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The Alamance gleaner. (Graham, Alamance County, N.C.) 1875-1963, February 01, 1945, Image 1

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The Alamance Gleaner 1 Vol LXX GRAHAM, N. C., THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1945 Not 52 f ? ^^^^Ml WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS Germans Strive to Check Great Russian Break-Through in East; Congress Ponders Labor Draft ?Released by Western Newspaper Union. ???J (EDITOR'S NOTE: When opinions are expressed in these columns, they are those of Western Newspaper Union's news analysts and not necessarily of this newspaper.) Evidencing cooperation given Tank forces in Philippines, native vol unteers information of enemy activity on Mindoro island. PACIFIC: Advance Inland Moving deeper inland down the great central Luzon plain to Manila, with elements probing into the moun tains on either side to secure their ? flanks; Americans of the 6th army under Gen. Walter Krueger pro ceeded with caution as the Japs held back on committing their major forces to the battle. At the same time, U. S. carrier planes ranged far to the west to strike at enemy sources of supply and reinforcements along the south China coast, and U. S. army airmen swept up and down Luzon hammer ing at communications lines and air dromes harboring the remnants of the Japs' air force. Strongest opposition to the U. S. drive was encountered in the moun tainous terrain on the east flank, where the Japs fought back hard from caves and entrenchments in an effort to hold open the country to the north of them. NATION'S CUPBOARD: Well Stocked With larger supplies in some foods offsetting smaller stocks in others, civilians should eat as much during the first three months of 1945 as during the preceding three months, the War Food administration said. In comparison, .the WFA said, more milk, eggs, cheese and citrus fruits will be available for civilians, i ? : 1 Reflecting prospects for a long er European war than anticipat ed. last fall, farm production goals for 1945 were upped upon the War Food administration's recommendation for more milk, hogs and beef, and dry beans, potatoes, tobacco, flaxseed, sug ar beets and clover seeds. but less meat, chicken, fats, oils, but ter, canned fruits and vegetables, potatoes, sugar and dry beans. For 1945 as a whole, the WFA de clared, civilian supplies will be ? smaller than 1944, but slightly larger than the 1935-'39 average. More milk, eggs, meat, chicken, fresh vegetables and fruits, lard, margarine, syrups, honey and cereal . products will be available than be fore the war, but less butter, sugar, dry beans, canned fruits and juices, evaporated milk and canned fish. LABOR OR AFT: Posh Bill Spurred on by the President's in sistence, congress gave increased at tention to Rep. Andrew May's modi fied labor draft bill, prohibiting men between 18 and 45 from leaving es sential work without their local Se lective Service board's permission, or compelling them to accept jobs designated by such boards. With the afmy calling for younger men for replacements, War Mobiliz er Byrnes outlined procedure for the induction of registrants in the 28 to 29 group, with less important employees in essential and so-called critical war industries to be called up before key men. Probably half of the present 365,000 deferred farm workers between 18 and 25 now be ing examined prior to review of their cases can expect to be inducted, Draft Director Hershey said. While the President said some sort of national service ?act was neces sary to channel workers into neces sary jobs, representatives of both la bor and industry told congress that the present comparatively small manpower shortage could be best met by voluntary recruiting. EUROPE: 'Greatest Offensive' Their lines shattered and their border lands imperilled by what was described as the greatest offensive in history, Germany's armies of the east fell back for a feverish reor ganization in an effort to stem the Russian tide that threatened to roll right on to Berlin. Although the Russians plunged forward all along the sprawling Polish plains, the drive of their First Ukrainian army under Marshal Konev on the rich industrial prov ince of Silesia to the southwest con stituted the greatest immediate dan ger to the Germans, with the enemy frankly admitting its loss would seri ously impair their ability to continue the war. In an effort to shore up the Russian advance there, Heinrich Himmler's home army was called into action under a hail of aerial and artillery bombardment. To the north of this sector below Warsaw, the First White Russian army of Marshal Zhukov speared westward toward Pomerania, and also threw one wing southward in a move designed to hook up with the First Ukranian force and trap Ger Leaders In the treat Russian offensive In clude (left to right) Marshals Zbukov, Konev and Rokossovsky. man units in a huge