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President's ITIcr-agc, J
'Fellow. Citizens of the Senate ;
J arid House cj Rrpresentaiivis ,
It is to me a source oL .unaffected satisf;jc
tioa lo meet the Representatives of tho States
and the people in Congress assembled, as it
will bo to receiva tjie uid of their combined
wiiJom in the- administration of public Ef,
-fairs. : In.peirormiig, for the first time,-the
duty impjsid on mi by the corjstituion, of
giving to you infurmition of the? atnu nf t,rt
Union, nnd rcc muneudiug loy.tUr c'onsidcrai
lion such tncasurcsj as in. my judgment are
necessary and expedient, urn happy that I
cartcongrrtul it you on the continued pVos.
pority of our country.1 Under the blessings
ivino Providunco and the oeniirn itiflu-
y enceof our free initiiutionsj it stands' before
the vyorld a spcciacjo of nationul happ:ncs.
- With our unexampled advancement in v
- the elements of natyinal greatness the aflec.
tion:of ,thc people isj confirmed for jho nni.in
' c the Slates, and for the doctrines, ot p-pu."
far liberty, which lie at tho foundation of our
4 government, f
JI bi comes us, in humility, to malce our de.
vout acknowledgements to the Supremo Ru.
ler of. the Uuiverse, for the iiteslimablo civil
npd religious blcssirtgs with which we are fa.
In rnlllnrr iVir nttntion itf Pun.trpc lf run'
i ,- i1 ii T . 1
relations Willi boreiin l'ovvers. I um "ralifiiid 1
o T "o" I
ffi 111 fllilt 1 cl tln tUi tllniiivK aih' iAtna I
. -f e
them there hav existed since, your last ses.
sion serious causes
ni irriiation ana misun
dt-rslanding, yet n I'aclu il hostilities havella.
I ken piuco. ; Adopting the muxitn in the con
duct of our foreign jafTairs, lo 41 ask nothing
that is not right, and submit to nothing that
is wrong,v ii has been my anxious4 desire to
preserve peace with all nations;" but, at the
same time, to bo prepared to resist aggres
'.'n, and lo in'iintuin alt our just rights. .
In pursuance of the joint resolution o( Con. . 4, ''L i" F ... ... '
i rr, . . . r t .'. . ,"tr iPward3 Texas, I do not daubt that a hbe
dss. M for annexing lexas lo the United v v' ' i i i ,
SStaies'.myiiiredccessor, on ihe third day ol
March, 1815, elected to submit ihe first arid
second sectiusof lhal resolution to tho rje
poblic of Tex is; as an overture on the part
uf the United States,- for her admission "as a
State into our Union. This election I op
proved, and accordingly the charge dafiairs
of the U,nitcd Slates in Texas, under instruc.
lions of the tentli of March. 1845. oresented
Iheso seelions of the resnlntion f..r L J
ccptance of. that republic. The Executive
J "i ... . .'t.' r . L .i .1.- . i" I
uolernruent, ihe Congress, and ihe people of
Texas in convention, have -successively com-
plied wilh all the terms and conditions oft ihe
.t resolution. : A constitution: fr the nov.
m,n, nt n( T J fnrm.ri hv a
convention of deputies, is herewith laid be
: . , . -
lc.immunir.ili In Ctntreraa tha correspon -
dc.vce between theSecretary of State and our
. O "
c,harge d affaires in Texas ;" and also the cor
rctpondcixe of the Utter with the uthori
tica of Texas ; legether with the official doc
umrnfs transmitted by him to his own gov
f The terms of annexation , which were of-
fered bv the United States having beea ac
icreu oy c wuueu omien D
cep;cu oy u.c puouv. .a..u r-.
ties U solemnly pledged to the compact of
. l : . XT ..I.: 1 Aiintnm.
ineir-on.o... inmng rcu.-.oa
mate the event, but the passage of an act by
Congress to ndmi
,i the State ol Texa, into
the Union upon an equal fooling wilh the orig
inaliStates. Sfrong-reasons exist why this
'Should be' done at an early period of the ses.
aion. It Will be observed ihat by the conau
tutionof Texas, ihe c.tting. government is
" only continued temporarily till Congress can
. . : v i " .I .
ict: and lhat the-third MondJy of the pre.
