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AMERICAN HELP FOR WOUNDED BRITISH
81* motor ambulance* Ilk* the on* In this photograph have been given to the Brltleb war offlce by tb* American
Women'* War Relief fund. With their fitting* they coat about tlO.OOO. At the left la Oldway houae, the residence of
Pari* E. Singer In Devonshire, transformed Into the American Red Croe* hospital.
MUM OSES STAGE TRICX10 '
MIX PROCESSION OF PRISONERS i
In Order to Give Air of Verisimilitude to Tales of Foe's Regiments b
Annihilated, Trainloads of Captives Are Sent Through Same Cc
Town Many timet?Belgian Trooper Becomes Peeved o
at Twelfth Trip Through Aix-la-Chapelle.
London.?It U i relief to extract a
little bumor oat of this tragic war.
French and English alike are wonder
ing. and laughing not a little, at the
tremendous camber of prisoners
which the demons, according to their
own reports, are capturing, both east
and west. If they had taken as many
prisoners as they say they hare they
would bare no enemy to light. But the
explanation is simple enough. Take
but one Instance.
A Swiss who was at Alx-la-Cbapelle
at the beginning of this month, and
who is now at Basle, writes:
"The German government Is very
ingenious In its efforts to keep up the
spirits-of the population, it reports
the annihilation of regiment after
regiment dally, and in order to foster
the delusion it has to produce formid
able convoys of French, British and
Belgian prisoners. Alx-la-Chapelle is
the spectacular spot chosen. It is the
busiest railway station in the German
empire lust now. The German general
staff sends long train loads of prison
era through this-)unetion going east
every day. Ton can imagine bow Im
pressive it Is. You can also Imagine
how industriously the newspaper cor
?respondents record the incident in
their dispatches to Berlin, not forget
ting the downcast demeanor of the
captives and the cheers of the German
"The crowds gre unaware that these
trains are switched onto a loop* line at
night, and return In triumph the next
day. The other morning a Dutchman
was "watching one of them go slowly
by. He saw a Belgian soldier excited
ly gesticulating at an open carriage
window. He was shooting: This Is
the twelfth time we have come
through this station.'"*
Fight for Pig Under Fire.
"Very little scares us nowadays,"
writes an artilleryman from the
Woevre. "The Germans are in the
FOR RELIEF OF BELGIANS
New York society (trie serving be
hind the counter In "Little Belgium,"
the novelty shop established In New
York tor the purpose of raising mon ? j
tor the relief of destitute Belgians. j
> . .. _ . r_r
wood* and are aa reluctant aa carrion c
crow* to laara. Last night we heard *
heavy footsteps, an odd noise Uka *
jatapoum. pa'tapoum.' Was It a batch 1
of German deserters coming to us. or P
outposts returning with some warn- *
lng* 1 peered tnto the darkness, and ?
-within .a few feet of my bead was?a *
fat pig. He was more frightened than a
I, and decamped. We followed, and *
In live minutes Mr Cocboa was tied to
the wheel of an ammunition cart. He
grunted all night long. , i,
"Next morning men from the neigh
boring battery heard of our Interest
lng capture and claimed It as theirs. ?
What chedkl We squabbled, and ?
everybody asserted Ma right to the y
prisoner. Suddenly shrapnel began to
fall In the midst of'the debate. Did a
Prussian sheila stop the row over that j,
pig? No, str! For ten more minutes t]
the two batteries argued, while bullet* y
flew and tbe pig squealed. d
"The chef of a portable kitchen has ,,
his little Joke. 'How polite tbe Bocbes ?
are,' be said. 'They even send us a
their marmltea (black Marias) In n
which to cook our puddings.' Then a
along came tbe captain. 'In tbe name ),
of beaven!' be exclaimed, 'get back to a
your 7i's. Cut tbe pig In two!' A mil- a
Itary Solomon had solved tbe difficulty a
and both battalions bad pork for sup- ti
per that night." m
Germans Without Humor.