pocket. As these two drives developed, Mar shal Rokossovky's Second and Gen eral Cherniakvsky's Third White Russian armies squeezed East Prus sia from the north and south. Nazis Outnumbered Frankly admitting the gravity of their situation, the Germans re ported the withdrawal of their forces to the west, and the hus banding of their reserves for coun ter-action if the rapidity of the Rus sian advance should result in the spreading of their strength. Because of the numerical superiority of the Russians, it was said, it was im possible to stop the Reds' advance by attempting frontal resistance on the open plains along the whole line. Yanks Regain Initiative As the Russian fighting developed, the Nazis looked with apprehension to the west, where they feared an other all-out thrust against the Rhineland. Regaining their balance after the German break-through of a month ago. Allied forces were back knock ing against the Nazi frontier, with the British Second army punching toward the Roer river along a broad front, and the U. S. First and Third armies whittling down the remains of the big bulge. As the First and Third armies hacked off the shoulders of the bulge, they encountered stubborn rear-guard action as Von Rundstedt sought to pull his prize troops back into the Siegfried line. While British and American forces exploited their initiative to the north, the Germans maintained pressure on the lower Alsatian plains, throwing in tanks and in fantry to hold the positions gained in limited offensives while main Al lied power was diverted to Belgium. LEND-LEASE: Food Shipments Showing a 4 billion pound drop un der 1943, lend-lease food and agricul tural products shipments during 1944 totalled over 7 billion pounds, with meats, dairy items and grain cereals composing the bulk of de liveries. Of meat lend-leased, 708,627,733 pounds were cured, smoked and frozen pork products; 65,238,418 pounds of frozen pork loins; 60, 762,243 pounds of lamb and mutton; 23,285,892 pounds of frozen veal, and 16,101,290 pounds of frozen beef. Of dairy products, 280,845,699 pounds of cheese were delivered, 23,886,449 pounds of butter, and 17,860,503 pounds of butter oil. Other food and agricultural prod ucts lend-leased included 543,930,297 pounds of granulated sugar; 44,041, 306 pounds of canned peas; 41,424, 897 pounds of canned peaches; 28, 059,988- pounds of canned green beans; 24,650,997 pounds of canned tomatoes; 21,868,310 pounds of soap, and 20,195,112 pounds of canned pineapple. SYNTHETIC RUBBER: 1944 Production Built up almost overnight as a re sult of the severance of the nation's imports of crude rubber from the far east following the Japs' early conquests, the U. S.'s 700 million dollar synthetic rubber industry produced 763,000 long tons (of 2,240 pounds) last year. Declaring that synthetic produc tion can be boosted to 1,000,000 tons if necessary. Secretary of Com merce Jesse Jones said that the 1944 output was equal to the na tion's annual peacetime rubber needs. Because 60 per cent of the rub ber was made from alcohol instead of petroleum, Jones said, production costs of the synthetic averaged 33 cents a pound, compared with about 19 cents for the crude. Celebrities Stricken On the same day, in mid-month, death came to three of the nation's celebrated figures: In Meriden, Conn., 50-year-old Francis T. Moloney (DemJ succumbed to a heart attack. Left to support four brothers and sisters at the age of 12, Moloney worked up to the senate from newspaper reporter, mayor of Meriden and congressman. In Washington, D. C., to attend the Pres idents inauguration, 57-year-old George D. Crowley, vice chairman of the division of finance of the Democratic National com mittee, and one of the founders of the 1,000 club during the recent campaign, died of heart trouble. A prominent Chicago insur ance man and financier, Crowley was the son of an assistant secretary of the treas ury under President Cleveland. Creator of the famed "Frank MerriwelT* fiction character, whose amazing exploits thrilled millions of readers, 78-year-old Gilbert Patten, who wrote under the name of Burt L. Standish, passed away in San Diego, Calif. Patten, who ran away from home at 16 because he didn't like school, wrote a 20,000-word adventure novel every week for 18 years, and was estimated to have written 40j000fi00 words in his life time. BASEBALL: Gets FDR's Nod With the game having been given presidential approval provided it did not interfere with the conduct of the war, major league baseball mag nates began laying plans for the 1945 season, with their chief concern being to scrape together teams from the dwindling manpower pool. Although the clubs were expected to rely again on discharged or re jected army personnel, their plans were complicated by recent govern ment regulations calling for re-ex amination of 4-Fs and work or fight orders to men under 38. Some of these men, however, intend to enter essential industry and