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The Wolverine State Is 100 Years Old
By ELMO SCOTT WATSON
N JANUARY 26 the state of Michigan will celebrate its
Now, there may be someone who will take exception to
that statement and say: "But Michigan has already cele
brated her centennial. She did that two years ago and the
United States Post Office department, recognizing November
1, 1835, as the Wolverine state's birthday, issued a special
commemorative stamp in her honor."
All of which is perfectly true and if you look in some
reference books you'll find November 1, 1835 given as the date
of Michigan's admission to the Union. But in others you'll
also find January 26, 1837, as the date. So how can a state
have two birthdays, and which is correct ? November 1, 1835,
or January 26, 1837?
The answer is that both of them are more or less correct,
but that the latter has the better claim to being the real birth
day. And thereby hangs the tale of the paradoxical position
in which the state of Michigan found itself a century ago. For
at that time it had passed the territorial $tege, bad a regu
larly organized state government and was in the United States,
but it was neither territory nor state of the United States.
one hundredth birthday.
To get at the origins or an '
this situation it is necessary to
go back to the year 1755 when
Michigan was still a part of the
empire of His Brittanic Majesty,
King George III of England. In
that year one John Mitchell, an
English physician and scientist,
published in London a great map
of America In eight large sheets.
This map was accepted as the
-- ? * 1
basis (or determining the bounda
ries from that time until after the
treaty of peace which ended the
Revolution. Mitchell's idea of the
lay of the land in the Old North
west was rather hazy, so there
were a number of errors in his
map. Some of these were fortu
nate for the United States, for
they enabled the new nation to
lay claim to more land than it
would have obtained if the map
had been correct.
Mitchell made the mistake of
charting the foot of Lake Michi
gan in latitude 41 degrees, 20
minutes, instead of 41 degrees,
17 minutes. His map was used
as a guide in 1787 when congress
adopted an ordinance for the gov
ernment of the Northwest Terri
tory, including the present states
of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illi
nois, and Wisconsin. The ordi
nance provided that two of the
five states should lie "north of an
east and west line drawn through
the southern bend or extreme of
Lake Michigan." The preamble
of the ordinance also stated that
its articles should "forever re
main unalterable unless by com
In 1800 Ohio was set off from
the Northwest Territory, includ
ing the eastern portion of Michi
gan, but in 1802 the whole of the
Lower Peninsula was annexed to
the Territory of Indiana. In that
year also congress authorized the
people of Ohio to form a state
government for entrance into the
Union. Accordingly a conven
tion was held to draw up a con
stitution. A trapper told the
delegates that th* actual foot of
Lake Michigan was some dis
tance south of the point shown on
Mitchell's map. So the canny
Buckeyes, determined to get all
that was coming to them, stipu
lated that if the east and west
line laid down by congress should
fall so far south as to miss Lake
Erie, Ohio would then claim all
territory to the northernmost
cape of Miami bay.
On June 30, 1809, Michigan was
set off as a separate -territory,
with substantially its present lim
its, and Gen. William Hull was
appointed its first territorial gov
ernor. Hull is chiefly remem
bered because of his surrender of
Detroit to the British at the out
break of the War of 1812 when
he gave up that strategic post
without making any attempt to
defend it. He was succeeded the
following year as governor by
Lewis Cass, one of the most re
markable figures in American
history. (Because of his impor
tance in the history of Michigan
he will be considered at more
length later in this article).
A Yeathfal Governor.
Cass served as governor until
1811 when he was succeeded by
George Bryan Porter who died
In July, ltM. Serving as aecre
tary of the territory under Porter
was a nineteen-year-old Virgin
ian named Stevens Thomson Ma
son. He had come to Michigan
from Kentucky and after Por
ter's death he was made acting
governor. As such he played a
leading role in the exciting but
bloodless "Toledo war."
But before beginning the story
of that affair, it is necessary to
cut back briefly to 1805 when
Michigan was made a territory.