-V- . . ; . . V. - . . ..
sent month is the day appointed for holding
th, first-general election. On that dv .
governor, a lieutenant governor, and both
, branches of the legislature, will be ehoieo by
lW people: The.Presid.nt of Texaa U re.
Quired,. immediately after the receipt of offi;
chi information that.the new State has been
admitted into our Union ,by Congress, to con.
Jr.a tueuegisiamrc, mnu, upon us mcewnj;,
i- - liiiuiij b ; - -"I--'
.i inrniTinl will nn imirpnfl
in,i .vfM n,.pr,
fore Congress. It is well known, also, that consequence o. .... .e oeu.auo Papu..
the people of Texas ht lhe polls have accept: He was informed t ijo government of the
- '' . . ,k United Stales did not'Consider this joint reso
ld the terms of annexutuins, and ratified the ; ,i r f
. . t Iniwin nj n violation of asv of the rights ot
r l the Suae Government organized. Ques. ot an"""V $ lhe aUcr: became .far
Hons deeply Interest to Texa., n common accepted s to- mako lC ou'r
:;hih3oth5r States; the extension of our partvf ourown co un,. ry. ? s A;CeCBm
r -la a- J territory, as well as measure, of I therefore deemed it proper, as -1
' ' i;i "ihn rf rl .fVn .rv measure, to order a strong, ?quad
3 . -v
r icc-icwi-., -.f,-..r-T P .f.iico-induoconcenlratfitin
. r r -rr--it snd. thercfare-. upon avervl the coasts of Mexico, uu
I"-". cf rr -3 crernmcnt, she ooght
:s.iry delay.." 1 Cunnt toocarocilv rccom.
menj proit,ctioo ua 'thi' important sub.
ject. , -y '-,' .,'"; vf -, j-..-. -.--i
As. toon m ihe oct ta admit Tcxoi as a
btaio ahall U passed, tfie uniun nf the two
republics will be consummated bj their own
voluntary conseiii; i : '
w'-' k) .. if. -',;f ., ..-v f'-H.' i ,
l his nccessioa to our (erritory has bceti a
bioojless achievement.. 5Na nrra of .irce
has been raised to produce ihe result. -The
sworp' has had no prt in iho Yictory. AVe
have- not sought to extend1 our territorial ptw.
sessions by ; conquest, or our republican iosti
lutiors over a reluctant 'pewplo. It was the
delibcr jhoinago of eacli people to the great
principlo-of our federative union;
If we consider the exlent of territory in.
volved in thej annexation Jits prospectivo in
fluence on Americathe means by which it
has been accomplished, springing purely from
ihe choice f the people hernst Ives lo share
the blcssingsj of our Union, the hutory of
the word may be challenged Jo furnish a par.
alteLd;; :,.l:;,;;,,;..,::V,f ;:- C:,t. -,
The jurisdiction of the U. States, which bt
the formation the! fede ral bonstitutton was
bounded by llicSt. Mary' on tho Atla mid.
" i 1 and been
peaceiuuy exicnaeq to me jjol INorte. In
contemplating the grandeur of this event, ii
is not to by forgotten jjhat the result was
achieved in spite of the (Jiplomitic intcrfer
ence of j European monarchies. Even France
the country which had been our undent
ally the country which has a common inter-
rest with us in maintaining the freedom of the
seasthe country which, by the cession ot
Louisiana, first opened ito us ; access to the
Gulf of tMe.tieo-rahc country with - which we
hive be:en every year drawing more and more
closely ihe bonds of. successful commerce
most unexpectedly', and to our unfeigned re.