arrange for playing ball on the outside. Because of the need for person nel, "... kids about 17 . . . will have a wonderful opportunity to play in the big leagues," said Clark Griffith, owner of the Washington Senators. U. S. NAVY: Greater Firepower Its firepower increased five times since July, 1940, combatant ships, j auxiliaries and coast guard vessels of the U. S. navy can now hurl 2,000 tons of steel in a 15 second fir ing run, the equivalent of 50 freight carloads of steel. Packing a wallop 92 per cent greater than the pre-Pearl Harbor battleship, Texas, the modern Iowa is armed with nine six-inch guns mounted in threes, twenty five-inch double purpose guns in twos, and many smaller anti-aircraft guns. Possessing 123 per cent more fire power than the 1930 heavy Pensa cola, the modern Baltimore carries nine eight-inch guns in threes, twelve five-inch anti-aircraft guns in pairs, and numerous smaller anti aircraft weapons. Lint From a Blue Serge Suit: Mr. I. Hoffman (the New York branch ot the Hollywood Reporter) recalled the most costly comma in U. S. history. . . . Many years ago a tariff bill listed articles that were to be admitted free. One item was "all foreign fruit-plants." . . . But a careless clerk replaced the hyphen with a comma. ... It caused or anges, lemons, bananas, grapes and other imported fruits to be ad mitted to the U. S. free of duty. . . . It cost the government an esti mated million dollars plus. A concrete example of journalis tic jiu-jitsu (being thrown for the count) was the story which said that Dick Merrill, the famed transatlan- ' tic flier, had broken another record ?flying from Seattle to Washington in six hours and three minutes. . . . The story was wired from the Cap ital by one of the news services. . . . One night later we grabbed Dick's paw and shook it hard as we con {ratulated him. ... "I don't know what it's about," he said. "I just came in from Africa. How could such a story that never happened get started?" me icrnoie crasn or tne oia umna Clipper at Trinidad reminded us of the flight we made from Natal to the U. S. . . . The Boeing circled over Port of Spain for more than an hour ?waiting, we learned, for the man in charge of the field lights to wake up?and turn them on. . . . The law there at the time, it appears, pro hibited plane landings at night. . . . When the China Clipper crashed it was the first time Trinidad permit ted planes to land at night. The author of "Argentine Diary" (Ray Josephs) has an exciting re port in Cosmopolitan. It is the first full-length article on Evita (Little I Eva) Duarte, the girl "behind the Colonels' clique in Argentina." . . . We wrote about her activities here last June?the first story to appear in the U. S. about her influence in Argentina. . . . Little Eva, we said, a one-time playboys' gal-pal, worked herself up, colonel by colonel, to a top spot in the leading Fascist re gime in the Americas. . . . Josephs' Cosmo piece is called "Under Cov er Girl," and you'll know why when you read it. . . . His story, he tells us, was inspired by the item here about her, and that is why the edi tors bought it. . . . Two major movie studios are interested, too, reports the author. . . . Thus a columnar item has bloomed. ' Things like this are making Sec'y of State-tinlos a very re spected gent around Washington. . . . The other day he invited Sec'y of Interior Ickes and his staff to meet with the State Dep't at a private dinner. . . . Mr. Ickes was asked to make a complete criticism of the State Dep't. . . . The idea was to achieve better teamwork. . . . Ickes let them have a blistering attack, and plenty of State Dep't ears sizzled. . . . But the confab achieved its unique-purpose. . .. It put the State Dep't lads on friendly, human relations with the Ickes bunch for the first time in a dozen years. Add fine screen playing: Mark Daniels in the "Winged Victory" hit. ... In mid-December the col'm pre dicted that another strike would break out at Wright's in New Jer sey. The workers there wish it em phasized that they won't strike and intend to vote for the continuation of the no-strike pledge. A Broadway playgirl was tipped to a sure-thing four days before Tropical Park shuttered. She plunged on the horse for a $10,000 killing. . . . But the bookie, with no future in racetrack gambling, welshed to the coast. Her boy friend happens to be one of the East's toughest sportsmen. Not a new way of committing suicide, at all. A Gilmore hateheek gal got a $100 tip from a fellow, who returned two hours later and said it was a mis take, demanding it back. He gave her $1 instead. Not a bad tip, at that. . . . Havana is "dead"?prac tically no tourists. But Cuba has great prosperity, wages are higher than ever. The Cuban capital is guarded by machine gunners, ditto the Presidential Palace. .. . Groaned one wealthy Cuban planter: "You people insist on giving our people milk and ice cream 1 They hate itl" ... Isn't it true