat Gill, but a
meeting has not been set
In a related matter, one
political expert who was
Alaskan natives, Asian,
and . Pacific Island
Americans, blacks and
Hispanics. They arc:
o.:'i..w.. inunity use ol scnooi
-aevctend organization of close to the Micham camp, county
Honolulu,- Hawaii: San
't California" local .scihhh iniaiu uc,ca.y iui iw
and a ;.mcna inc punutui icmw
Tlie,cimnvun.ity-oriented that he damaged by not
; agenciesi 'nrograins and 'supporting Michaux dur-
' ' .. .. ..n ...... "t: . u ..nmnn:n
groups; organization of "Everybody is kind of
volunteer ; programs: i upset with Hunt," she
and. the adont-a-school I said, "he sal on his hands
program eiilistyig the ,vand that is not going to oc relieve overcrowding and
support and cooperation ' easily forgotten. He could long bus rides. County
vf businesses, industries. j;have helped us and when school officials believe;?
churches. comnmnit y we 1 needed him and he these transfers will:
organizations and agcn: '-disappeared on us. The enhance the educational
cies. , , ; ? next time around we just environment. v,
Prior to coming ... Io . might disappear on him." In the city schools, the ,
said that .major change is the new;
not made tin .middle school program
conccrninii - a -graacs SIX
for instruction and cur-; .wnlc-in. Man v of his sun- eight, under this pro-
riculum m the first black ' norlers are still urvinv him cram, last year's fifth
By Pam Banks
Over the next two"
weeks, more than 24,000
students will flock back
to school, re-enacting an
annual ritual of mild
chaos and confusion
before education settles
into its normal, nine
Durham City Schools
will open for students
teachers began working a
week earlier. In .the
county, schools open
August 30, and county
teachers started working
Ms. Cindy Gardner.
relations officer, said the
county schools have no
new instructional pro
grams this year. But on
the other hand, dozens
of students arc being
transferred from schools
thev attended last year to
other schools to help
getting off to a very fine
The city schools will
conduct an open house
program Sunday in all
schools to kick off the
new schoot year. Open
house hours for middle
schools and high schools
are 3-5 p.m., and open
house hours for elemen
tary schools are 2-4 p.m.
Some 777 classroom
teachers and other
media specialists and
librarians make up the
faculties and staffs of the
ation by elderly cd later. Part ll will also b V"-- f0'"" lI m,j WPC
ics. The report ; contain the results of a H 'V ?,U
v notes I that national survey' of slate ; Ashcv lle; as Michaux has i
v ; elderly arc and area agencies cover- a c super.niendent y h.s mind ec
North Carolina Willi
ix uf w, UUUOI, f
"Valcnlinc really made
limiied written materials deliverv of ' older ?lntclttW. He has also - a race issue out of the
available on acintf nro- Americans act nrokrams, 5rvc a principal in k campaign.'' Ms. Gill said.
other than English: and Civil Rights is an in--rr,oU -Mecklenburg
thai there are almost no rfi'neii'lciii hinrtrlU.nn -rnoO sysitnis.
bilingual employees to fact-finding agency con-
assist non-English speak
The six cities selected
for the study have,
among them, substantial
and Vhc, complicated thincs
for ' himself bv savins
f shortly after the election
A imwna cum laude that our support of his
ccrncd with discrimina-' rB"a ?. ;V3,'hti Pd ?"t uM "uCsscn;
tion or denial of canal Sm,ln J ' University, , tia. People heard that and
nmte?. on' of Sie Taw ' Charlotte; Clarke holdsV they are ,not going io
he-aiKe nf rn.-e rnlnr '"0 ,M.. J BIIU M. A. v lOrget It," She added.
cradc students will at
tend the sixth grade at
one of four former
junior high schools '
J.(Y "Skeepie" Scar
borouKh, III. was elected
president of the National
Funeral Directors and
during Its 45th national
convention held August
Rogers- 8-12 in Orlando, FU.
The organization Is com-
"We are looking for- prised of approximately
ward to a real good year 2800 (predominantly
religion, sex, - age, han
dicap or national origin.
degrees from AT State i- Ms. Gill, . who coor
(Continued on Page 3) dinated the voter effort
in spite of salary freezes
and lunch program in
creases,M said Dr.
Durham City Schools
Durham City Schools.
Hammonds said the
system begins classes
Monday for its 8.500'
students. . about 12
teachers short of what
the system should have.
According to , Ham
monds, the shortage is
caused by the method the
state board of education
uses to calculate hc
number of students I in
each of the state's school
systems, and the birth
rate decline that has been
around since about
For the past two years.
the state ha
underestimated the city
teacher allotment and
later had to assign more
system after a tally of
iS!i. cturlonlc Hnrino th first
.t M W W mmm " - - ------
ten days of the school'
year revealed the state's
is not' sure the state will
grant additional teachers
this year, even if the
estimate is short,
primarily because of the
freeze on teacher
salaries. If the state does
not provide the addi
tional teachers, then the
local school board will
have no alternative but
to provide Tor them out
of local funds alone. :i
The Durham County
school system had to hire
120 teachers last year
with local money
because the state's
teacher - allotment does,
not altow the county
system to have the quali
ty of junior high school
programs it desires, ac-
Mack) funeral directors
from 35 states. District
of Columbia. Jamaica, . cording to Ms. Gardner.
Bahamas, Haiti and Ber Ms. Gardner noted
(Continuedon Page 3)