The act of congress creating the
Territory of Michigan fixed the
southern boundary as provided in
the ordinance of 1787. The re
sult was that the new teiritory
claimed a strip of land some
five or six miles wide across the
entire southern side of Lake
Erie, including the port of To
ledo. "But," retorted the Buck
eyes, "that's our land. We laid
claim to it three years ago and
we intend to have it." So there
was an acrid dispute which
dragged along unsettled for 30
By 1835 Michigan was ready to
become a state and sought to en
force its claim on the Lake Erie
strip. But Ohio had its Miami
and Erie canal system under
construction and wanted an out
let for it in Toledo. Mason, the
youthful governor of Michigan,
denounced this "Ohio steal" and
the people of his state backed
him up in his determination to
assert Michigan's claim to the
Lake Erie strip. In March, 1835,
he rushed a thousand Michigan
militiamen into Toledo, resolved
to hold it against the Buckeyes
at all costs.
At the same time Gov. Robert
Lucas of Ohio called out his mi
CASS CLIFF MEMORIAL
On Mackinac Island
litia and marched to Perrysburg
with 600 of them to protect the
Ohio aurveyors who were running
? northern boundary line ? far
enough north to include Toledo.
Moreover, the Ohio legislature
.formed a county out of the dis
puted territory, including Toledo,
and gave it the name of Lucas
in honor of their governor.
An Early "Night Court."
When the Michigan militia
forcibly ejected the Ohio survey
ors, it was up to Lucas to assert
not only military but judicial sov
ereignty over this region. He
began issuing commissions to
county officers and at midnight
one night, while the Michigan de
fenders of Toledo slept, a group
of Buckeyes stole into the town
with law books and judicial pa
pers and hurriedly went through
the formalities of "holding
court." Having done this, they
raced their horses back to the
protection of the Ohio troops.
Michigan's retort to such actions
was to catch and imprison every
inhabitant of the disputed terri
tory who accepted a commission
from Governor Lucas or other
wise indicated allegiance to Ohio.
Next the Ohio legislature in
special session appropriated
$900,000 and authorized its fight
ing governor to borrow $100,000
more to matntate Ohio's juried ic
JOHN MITCHELL'S 1755 MAP OF THE OLD NORTHWEST
tion over the Lake Erie strip.
The Ohio adjutant general re
ported to Lucas that 10,000 mili
tia were ready to march and
drive the Michiganders out of Lu
cas county where flghts between
the rival factions were occurring
As the situation became in
creasingly critical the federal
government began to take notice.
President Andrew Jackson re
quested both sides to declare a
truce until congress could settle
the dispute. That was perfectly
satisfactory to the Buckeyes, for
they knew that the President was
on their side in the matter. In
congress Illinois and Indiana
lined up with Ohio and her cause
was further aided in August,
1835, when Governor Mason was
removed from office for his war
like activities. General Brown
then disbanded the Michigan
troops and the "Toledo war" was
While it was in progress Mich
igan had begun its long struggle
for statehood. In January, 1835,
the territorial legislature had
passed an act enabling the peo
ple of Michigan to form a gov
ernment and draw up a consti
tution. By a census taken the
Previous year there were some
87,000 residents in Michigan, 27,
9^0 "10re than the minimum of
60,000 demanded by congress. A
constitutional convention was
held on May 11 and not only was
a constitution drawn up but an
election of state officers, mem
bers to the legislature and rep
resentatives to congress was
planned for the first Monday in
Congress was unwilling to ac
cept Michigan's bid for statehood
because of the southern bound
ary described in the state consti
tution; because the election of
1836 was at hand and the ad
ministration was afraid of losing
the important blo?<of electoral
votes from Ohio, Indiana and Il
linois if the Michigan boundaries
wer* accepted ; and because the
admittance of Michigan would
upset the equilibrium of pro and
At the state election former
Governor Mason, more popular
than ever because of his activity
around Toledo, was elected gov
ernor and during the first three
days of November, 1835, a de
facto state was organized. Mich
igan s representative and her two
senators were refused their seats
in congress, although Senator
Thomas Benton of Missouri
championed the cause of the
Wolverines in reporting the sen
ate bill for admission.