gret, took part in an .effolft to prevent annex,
ation, and to:impose on Texas, as a condition
of, the recocnition of her mdepondence bv
Mexico, thatjshe would ntjvcr j.un herself to
th 3. Untied Slates. Wo imv reioice that the
t ! ' :ti .. t
'-jonquil auu wcrv.iujii" niuutrute 01
i -1 i -v
'can principle ot sell government was sum
to defeat the purposes of British and
Frehchj interference, and, that the almost u-
... ill Ii: :
nnimous voice ot me people or l exas nas
giVen to that interference a peaceful and ef
fective rebuke. : From this example, Euro.
ppan governments may learn how vain diplo.
malic arts and intrigues jnust ever prove up.
on this continent, against that system of self
government which sccmi; natural to our soil,
und which will ever resist foreign interfer-
roi nuu generous spirit win actuate congress
iq all that concerns her interests and prosper
ity, and that she will never have cause to re.
gret thai she has united her " lone star11 . to
our glorious; constellation; j
I regret to inform you that our relations
wilh Mfico, since you M session, have
nor been 'of tho amicable character which it
- I- ' K- . . ..i it r .
our Vcs,r lo cull vate witn ail foreign na
lions. On the sixth daf of rch last, the
Mican envoy extraordinary and minister
nlfiiinolMntiiiru tn lhf Ili Stati-s I mride a for.
plenipotentiary to the U
mal priest,lin the namci of his government,
ngaisl be I'inUTesohjfion passed by Con.
SrCsJS ( lhe ?nnm of Texas to the
United States," which lie chose to regard as
a violation of the rights' of Mexico, and, in
iiii!iin nJ n violation Ot aV
Mexico, or llisi U auorueu any . jusi euusc vii
l . i ii . I .
I if nnnarnmiinl - tlt.-if lht IfMniihllf"
Ol i exas was uu inucjuucni yun, umug
no all giance lo Mexico, and constituting no
part of her territory o rightful sovereignty
andjurisdiclion. r. He wa also assured that
it was lhe .sincere desire ol this government
to maintain with that ot Mexico, relations of
r i t . ' i . .
.;nn,,v knwetp.r. notwlthstaiidinor these ren
j, ond assurances, abruptly termio.
; a- , ftep , ,ef.
I i J
. Our envby Extraordinary and
. , - , J .
Z. 1 TT" . "
3fQ ail OUItlUI ILlttUUI 9U ntltjjttiUi JU TCI ij.
ment, and after reuwioing seeral months,
by the permission ofxhis own government, he
re'turned to thc U. State's, f Thus, by the acts
of Mexico, all diplomatic intercourse between
the 1 wo countries was suspended.
S npp that llOiC nicAivuiu4t'vuui inxuuy,
bince mat um . .
occooicd an attitude of jhostili'y towards the
occnpij , . -
. ' . n t i-Ver on the U.
, - ' . n , or .
States euue r .y r
1"va?in. f peopIe of Texas invited
JJd t an army into that
- 'I 'Xnii The moment the terms
I , ..
I II1C iiisu"1"
ltvtA afford jucnproicioo
w... j - - nrpeaution-
dcemeo ihjii- -f 7 r t
j . c l i : . i . .. i.
. ffprpd bv the U.btates, were
SuEVILLS, : N.'r.C-- FRIDAY, .; DECErjn jjl 29, .".1845.
iter ot lexus, Our army was ordered lo
take position in the country between the Neu
ces and the Del Norte, "and jo repel any in.
vasion of the Texan territory which might be
attempted by the Mexican forces. Our squad,
roti in the gulf , was j ordered to co-operate
with the army, j Butj though our army and
navy were placed io Yposiiioo to defend our
own, and the rights of Texas," they were or.
dered lo commit no ! act of hostility against
exici, unless she declared war, or was Iter,
self the aggressor by striking the first blow.
The result lias been J that Mexico has made
na nggressive movement, and our military
and naval commanders have executed: their
orders with such discretion thai the peace of
the t wo republics has not been disturbed.