Describing tbe conditions surround- t
lng the British army, a lieutenant in a
the Royal Army Medical corps, writ- n
lng borne, says: v ,
"In front of us are the German s
trenches, onl. a hundred yards away. e
A bobbing head, a shaking flat, an oc- a
casional spade wave, bespeak the ,
presence of our foe. Yesterday one of y
our merry men fixed up a target. On j.
white paper be drew a bull's-eye with tl
a charred stick, tied it on a cardboard g
box, placed It In front of tbe trench and e
with flag behind recorded the misses
yf our friend Frltx. 1 feel sure that if
In those trenches we had a more hu
morous foe instead of tbe phlegmatic
Teuton we might pass away many or
the weary hours of watching In friend
ly joke. But we are up against a wary
foe. There Is no leisure, for- barbed
arire, artfully contrived hoops and
loopholes forever claim the attention
of, our brave men.
"There are times, though, even un
der,! Are. when tbe humor of our sol
diers bursts forth. On ona occasion,
after a German shell had Bred some
wood, our men, seeing the tire, seised
the opportunity to cook their food.
Yesterday I heard an amusing story
under trying circumstances told con
cerning a man in tbe regiment lying |
In tbe tbin red line next to ua. Shrap- '
nel had burst, killing two men on his
left and badly shattering another. He
was trying to light a pipe, and having
some difficulty he said to his mate.
'Sure 'tis Belgian tobacco, and these |
French matches will be tbe death of
German Shot 8poila Milking. I
"I sometime* help the o Ace re to
censor the men's letters home One
man says. 'We shall hare shells (or
breakfast?not egg shells. I shall be In '
Berlin in a fortnight, and I'll send you ?
some sausages.' i overheard on the
march one 'Pat' say to another. 'I
never believe Anything I hear, and v:
only halt of what I say.'" ti
nere are two numorous toucncs
"om the letter of a Dublin fuslleer:
"At one point of the line German
nd French troops were not more than
ne hundred yard* apart. They could
ear each other talk, and'sometimes
ilked to each other. One day a cow
trayed between the lines. - Both sides
ranted milks They screed whoever
it a horn first would be let milk the
ow. The Brat shot came from the
erman lines. Bad as usual, it killed
"When both sides 'lie In there la
ontinuous rifle sniping, on the Ger
lan side usually very bad. An officer
1 ours with a sense of humor put up
target tor them to( practice on and
ave them a marker with a flag to
ignal the misses. The target was
retty large, with a sketch of the bal
er's bead and shoulders for a bull's
ye. Only one shot van Bred at It.
nd that bullet hit the kaiser right
nder the chin. We appreciated the
Death of the Gallant Lancar.
And here la ona about "a gallant
rtabraan with aome pathos In K:
"One afternoon when I waa riding
rom the transport to the battalion I
let a lancer going the aame road. We
ere chnma at Aldershot a couple of
ears ago. ! met hla wife when he
rougbt her to the married quartere.
bonnle bride. He waa a squat little
riabman with a pair of lively eyes
bat spoke the language of all tongues,
le had fought at Moils and been right
tiroagh the campaign, and as we rode
igether through the town wi talked
ver past and present. Aa we passed
butcher's shop a- pretty girl came to
tie door and gave him Bonjonr,' with
charming smile. Against regulations
e doffed his cap and made her a
weeping how. Their eyes met?K was
mere passing salute, bat one could
se he bad passed that way before. He
?rned to me with a light laugh. 'We
re all slnrfe at the seaside.'
"Two days afterward I made the
ime journey on foot. Just at that
sme shop door I met a stretcher?
ly lancer friend was lying on It?
hrapnel through the chest. As I
poke to the stretcher bearers the girl
ame to the door. Her, grief was pas
lonate. I doubt if the wounded man
'as conscious of her tears. Later In
be day I called at the field hospital,
le was dead. A woman In Ireland Is
-aching his little one to pray for his
out. A girl In France Is putting flow
rs on his grave." _
A FRENCH BOMB-PROOF
One of the bomb-proof* In the ad
kneed trenches on the eastern fron
? . . V
BRITISH PAID. BY FRANCE
Republic Bears Cost of Auxiliary
Troops Even To the Pro
Berlin.?The derltner Tageblatt
publishes an account of a wounded
German officer, udon his return from
France, In which^ie says:
"The Frpnch Government bears the
cost of paying-the Hrltlsh auxiliary
troops, each ip.-in getting four francs
(80 cents) t<4 each day on which no
lighting takes place, while on 'battle |
days' each man gets eight trance
($1.60) per day. Besides, the entire (
British force now on French soil Is
provisioned at the expense of the
Cut Out Feetball. 1
I,ondon.?Because football playing t
in England Interferes with recruiting 1;
and distracts attention from the war,
Is>ndon newspaper - proprietors have s
agreed to print nothing but the re- i
suits of matchea d
aUEEN'S MAIL IS CENSORED
.etters Froo Her 8on, Prui e o'
Welet, Read by Offlclale of
the War Office.