you are richer than ever?'' he was asked "No," he said, "I used to make $900,000 a , month. Now it takes three months ' to make that!" Federal Plan to Tame Missouri River After War Will Benefit 11 Million People Living in Its Basin 1 Dams Curb Erosion, Provide Irrigation, Electric Service By WALTER SHEAD * WNU WaiklaiUl Harnessing the nation's sec ond mightiest river, the turbu lent, muddy Missouri, which annually roars its flood crests along its twisting course lor 2,460 miles through seven states, will become one of the major postwar projects. More than 11 million people live in this great basin of a half billion acres, comprising one-sixth of the area of the United States. For more than 30 years feeble at tempts have been made to shackle the destructive power of the Mis souri. Millions of dollars have been expended in levees and dams in at tempts to prevent the costly floods which annually destroy vast sums in crops and property. Damage of the 1943 floods alone was placed at $35,000,000. Army engineers and the bureau of reclamation of the interior depart ment have been for some time at cross-purposes in the development of a comprehensive plan. The army approached the job from the stand point of navigation and flood con trol. The reclamation engineers were interested also in irrigation, erosion control and power projects. On November 27, 1944, a recon ciliation report was filed in which the two agencies were in complete accord and the congress in its flood control bill accepted the entire pro gram and also authorized $200,000, 000 each to the army and the TOO MUCH WATER?The rim pa(lng Missouri river is eroding millions of tons of good soil sway every year. Here the flood waters carved into the bank, washing oat a road, and leaving a pillar of earth to indicate the earlier line. bureau of reclamation to get the program underway. President Roosevelt signed the bill on December 23, but put a hiatus in the proceedings by recommend ing the creation of a Missouri Val ley authority to handle the project and asserting that his approval of the bill was with the distinct under standing thai it would in no way i jeopardize the creation of such an agency. He appealed for early con sideration of the new authority by the 79th congress. The President further asserted: "I consider the projects authorized by the bill to be primarily for post war construction." Only Bine-Print Now. Hence, the project is now merely in the blue-print stage and it is pos sible that a fight may develop in the new congress over whether there shall be divided responsibility as to the army and the reclamation bureau, or whether a new Missouri valley authority shall be created. Proponents of single regional con trol point to the Tennessee Valley authority and its successful opera tion as a yardstick for future fed eral policy in developing and con trolling all the nation's waterways. However, there are powerful inter-' ests which oppose the creation of these regional authorities, such as the power utility interests, the rail roads, the national rivers and har bors congress, the Mississippi Val < ley association, and even divided public opinion along the waterway. The rule of thumb, for instance, of the TVA la that regional authority will produce the largest possible I benefits at the least possible costs, Iand "each task must be carried out in such a way as to contribute to the total result to salvage every possible benefit and the ultimate goal should be the greatest procura ble economic returns and human benefits for the entire region." Arguments on Role. Even agricultural interests are di vided on the pros and cons of re gional authorities as opposed to op eration by established federal agen cies. For instance, in agricultural sections where there is plentiful rainfall along the lower Missouri and water resources are adequate, opposition is voiced as "subsidized competition" by the extension of ir rigation. Public opinion is joined in industrial areas with the railroads in opposing the development of new competing waterways. One basic objection to operation by the reclamation bureau has come from large land owners and ranchers of the west and north west. Under the law governing the bureau of reclamation, this agency cannot propose irrigation for more than 160 acres of land for any one person. Another objection is that all reclamation projects must be self-liquidating over a period of ap proximately 40 years. In contrast, the statutes governing TV A give 60 years or more for liquidation and a regional authority likely would not be hamstrung by the limitation of acreage proviso. In a recent pronouncement how ever, Harry W. Bashore, commis sioner of the reclamation bureau said: "We continue to stand on the basic policy that the bureau will support the principle of relatively small family farms as one of the foundations of American agriculture and rural sociaUlife. On new land which is brought under irrigation for the