Texas had declared her independence, and
maintained it by her arms for more than nine
years, j She-bus had j an organized govern,
ment in successful opt ration during that pe
riod. Her separate existence, as an indejvjn.'
dent State, had been recognized by the Uni
ted Slates and the principal Powers; of Eu
rope. Treaties of commerce and navigation
nad been concluded wilh her by different na
tions, and it h id become manifest to the whole
world that any further attempt on the'part of
Mexico to conquer her, -or to overthrow her
government, would be vain. Even Mexico
herself had become satisfied of this i fact :
. if ....... I III.
aqd whilst thej question, of annexation was
pending before tho people of Texas, during
the past summer, he government of I Mexico
by a formal act J ogrccd to recognize lhe inde
pendence of Texas on condition ihdt she
would noi annex herself to any other Power.
The agreemcntjjo! acknowledge the indepen
dence of Texas; whether, iti or without
this condition, js conclusive against Mexico.1 j
The independence! of
Texas is a fact conced.
cd by Mexico herself andk.shej.had no right
or authority to prescribe restrictions as to the
r- !! . I'.. . ml- i.v. :
lorm oi government wnicn l exas might at-
tcrwards chooso to assume. ;
But though Mexico cannot complain of the
U. States on account oflthe annexation oi
Texas, it is to be regretted that 'serious causes
of misunderstanding between lho countries
continue to exist, growing out of unredressed
injuries inflicted, y the Mexican authorities
and peple on the persons and property of
citizens of the) Uj States, tlirojjgh a long se.
ries of years. Mexico has StJmilted ' these in-
juries, bui has neglected and refused to repair
them. Such was1 ihe'charactcf of the wrongs
and such the insult repeatedly offered to Amer.
ican citizens atjd he American! fl ig byjMexi.
co, in paljmbleyi luion .of the laws of nations
and the treaty between the twjo countries of
ihu fifth of Aprill83l, that"they have been
Vepeatedly bkjught to the notide of Congress
by my pn:decessors. As early as the eighth
of February, 1837, the President of the U.
States detlared, in i' message to Congress,
that " tho length of j time since some of the
injuries have been, committed, the 'repealed
and unavailing applications for redress, the
wanton character of some of the outrages
upon the persons! and property
of our citizens,
upon the officers and nag of
the U. States,
independent of recent insults to this govern-
ment and people f by I the late Extraordinary
Mexican ministejy would justify in the eyes
of all nations immediate war.V Ha did .not,
however, recommend an immediate resort to
s-extreme measure, which1, he declared,
should not be used by just and generous na.
tions, confi 'ing in iheir strength for. injuries
t . i M.t '
committed, if.it ban be honorably avoided
dui in a spirit, or iorDcarance, proposed nai
another demand be made on Mexico for lhat
redress which, had been so long and unjustly
wiihhelil ' In thesn vIrws -r-mittp.Wnf ih
two Houses of Congress, in" reoorts made to
their respective! bodies, concurred. I Since
these proceedings more than eight years have
ehnsed. during which, in addition to the
wrong then complained of. others, of, an ag-
a ravated character have been1 committed on
the oersoos and nronerlv of our citizens . .
A special agent was sent td Mexico. .0 the
summer of 1838. wilh full au horilv lo make
another and final demand for tedress. The
hrnmioMl In Wiir thft wrnn f whirh W
complained; and after much Delay; a treaty
of indemniif wiihlhat'viewjwasVcoiicluded
between the Uoinowers on the llthof Anril.
1839, and was dulyi ratified by both goyern-
mfnt. ; Itv iln.virrnlv w.int rnmniiMiiin was
created'to adjudicaic and decide on the claims
r k ' .i .
of American citizens on the government
Mtm. ' ' i .
exico. 1 he commission was organized at
tr V- ' Jl . .. j 5 1. 4 . ,
tvasningion on tue uinuay oi August, iov.
n.:.i:m. v. - i . L, ,,.,
,, tut-u .i u.j
. . , ; ,T. ,:, f !
catcd and decided claims amounting to two
millions twenty.six thousand one hundred and
thirty .one dollars and .sixty -eight cents in fa.
vor of citizens of the - United Siatesjagainst
tho Mexican government, leaving a urge
amount of claims undecided. Of the latter,
the American cbmmUrionershai decided 1n
favor of our citizens, claims amounting to
nine hundred and twenty-eight thousand six
hundred and twenty. seven dollars and eighty.