For more than a year the wordy
battle and the parliamentary
struggle had continued. All this
time Michigan existed in the em
barrassing position of being a
government within the bounda
ries of the United States and yet
not a part of the Union.
Victory at Last.
Finally congress proposed a
compromise. Ohio was to get
the disputed seven-mile-wide
?trip and in return Michigan
w-as given the upper peninsula,
although the east end of the pe
ninsula had always been Michi
gan's. In this trade Michigan
gained the Lake Superior copper
district, although its true value
was not known for some time.
Arkansas having been admitted
to the Union, the slave states no
longer opposed Michigan's en
trance and on January 16. 1837
the Wolverine state was fbrmallV
T admitted into the Union.
? ? ?
Earlier in this article reference
was made to the importance of
one man in the history of the
?tate which is celebrating its one
hundredth birthday on Janu.?
16. Although Lewis Cass did not
play any direct part in the stru*
bad it not been for hit earlier
activities there might not have
been a commonwealth of Michi
gan, or, at least, its entrance
into the sisterhood of states
might have been delayed even
Cass was born in New Hamp
shire in 1782 and at an early
age joined his father in Ohio
where the elder Cass, a major in
the army, was commandant at
Fort Hamilton. Young Cass stud
ied law, began his practice at
Zanesville in 1<}02 and at the age
of twenty-five was elected to the
Ohio volunteers, then a colonel
in the regular army and as a
brigadier - general fought under
Harrison at the Battle of the
Thames where the great Indian
chief, Tecumseh, was killed.
Cass' Long Service.
A few weeks later General
Cass was appointed governor of
the Territory of Michigan and
with the exception of a few oc
casional absences he lived in that
territory for the next 18 years.
He was also ex officio superin
tendent of Indian affairs and
concerning his work in that ca
pacity one biographer has de
"It is no exaggeration to say
that to his exertions and influ
ence is due the actual posses
sion of the Old Northwest. He
negotiated a score of treaties
of great importance, traveled
through the wilderness study
ing how he could civilize the
red man and how he might
open up the vast western re
gion to peaceful settlement. He
started surveys, built roads
and military works, lighthouses
along the lake shore, arranged
counties and townships, started
the democratic machinery of
self-government, and made the
laws, which were codified and
published and have since been
known as the Cass code. The
record of his management of
the Indian affairs is one al
most without parallel in the
history of the United States."
In 1831 Cass was appointed
secretary of war in Jackson's
cabinet and served there until
1836 when he was made ambas
sador to France. He resigned in
1842 because he disapproved of
the Webster - Ashburton treaty,
which fixed the boundary line be
tween Canada and Maine and
which gave England the better
military frontier. Returning to
Michigan Cass was elected to
the United States senate in 1845
and served until 1857, except for
a brief period in 1848 while he
was the Democratic nominee for
the Presidency but was defeated
by Gen. Zachary Taylor. In 1852
he lost the Democratic nomina
tion to Franklin Pierce and in
1857 he was appointed secretary
of state by President Buchanan,
but resicned in 1800 because of
Buchanan's refusal to strengthen
the forts in Charleston harbor.
Although Cass was sympathetic
to the South until the time of
secession he became one of Lin
coln's staunch est supporters dur
ing the Ciril war. He died in
Detroit in 1866.
By REV. HAROLD L. LUNDULIST,
Dean of the Moody Bible Institute
? Western Newspaper Union.
Lesson for January 24
TWO MIRACLES OF MERC*
lesson TEXT? John 5:2-?; ^ , J
golden TEXT-The lame ' worka *
do. bear wltnew o I roe. that the ratner
TOPIC-A Bo, Who G.v. Awar
n^^D.ATE AND SENIOR TOPIC
The Significance o< Chriaf. Miraclea.