London.?The prince of Wales, due
ng his flrat week at the front, sent
wo long letters to his mother relet
ng his experiences and observations.
Both letters were opened b.' the cen
or and officially passed In the same
nanner aa those of the ordinary sol
ALIENS XTU-L SERVE LONDON ]
Wholesale Dismissal of Gorman Wait- '
era Did Wot Help British
Londot ?According to tbe Central '
Unemplo cd Body tor London the
wholeaal dismissal during the last
month o Gorman and Austrian trait
ors has ijot htlped tbe English waiter. <
The vacated places harp been filled by <
Italians.'Frenchmen and Dutchmen. "1
The oxpianntlon ia thpt 'waiting On <
Able lb MM A business which the Sua-'
ishman adopt, very rapidly and that
he raat army of waitera. who aaually,
it this time go to the South of Fraftee
ind Italy, And ao market fa tnelr
tervlces In these countries and are
wear for work In bondota. >
Youth Lea da Charge.
Lohdon ? Private Preaton, eighteen,
md known aa the "baby" of a Man
heater regiment, led the Charge of bta
lompany against the Germans after
ill the ameers had been killed.
H S3-IK-Til.- & ?
They Got no Milk.
Parte.?A cow strayed between
FTeech and German trenches. which
were ouly 190 yards apart, and both
sides agreed that whoever hit a horn
first would be privileged to milk Bossy
without molestation. The first shot
came from the German lines and
killed the cow.
Cheese the Chief Exporf'
Berne, Bwltserland, exports I mutb
higher value In Swiss cheese \,a in
Swiss watches. ?
11 111 ? BH gWA B HL
GLADLY though I would linger
on the nore beautiful and ro
mantic aspects of Japan, the
Japan of the Iris and cherry
blossom, of violet lake and
pine-clad mountains, of maple trees
running in autumn like tongues of
flames along the hillside, of little -Ash
ing villages'-crowding the romantic
shores of the Imftad sea, of Fuji, snow
powdered and aloof, hanging as it
were In midair twlxt earth and sky?
it is of another and less lovely Japan
I must speak today. Modern Industry
has laid its band already on this race,
writes Violet Markbam, In the West
minster Uasette, and the pressure Is |
not likely to grow less heavy as time
Bounties for Industries.
The establishment of factories and
Industries in Japan is a matter which
causes the government much preoccu
pation. It la sought by bounties to
foster and encourage Infant indus
tries, and in Manchuria there is much
grumbling over the preferential posi
tion Japanese control of tbe railway
achieves for Japanese goods. So far
tbe number of operatives, male and
female, in Japan is but small?793,
896?as compared with her total popu
lation of 69,000,000. But the statis
tics published by tbe Economical and
Financial Annual^of.the department
of finance, 1918, afford much food
for reflection when taken in con
hla turn aine >en la deducted dally far
Compounda and factorial alike tut
n cleanllneaa and comfort. Some fac
oriea are well conatructed and well
rentllated and filled with machinery
?oming from Oldham. Othera are
llrty. dilapidated and ramahackle. It
a the name with the compounda.
Vhen a factory has to provide accom
nodatlon for 1,000 or 2,000 women op
iratires we may well acrutlnlse the
londttions, even when the altogether
ilmple atandard of life In the far Seat
a taken Into account. The Japanese
tave no beds, but sleep rolled up In
lullts on the floor. In one compound
visited. I saw 24 girls asleep in a
lormitory 24 by 12 feet, and this Is no
incommop state of affairs. Phthisis
a a disease which la beginning to play
lavoc in the cotton millet and when,
le In many e-ses, girls employed on
he day and night shifts use the same
lormitorles and no proper ventilation
a possible, It la easy to understand
he spread of this dread scourge.