.rt, k:.u i.a a. kfiA
. , i. . t
umpire authorized by the treaty. SuHfurth-
erclaims. amounting to between three and
fnnr rrtininna f r?ur n nkmiii.J tn
th board too late to W considered, and were
- Utdispcrtdof,, The wra of two millions
twenty-six thousand one hupdred uad tL.ity.
nine dollars and sixty-eight cents, decided bv
the board, was a " liquidated and ascertained
debt due by Mexicj lo th claimants, and
there was nojustifiible reason for delaying;
its payment according to lhe v terms of the
treaty. Il waj not, however, paid, - Mexico
applied for further indulgence ; no 4 Q thnt
spirit of liberality and fiirbearaocc which
has ever marked the policy of the United
Stales towards that republic, the request was
granted ; and, on lhelbirficih of January,
1742, a new treaty was concluied. By this'
treat it was provided, that lhe interest due
on the awards in favor of claimants under
the convention of the .11th of April, 1839,1
should be paid on the 30ih ofApil, 1843,'
and that " the principal of the said awards,1
and the interest arising thereon, shall be paid
in five years, in equal instalments every three!
months; the said term of five years to com
mence on the 30th day of April, 1843, as
fafoxesaid." The interest due on tho 3Jih day
or April, 1843, and the three first of. ihe'
twenty instalments, have been paij. , Seven-!
teen of these instalments, remain unpaid,
seven of which are now due. j j
The cliims which were left undecided
by ihe joint commission, amounting to more!
than three millions of dollars, together with
other claims for spoliations 6n lhe property of1
our citizens, were subsequently presented lo!
the Mexican government for payment, and
were so far .recognised , tha( a treaty, jtrovid-l
ingfor their examinatiou and settlement by a
joint commission, was concluded and signed.
at Mexico on the 20tli .of Nov., 1843. fhis!
treaty was ratified by. the United States, withl
certain amendments, to which no just exeep
tion could have been taken ;! but it has not yet
recei.td the ratification of .the Mexican go.
vernment. In the meantime, oir citizens
wn suffored great losses, and some of whom
.Li' 7, . , !T . .
aYc oeen reaucea irorn attluence lo bank
ruptcy, are Iwiihout remedy, unless their
rights be enforced by their government. Such
a continued and unprovoked series of wrongs!
could never havo been tolerated by ihe Uui
ted Slates, had they been committed by one
of the principal nations of jSurope. Mexico
was however, a neighboring sister rcpublici
which, following our example, had achieved
he IT independence, and for ivhose success anci
prosperity all our sympathies - were early
enlisted. The United States wore lhe first to
recognise her independence; ahd to receive hejr
la the family of nations, and have ever been
desirous of cultivating with her a good under-
standing. Wo have, therefore, borne the re.
peated wrong3 she has committed, with great
patience, in the hope lhatja returning sense
of justice would ultimately guide her councils' ,
aIjd that xvq might,4 ( possible honorably
avoid any hostile collision with her. 1
VVithout the previousauthorily of Congress,
tfo Executive possessed no power to adopt or
enforce adequate remedies for the injuries We
had suffered, or to do more than be prepared
10 rePe! the threatened aggression on the part
t of -.Mexico, j Alter our army, and navy had
remained on the frontier and coasts of Mexico
for many weeks, without any hostile: move
ment on her part though her j menace's were
continued, ? J deemed it i important, to put an
eno, A possible, lo this state ol I lings, wun
l,"s view, I caused stcps-to be taken, in the
month of Septerr her last, to! ascertain dis
tinctiy, ana in an authentic lorm, what ihe de-
I amna tf t K Muv to n ns na iri mo n ... ivrn
whether it was their, intention to ceclare war
i. . . . t
iuu v.., . v. -.r r
posed to adjust and settle, in an amicable
manner, the pending differences : between tbe
two countries. On the 9ih o November an
official answer was received, that the Mexi-
can government consented id renew the di
P omaiic relations which had been suspended
" i March last, and for that purpose were wil
hg accredit m minister from tho United
Wllh a s,ncere idcs!re 10 preserre
Pea?e, ana restore relations p goou uuoer
standing between me iwoirepuoncs, t waiyea
a ceremon as io me i.muuer oi reuew.ug
I.J. t I . ? r .i 1
diplomatic intercourse Dpiwecnincm; ana
assuming the initiative, on lh? 10i1i of No-
Vemoer a UlSUiiguisueu ci i.cM:w. ,ou,Siu,
wa appointed Envoy tJxtraordinary . and
Minister Plenipotentiary to Mexico, clothed
wuh ,ul1 PowCrs tp.aojust, ,ana acnniiveiy
Ve ?:I Penain iiiercnccs peiwcen ie 4wu
r-u""",rai fc ...w . j
'tween Mexico and the State of; Texas.- The
r minister anpointea nas set out pn nis misstuo,
on""" -i . 'V ' .