The world is looking tor super
men. those who can work
cles " and thus aflord an easy solu
tion' tortiie problem, of the home
and of the nation. Men are ready
to marvel at and follow in
abject submission those who prom
ise riches without labor ^
out toU, short cuts to comfort and
satisfaction. Often they are con
tent if they only have something
over which they may
"Wonderfull" whether it be use
fUThe miracles of God, through his
servants and the Lord Je^ Christ,
are not mere marvels or
They are not for the advancement
of the cause of any man ?r fo
personal glory. They are the mighty
signs of an omnipotent God wrought
tofSie good of men, for ^spir
itual enUghtenment and as a test
monv to the one true God
The two miracles of our lesson
present Jesus Christ as a Lord of
mercy and grace? ready to meet
the needs of men. Deep and real
was his compassion as his heart
yearned over needy humanity
It is suggested that in the study
and teaching of this lesson we vary
our plan somewhat and present sev
en seed thoughts found in the two
portions assigned. It is
that the context in both chapters be
read with care.
I. We Are Impotent Folk (John
The words well describe not only
those who lay helpless about the
pool of Bethesda but they fit us as
well. Oh, yes, we are strong, capa
ble, fearless, but only until we meet
some great elemental Pr?b*el";
Then we see that we
"a great multitude of Impotent
folk." The gently falling snow
stopped the undefeated Napoleon.
The silent fog can paralyze a na
tion. Death, sickness? who can stay
their hand? . ? , -v
U. Despair Spells Defeat (v. 7).
Long familiarity with his weak
ness had bred in the man with the
infirmity a sense of despair. Such
an attitude invites defeat. It is
unbecoming to a Christian. Let us
not forget in the darkest hour to
"keep looking up."
XII. God Answers the Weakest
Faith (v. 8)r
Jesus evidently saw in the man s
despairing reply a spark of faith.
He who believes honors the name of
God. We may need to cry I be
lieve, help thou mine unbelief, but
if we believe God will gloriously
meet even our faltering faith.
IV. God's Command Empowers
(w. 8, 9). ,
Jesus told the man to "Rise? and
walk"? the very thing he could not
do for his thirty-eight years of life.
But when the Son of God speaks to
us he gives the power to respond to
V. Works Follow Faith (v. 9).
The man arose, took up his bed,
and wilked. Man's faith m God
and God's response to faith lead
to man's action on God s command.
Too many are they in the church
today who have never stood up and
walked for God.
VI. Look to God, Not at Tour Re
sources (John 6:9).
Humanlike, the disciples counted
their money and found it was not
enough to supply food for a multi
tude. And then there was a boy,
but he had only five barley crackers
and two little fish. It almost sounds
like a church-board deciding to
close the cross-roads church and
let the Devil have the boys and
girls, because it costs too much to
keep up the work. God help us to
trust and go on for him. Little
is much when God is in it.
VII. Followers for Bread Not
Wanted (v. 15).
Those who follow Christ because
of business advantage and social
prestige know nothing of what it
means to be a Christian. He is not
a bread - making king; he is the
bread of life.
Essence of Prayer
Prayer in its essence is not so
much the expression of our desire
for things at all as of our desire
for God Himself.
Discourtesy occasions not merely
suffering, but sin; and Christian
courtesy is a "means of grace" to
all who have the happiness to re
ceive it. ? R. W. Dale.
The Day's Work
Let us make haste to live. Tot
every day is ? new life to a wise
Grterteftsr Waited Ttasa
He who knows most, grieves moat
lor wasted time.? Dante.
Offers New Opportunities
THE modern woman who saws
1 is really an enviable person.
She has at her finger-tips an end
less array of fashions from which
to choose for her own and her
daughters' wardrobes. Today's
trio affords her new opportunities
in several size ranges; in fact,
there's something here for the
mature figure, size 42, right on
down to the tiny tot who just
manages to fill "age 4."
Pattern 1987 ? This diminutive
frock is for Miss Four - To
Twelve. Its easy lines, flaring
skirt, and pretty sleeves are per
haps second only to its thru'-the
machine-aptness, so far as the
woman who sews is concerned.