The Japanese women are fnfgile
Ittle creatures, whose appearance
loes not encourage the idea that they
:ao he tossed without protection Into
:he fierce stream of Industrial oompe
ttlon. These girls, drawn as they are
Tom the farming and Ashing class.
>ften return home utterly broken la
lealth at the end of tbetr Indentures
Some factories cater for the health
? 'ii ? ??? ' agagga i i i,l
cotton Mill in kooe.
junction with the actual condition* of
life and labor revealed by a vlalt to a
Japanese mill. According to these re
turns there are In Japan 305,196 male
operatives over fourteen years of age.
and 427,676 women. Under fourteen
years of sge there are 12,192 males
and 48,621 females employed.
The dominant industries in .Japan
are cotton and silk, and they absorb
the largest proportion of the workers,
namely, 448,243 persons, male and fe
male. In raw silk, cotton spinning,
and ootton weaving we find employed
45,496 men and 293,408 women. In the
thirty-two Japanese cotton mills for
which returns are given the average
number of working days per annum
was 325, and the average number of
working hours per day was 22.44. The
two great centers of industrial activity
are Tokyo and Osaka. I penetrated,
not without considerable difficulty.
Into various cotton mills in Japan.
Women and Children In Factories.
Generally speaking. Japanese wom
en engage In the cotton trade work
under contracts essentially servile In
character. They are indentured for a
period of three years, any^ve In com
pounds attached to the factory. Dur
ing this term they seldom leave the
compound, and cannot, save under
very exceptional circumstances, break
their Indentures. Sunday, of course.
Is not kept In the far Bast; the princi
ple of one day's rest In seven does not
obtain there. The cotton factories
work day and night on shifts of 12
hours each, and there are two holi
days In the month, more, one suspects,
for the needs of the machinery than
that of the human beings. The aver
age dally wage of the female silk spin
ner is SO.- sen (say ll cents), and of
the female weaver 25 sen. But from
I and even amusement of their opera
tives. In one compound I taw a thea
ter and also a shrine erected to the
memory of those who died In the mills.
Hospitals, unfortunately, are neces
sary adjuncts, some clean and well
managed, others slack and dirty. In
one compound there would be a atrip
of garden nicely kept with flowers,
In another a dank, depressing yard.
Even at the best, who could wish for
a young girl to spend three of the
best years of her life under such con
. dltions? But the Japanese daughter
has few rights over her own person.
If her family Is poor, up to the pres
ent she has resigned herself to the
fate to which her parents may consign
her, being practically sold by them
either to factory, geisha house, or the
deeper degradation of the yoshiwara.
That the glrla themselves are begin
nlng to revolt against such conditions
is a healthy and desirable sign of the
times in Japan. The difflculty of ob
taining cheap labor may lead to a re
form of factory life from within.
Though livlng-ln la the rule for wom
en, It li not Invariable, and" I saw' one
factory where a large proportion of
women lived out. Here arose the dif
ferent evil of the employment of mar
ried women, this particular factory
having a nursery attached where the
women left their babies. But unques
tionably there was a leas coarse, hope
less look about the women who lived
out and had some redeeming Influ
ences of home In their lives than what
one noticed -bout the listless girls of
the compounds. ThlB circumstance
struck me very forcible In a very dirty
match factory, where all the girls lived
at home. Despite the conditions un
der which tbey worked'and the long
hours, the women did not look amiss
or 111 nourished.
COAL FIELDS NOT EXHAUSTED
Estimated That Many Millions of
Tom 8tlll Remain to Be
It haR been estimated that the
amount of coal which will be dug out
of the ground In the United States
during the present year will be great
er Ay tar than the total excavation for
the Panama canal.
Experts of the United State* geo
logical survey have estimated that
originally there was enough coal !p
this country to make a solid block ten
miles long, ten miles wide and' ten
miles high. A block of this site would
weigh more than 3,500,000,000.000 tons,
and up to the present time the coal
that has been removed amounts only
to something like 15,000,000,000 tons.