and is probably by this lime near me Mexican
. . ,'.-.,( , ,
caDitol. , Ho has been instructed to bring the
h ; m .'t'- lif"'j
I negotiation .wiui wuicu no is tfiiargcu io u coo
' I liui,m nt tho fnrlif vtrarlin inlA nArinn
I which it is expected will be. in, time to enablo
. . - , j , ,
me to commuuiciiie uv ri-suii io voujjress uu.
ring the present session.' t UhliI that result is
known, I forbear lo recommend to Co rig res s
such ulterior, measures of redress -for the
wrongs and Injuries we have so long horne,
as it would have been proper to make had no
sucn ocgoiiauon occn insiuuieu.
. Congress appropriated, at the last session,
the sum of two hundred and seventy "five thdai
sand dollars for tho payment of the April and
July instalments of the Mexican indemnities
. . .; h(l--
for the year 1844; Provided it shall be as,
cArtalned to the satisfaction of tha America 9
government that said InsU,menSV?.
paid by tr.? wwcmi ""p' - " '
appointed by Uw United Slates l ruceiye the
amo, in -zi imnnrr as U discharge f !.
claim oa tho; Mexican government and snid
agent to bedt'linm. ;n
to the Uuiied States.1
it. ir,. - - .
The unsettled state of our relation, with
Mexico has involved this subject in much rays
tcry. The first information in auwVntle form:
from the agent of the United States, appoint-
r 'sr the admimstratiori of my prcdcccs.
s received at the Stale Department on
..-Ji oT Noyember last. This ii contained
in a letter, dated lhe 17th of Oct., addressed
by him lo one ot our citizens then in Mexico,
with the view of having it communicated to
thai department. From, this it appears thtt
the ajent, on the 20ih of S pt., 1844, gave a
receipt to the treasury of Mexico fur the
amount of the-April and July instalments of
the indemnity. In the same communication,
however, he asserts that he liad not received
r I , . i Ji"
a single dollar in cash ; but that he holds such
securities as warranted him at the lime in giv
ing lhe receipt, and entertains no doubt but
that he will eventually obtaio the mjiiey. As
thbse instalments appear never to have been
actually paid by tho government of Mexico
to tho agent, and as that government has not
therefore been released so as to discharge the
claim, I do liot feel myself warranted in di
recting pay ment to be made to the claimants
out of tho: treasury, without further legisla.
iion. Their; case is,' undoubtedly, one of
much hardship, and it remains for Congress
to decide whether any, and what, relief oughl
tube granted to them. Oar minister to Mex.
ico has been instructed 4o ascertain the facts
. I ' , I ' '.: .,,11 I", ,' , ...
of the case from lhe Mexican government, in
an authentic and official foim, and report the
result with as Utile delay ps possible. "
My attention was early directed to lhe nc
gotiaiion, which, on the 4th of March last,
I found pending at Washington between the
United Slates and Great Britain, on the sub.