But this is all too obvious to
mention. Better cut this pattern
twice for all 'round practical rea
sons. It's intriguing in taffeta? a
winner in gingham and linen. It
comes in sizes 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12
years. Size 6 requires 1% yards
of 39 inch material plus % yard
Pattern 1211 ? It is a smart
frock like this that will turn the
most immune young lady into an
ardent seamstress almost over
night. And rightly so, for it's plain
to see how becoming are its prin
cess lines, how flattering the
wide shoulders and slim waist,
yes, and how spicy the swing
skirt. A pretty and colorful motif
can be had in the use of velvet
for the buttons and belt. Mono
tone broadcloth, black or royal
blue, with the collar and cuffs of
white linen, is a startlingly chic
material for this model. It is
available in sizes 12 to 20 (30 to
40 bust). Size 14 requires 2%
yards of 54 inch fabric plus %
yard of 39 inch contrasting.
Pattern 1210 ? Which would you
have, Madam, an artistic smock
or a glamorous house coat? This
pattern allows you to make this
Ask Me Another
# A General Quiz
? Ben Syndicate. ? WNU Serrice.
1. Into what stream lid Achillea'
mother plunge him?
2. What was meant by an "India
3. Of what joint is the patella a
4. What is a biconvex lens?
5. What is a dormant partner?
6. Where is Dartmoor prison?
7. What country was sometimes
referred to as the "Celestial
8. What was a satrap?
9. Which is the "Bayou State"?
10. In what Dickens novel doea
11. Who wrote "Miss Pinker
12. What ia a ship's log?
1. The Styx.
2. A large ship in the Indian
2. The knee.
4. One rounded on both a idea.
5. One who auppliea capital but
takes no part in managing busi
f. In Devonshire.
?. A military governor.
10. "Oliver Twtot"
U. Ma ry Roberta RineharL Z
IS. Its daily record.
interesting choice and it has what
you'll need to make either of the
models illustrated here. The
house coat has become woman
kind's most desired "at home"
attire; so rather than be among
the minority, why not turn your
talents to this princess model ?
you'll have it complete in a mere
few hours and think of the count
less days it will stand you in
good stead as a really good look
ing wardrobe asset. It is designed
in sizes 14 to 20 (32 to 42 bust).
Size 16 (in full length) requires
5% yards of 39 inch material plus
3V? yards of bias piping and %
yard contrasting material for
Send your order to The Sew
ing Circle Pattern Dept., 247 W.
Forty - third street, New York,
N. Y. Price of patterns, IS cents
(in coins) each.
e Bell Syndicate. ? WNU Service.
Robbing your eye* grinds invisible particle* of
dust and dirt risht into the delicate rtwii.
tasking the irritation just that much worse. A
much better way, as thousands have discovered,
it to use a little Murine in each eye? night and
morning* Murine may be depended an to re
lieve eye irritation because it is a reliable eye
preparation containing 7 active ingredients of
known value in caring far the eyes. In use far
40 years. Ask for Murine at your drug store.
Each Soul a Universe
Every soul is a universe in it
self; and no two souls are alike.
A Three Days' Cough
Is Your Danger Signal
No matter how many medicines
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Serious trouble may be brewing and
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?with anything less than Creomul
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of the trouble to aid nature to
soothe and heal the Inflamed mem
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Is loosened and expelled.
Even If other remedies have
failed, dont be discouraged, your
druggist Is authorized to guarantee
Creomulslon and to refund your
money If you an not satisfied with
results from the very first bottle.
Get Creomulslon tight now. (AdvJ
A FARMER ROY
ANE of ths best known
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U. S. was tbe late Dr. ft.
V. Pierca of Buffalo, N.
Y., who was bom on ft
farm in Pa. Dr. Pierce's
Favorite Prescription has
for nearly 70
heat flashes. By 1 -
thta topic help, to apbaOd 0*1
Km Irani*. No a*, tal?, 50c, 1
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wnnonc single gppiwrfvw
bu et_ K.T. atr.
?ado* to acid, apart atamack.
Milawm mien (the orif
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ttanach sad |in Mcaaq r
diaiiaatiaa. Each wafer