The coal mined during 1014 will
amount to about 000,000,000 tons, con
taining about 300,000,000 cubic yards.
The total excavation for the Panama
canal from start to finish la computad
At same 383,000,000 cubic yards
The comparison indicates in a strik
ing way the extent of the coal mining
* ?T? 4
Industry in the United Stafes. The
output of coal la enormous, but it is
Increasing year by year. The amount
of coal so far taken out is only a frac
tion of what remains, according to the
estimate of geologists. The people of
this country, however, are using more
:oal every year, and with the exhaus
tion of some of the Kuropean coal
lelds already in sight the foreign de
mand for American coal will increase
Can't Depend on Compass.
It is a physical phenomenon known
to the most ignorant skipper who ever
commanded a whaler or a trawler, or
my description of water craft, that the
magnetic compass is not dependable.
It points toward the north pole or the
?outh pole In only a few of the so
;alled parallels of\ latitude or longi
tude. Its guidance is only less nn
tvaUIng (ban that of phUoeopbladl
Jelvers, mcst of which have become
ibjecta of derision with newer discov
eries whloh ifave put the older con
victions to flight, only to have those
newer discoveries and theories suffer
in awful upset sooner or later.
, -- ---
SOME.FACTORS IN PICKING A BREED
? ' ? ?
On* of the Many Good Breed*. - 1
Is It for fun. lore, or money that '
/ou wlah to rslse chickens ?
Pint decide this, and then pick your
breed accordingly. _
This la the advice which an experi
enced Wisconsin poultryman gives to
all "embryo" chicken farmers, lie
emphasises this as (be prime factor
In a successful beginning?determine
what is the object of your venture,
study the requirements of your mar
ket and then choose a breed that will
meet these conditions. ?
It must be very obvious to even the
novice in the chicken .busiiptsa that
different conditions demand different
breeds. The millionaire fancier may
well gratify his bobby of breeding
beautirully plumed bantams, but he
who desires to sell roasters and who
depends on his flotfb ToY a "living must
pick the breed of fowls that grows to
a good slxe in short time.
Many, authorities agree that all
fowls may be classified under one of '
four heads: Kgg breeds, meat breeds,
general-purpose breqds. and fancy
breeds. While this classification Is
useful In distinguishing fowls accord
Jng to their characteristics, it should
not be inferred that the distinctions
are hard and fast.
The usefulness of sny breed will
depend to a considerable extent upon
such conditions as food -care, climate,
and market demands. Thus, if It be
came the "fad"'In New York to serve
roast bantam pullets, the poultrymen
of that section could profitably raise
the tiny birds fob table use, although
they are now considered a fancy
The egg breeds Include all small or
medium sixed fowls having a t rong
tendency toward egg production. Al
most without exception the noted egg
producing breeds arc small or medium
fixed, and possess trim, neat bodies.
CULL THE FLOCK;
IT WILL PAY YOU
Will It pay the poultryman to cull
his flock closely?
James G. Halpln. secretary of-the
Wisconsin Poultry association, says
It will and he realties that esgs and
poultry likely will be higher later on.
But In spite of all this he is urging
the poultrymen of the state to cull
more closely than usual He argues
that with present feed prices farmers,
and certainly other poultrymen. can
not afford to feed hens which show
from their general makeup that they I
will not develop Into good producers. J
He has found that oh many farms 200 j
JAME8 0. HALPIN, 1
Poultryman, College of Agriculture, r
Unlverefty of Wieconeln. f
chickens are being kept with only
housing room for 100. If these flocks
were reduced to the 100 best layers
their owners would have many more s
eggs and much lower feed bills. s
On a large proportion of our farms d
there are, according to Mr. Hatpin, s
old hens which huve outlived^ their s
FOR THE BOYS
It Pays to Keep Clean.
By J. H. REED.
No matter what business you are
In it pays tp keep your shops ami
your stores clean. And so it is in the
For hens will ..pot eat from a dirty
floor. No matter how tempting the
feed may be. they refuse to accept It
When it is scattered In dirty bedding
among the remains of two weeks' feed
ing. Of course If they will not eat.
they^cannot lay. And If they Cannot
lay. your chances for a profitable sea
son will go glimmering.