jeet of the Oregon territory. Three several
attempts had been previously made to
scute. the questions in dispute between the two
countries, by negotiation, upon the principle
oi compromise; but eacli had proved unsuc
ccssful. j " ..."' y
, 'These negotiations took 'place at London,
in the years 1818, 1824, and 1826; the two
first under the administration of Mr. Monroe,
and the last under that of Mr. Adams. The
negotiation of 1818 having failed to accom
plish its object, resulted in tho convention of
the 20lh of October of that year; By the
third article of lhat convention, it was "agreed
that any country lhat may be claimed byj
either party on the northwest coast of Amer
ica, westward df the Stoney Mountains, shall,
together with its .harbors, bays, and creeks,
and the navigation of all rivers wiihin the
same, be free and open for the term of ten
years from the date of this signature of lhe
present convention, to the vessels, citizens,
and subjects of the two Pow.ers"; it being well
Understood that this agreement is not to be
construed to the prejudice of anycldim which
cither of the two high contracting parties may
have to any part of the said country, nor shall
it be taken to aflecifhe cJaims of anydlher
power or State lo any pari of the said coun
try; the only object of! the high-contracting
: parties in thai respect being, to prevent dis
putes and differences among themselves.
The negotiation of 1824 was productive
of no result, and the convention of 1818 was
The negotiation of 1823, having also fail
ed to effect .an adjustment by compromise, re
sulted in the convention . of August the sixth,
1827, by which il was agreed to continue in
force, for an indefinite period, the provisions
of the third article of the convention. of the
20ih Of October, 1818; and it was further
provided, that it shall be competent, howev-i
cr to either, of the contracting parties, in case
either should think fit, at any lime after the
20th of October, 1823, on giving due notice
of twelve months to the other contracting par
ly, to annul and abrogate this convention;
and it shall, in such case, be accordingly en
tirely annulled and abrogated after the expird-
lion of thei said term of notice.1 In these
attempts to adjust the controversy .the paral
lei of the 49ih dc-gtee of north latitude had
been offered by tho United Slates to GTeai
Britain, and io those of 1818 and 1826, with
a further concession of the free navigation
of the Columbia River south of that latitude:
TheDarallel- of the 49th degre from the-
Rocky Mountains (o its intersection with lhe
northeastern most branch of the Columbia,
and thence downihe channel of thatriv
er to! the sea, had been offered by Great
Britain, with an addition of a small dejacbed
terntory north of the 'Columbia- Each of
these; propositions had been rejected by uo
parties respectively, v .
Iooter'. 1843theEovoy Extraordina.
ryand Minister -Plenipotentiary of the Urn
Jd States in London .h9
a similar offer to those made m 1818 and
1826 Thus stood lhe question, when the ne
gotiation was shortly afterwards transferred
l0 AVVshiogton ; and, on the 23rd of August,
1841 waV formally opened, under the direc
tion of mylmmedjate p rcdecessorJ Like all
pret iou3 negotiations,'it was based upon prin
ciples of "compromise and the avowed
purpose 6f lhe parties was,
to treat of tbe
respccl;ra claims of tho two countries, ta tl.j
Orcjon territory, with tho view to cstil'!:!i.'
a. pcrin-Tircni boundary between them west
ward of the Rocky Mountains' to the Pacific
occan.n , Accordingly, on thoSGihof Au.,
1844, the ( British plenipjtentiiry.o.Tir t
cd to diviJo the . Ojegoo i territory by tha.
49ih parallel of North latitude, from lfcot
"Rocky Mountains lo lhe point of its il&rZ
scciio;i with .the n jrlhcasternmoa't bratch of
ihe Uolumbia rircr, and thence down thai nv.
erto tha sua ; leaving ihe free navigation fH
the river to.b-i enjoyed in common by both"
Parties -the country south of this line to be-V
long to the United Suies,' aud that north of J
it to Great Britain.. At tho same time ha ,
proposed, in addition, to yield to the United
Slates a detached territory, north cf lha Co.
lumbia; extending along the Pacific and t! V
Straits of Fuca, from Bulfincirs ; harbor : 'I
elusive, to H.iod's canal, and to make free to
the United Sutes any port or ports south of
latitude 49 degrees, which they mighl desire,""'
either on the main land, or on Quadra andT
Vancouver's island. With the exception of
the free ports, this was the samo. offer which
bad. been made by the "British j and rejected 4
by the American government in the negotia. ,
lion of 1820. This proposition was properly -rejected
by the American plenipotentiary oa"
the day it was submitted. This was tha only...
proposition - of compromise offered by tho
British plenipotentiary. The proposition on
the part of Gieat Britain' haying been reject- ; -ed,
the, British plenipotentiary requested that,
a proposal should be' made by the U. States
for " an cquitablo adjustment of tho oaes.-
tlon. :Kv; 'l'-- :Af: .
rWhc I came intoffice", I found this to be
thorftate of , iho .negotiation. Though enter- . ,
taining the settled conviction, that lhe British
pretensions of title could not be maintained to
any por'-iou of the Oregon territory upon any .
principle of public law recognised by nations
yet in deference tV'what iad baen done by '
my predeccssgrs, and especially in consider
ation thai propositions ''.of co.-npfomise had
bechthrico tnado bylwo preceding adminis."
trations, to adjust the question on the parallel
of 49 degrees, and In two of yielding to GreoY
Britain the ree .navigation of the Columbia,
and that the pending negotiation had . been
commenced on the basis of compromise, I
deemed it to be my duty not abruptly to break
it off. In consideration too, hat under the
conventions of 1818 and 1827; the citizens
and subjects of the two powers held a joint
occupancy of the country, I was induced to.
make another effort to settle this i long. pending
controversy in the spirit of moderation which
had given birth to the renewed discussion.
A preposition was accordingly , made which
was rejected by the' Briysh plenipotentiary;
who, without submitting any oher propoai-"
tjon, suffered the negotiation on,his part ; to
drqp, expressing hi trust that tbe U. States
would offer 'what -he saw fi; to call "some
. . , .
further "proposal for the selMe ment of the Ore
gon question, more consistent with fairness
and equity", and with.. tho reasonablt expecta
tions of the British government."
Tbe proposition thus offered and rejected
repeated lhe offeror the parallel of forty
nine dgrees of north latitude, which had been
made by two preceding administrations, ut
without proposing to surrender! to Great Bri
tain, as they had done, tlie ; free nevigatlon
of the Columbia river. 'T,he: right of any
foreign Power to the free navigation: of Jan j "
of our rivers, through the heart of our country,
was one which I was unwilling to concede It
also embraced a provision to make free to
Great Britain any port or ports pn the cap
of Quadra and Vancouver island, sduth of '
this parallel. Had this been ainew question,
coming under discussion for- the first' time,'
this proposition would. not have been made.
Thexlraordinary-and wholly inadmisablo
demands of the British 4govcrnnrent, and tho
rejection of the propdsitton made in dsferenco
alone to what had been done Jby "-y prede.
ccssors, and the implied obligation which
their acts seemed to impose, afford satisfactory
evidence thai n compromise which lhe Uni
ted States ought to accept, can be effected:
With thisconviction, the proposition of com.
promise which had been made and rejected,
was, by my direction, t subsequently with
drawn, and our title to1 the whole Oregon ,
terrif y asserted, and as is believed, main
tained by irrefragable facts and arguments."
Tbe civilized world will see . in these pro
ceedings a spirit of fiberal concession on the
. m .1 IT.. . . J f,. . ' :.- ' I S-J '
part oi me unueu o:aies ; ana this govern.
ment will be relieved from all responsibility
which may lollow the iar.urc to settle the
: All attempts at compromise having failed,
it becomes the duly of Congress to consider
what measures il may be proper to . adopt for
the security and. protection of-our: citizens,
now inhabiting,- or who may hereafter in--habit
Oregon, and for the maintenance of our
just title to that territory. In adopting meas
ures for, this purpose, care should betaken
that nothing be done to violate lhe stipulations
of Hii convention of. 1827, which is stilt in
force. ' The faith of treaties, in their letter
and spirit, haa. everbeen, and, I trust will"
everbe, scrupulously observed by the United
States 1 Under that convention, a year's notico
is required to bo given by either party to thai