So It is up to you. young man. to 1
clean up that poultry house floor and
keep It clean. Sweep out the old bed
ding and left-over feed every morning.
Get Into the cwflers and uit'ler the
neets. Do a good lob of it. if | you are
going to do it gt aft
. .. rfi, ' i
rhey are poor mcxhers, for they are
>f a nervoua temperament and are
?aally frightened The Leghorn*,
Spanish, Minorca*, and Hamburg* are
yplcal of this el***. The Leghorn*
ire perhaps the most popular with u*.
for size, the meat breeds are the
-humptunv Mature fowl* In tlftis
?lass average from six to eight pounds
n weight. They are usually consig
ned poor layers, although the pul
ets often do fairly well. They aru
?low-moving, heavy-bodied fowls of
gentle disposition, and are persistent
utters. The Rrabmaa, Cochins and
-angshans are breeds of this class.
Under the head of general-purpoag
>reeds are classed those fowls that
urnish a fair quantity and good qual
ty of meat and also a large number
>f eggs when properly cared for. The
Plymouth Rocks. Wyandotte* and
-thode Island Reds are familiar
)reeds of this class. Plymouth Rocks
irobably stand first In'point of num
Pleasing appearance rather than
ittllty characterise the fancy breeds
iVhile many of the fancy breeds may
terve a useful purpose In furnishing
nest and eggs, they cannot compete
n this respect with the other classes.
The Polish and Bantams are repre
sentative of this claaa.
Having'settled upon the breed be
?IU raise, the beginning poultry man
nust next give his attention to the
natter or obtaining foundation stock.
By dealing with one of the successful
iret'dcrs of known reputation he can
jot easily go far astray.
Pgr the Inexperienced breeder It is
best^not to buy the moat expensive
stock on, the market to start with
for at first certain losaes are likely
:o occur which will be avoided when
ie has mastered some of the sdcrets
>f bis "trade."
Rout the Ucel
Her* 1* a very effective Uce '?
powder which may eaally be .!
made at home:
Mix, away from Ore, one part -
of crude carbolic acid with five J f
parti of gasoline. Stir Into this ? |
mixture just enough plaater : .
parls to make a thick, moiit j;
maaa. Spread the paate out on <
a paper and all<fw to dry. After j
the gaaoline has evaporated, the "i
plaster mixture inay be applied
like any dusting powder.
The powder gets Into the i J
pores of the lice and kills them ]:
by suffocation or the carbolic \,
add poisons them. Some of j ;
the compound put Into the dust <
bath will be found an easy
method of controlling the para
isefulnees. Many of these have long
oe nails which show that thye have
lot worked for months. These and
be "crowheaded" thin breasted, weak
constltutloned" hens should be dls
arded for they will never be good
gg producers Similarly, late-hatched
hicks will not prove paying Invest
nents. It will pay well to dispose of
hese culls as quickly at possible hnd
o give the feed to the layers and
Don't try to winter more birds than
ou have house-room for. or time to
are for: Overloaded houses are sure
o become damp, while hens will not
?y when overcrowded. And don't let
he roosters remain with* the layers,
"hey kill egg-production. They are
eed consumers and nonproducers.
len t keep more than you will need
or spring use.
The successful poultryman has not
tapped Into that all at once. He has
rrlved at that by the alow and ar
uooa road of experience. He cannot
lay there except by trateltna the
And when yon have It. all cleaned
up. spread some fresh straw over the
(loor, and feed your grain In it. Do
tbia each and every day. until It be
comes a habit. Clean out the water
pans, too. and till'them with clean,
And your hens will repay you for
your trouble by laying twice as mam
eggs. It pays to keep clean
Houdan la Neglscted
The Houdan Is a much neglected
fowl; it is one of the oldest of the
pure breeds. The Houdan has a rath-.
er heavy body and short legs; Its crust
Is sort of frowsy snd Its feathers
about evenly marked^ white and black,
giving It a pretty spotted appeeranca.
Ii is a Hue able bird and., is a heavy ,
layer of large ehlte-shelTed It
seldom geta broody until l*o yearr
Select eggs for hatching from the '
beat and strongest btrda.
L ' >
Cleanliness prevents lice, miles and