first time, we shall insist that the undeveloped property be parcelled in lots of not more than 160 acres." Forma Shrink in Size. During the paat 20 years the aver age size farm or ranch in the states of the Missouri basin have in creased, rather than diminished in size, due largely to the decrease in population. For instance, in 1920, the average size farm in Montana was 480 acres, in Wyoming was 749 acres and in Nebraska it was 339 acres. By 1940 the farms had increased to 821 acres, 1,866 acres and 391 acres, respectively. Dust bowls, droughts, floods have driven farmers and ranchers from the plains states during the past decade. Net loss of population in the period from 1930 to 1940 in the seven plains states was 302,314. In the Missouri-Souris area of North Dakota, a strictly rural farm area, 28.7 per cent of the population moved out, equal to 1,000 families of Ave each. The financial loss en ' tailed by this shift of population in at least four of these states is reflected in abandoned farms, aban doned towns and unused proper ties. It is further reflected in in crease of size and congestion in the three larger cities of the basin, Den ver, Omaha and Kansas City. These Benefits Expected. The agreed plan of the reclama tion bureau and the army engineers is intended to do these things: 1?Provide navigation and flood control en the river from Its month to Sioux City, a distance of abont 769 miles, by construction of levees and revetments to provide a chan nel 6 feet deep and 360 feet wide. 2?Construct 89 reservoirs and dams with a combined capacity ef 45,790,000 acre feet of water. (An acre-foot is water a foot deep over one acre.) This is more than the aanaal average flow of the river at its month. These reservoirs are to be constructed to withhold water along the main tributaries Including the Yellowstone, the Big Born, the Belle Fourehe, the Cheyenae, the North Platte, the RepobHean, the Smoky Bin and along the mate stream. 8?Irrigation at t,7fll,40t acres at new land and famishing ?appl? mental water to Ml,Ml aiMttlut ' acres to increase crop raises ap proximately $llt,MC,MC aanaally on 53,MS farms of a bent N acres each. 4?To Increase the pnpslattos si the Basin by about CM.MC from irri gation development alone. 5?To increase the assessed Tarn ation of properties approximate ly KM,MS,MS. 4?To furnish adequate and safe water supply and sewage facilities for IS cities and towns slang the river. T?To construct 17 hydroelectric plants which will provide iJN,Nlc 000 kilowatt boors of electricity to be sold at aa annual value of We lti,CM. 8?To create additional recre ational facilities through foi motion of new lakes and parks and the pro tection of fish and wild life. 9?To introduce proper land asc. soil erosion conservation, cantons treatment and reforestation. States in the Missouri Basin water shed include approximately two thirds of Montana, from toe source of the Missouri in the sbufhwest comer of the state; North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, including roughly the northeast halt from a line bisecting the state from the northwest to the southeast cor ner; approximately the northeast quarter of Colorado; the north half of Kansas; a tip of the southwest comer of Minnesota; a strip along the west boundary of Iowa and the northern part of Missouri from a line reaching from the Ozarks in the southwest in a northeasterly direction to St. Louis. Needs of the people in these wide ly scattered areas of long distances are divergent. Those living along the lower river want flood protection . at one season, and supplemental wa icr lur navigauon ai outers. in uw western and northwestern section the people want protection from lo cal floods, water for irrigation, wa ter for sanitary and domestic uses and power for various purposes. The comprehensive plan which has been agreed upon is intended to store water to prevent floods and water the land in time of drought. The great river will be made to serve the people to live within its basin and thus decrease its destruc tive power. Will Pay for Itself. Construction cost of the plan is estimated at approximately tl^S, 000,000 which is to be self-liquidat ing from the sale of water and power over a period to be deter mined. Only $400,000,000 of this coat has been authorized. The entire nation has a stake in maintaining the agricultural prod uctivity of the plains states, for even in the drought period of 1930-1938 these seven states?Montana, the Dakotas, Wyoming, Colorado, Kan sas and Nebraska, produced 41$ per cent of the nation's wheat; 43.4 per cent of the rye; 43.8 per cent of our barley; 15j per cent of our oats and 10 per cent of our oorn. Droughts, the dustbowls the lowering of the ground water level by the rampaging river has per mitted wheat yields to reach 38 bushels to the acre only 5 times? 1879, 1882, 1883, 1805 and not again until 1942. In many of those inter vening years the yield has been be low 10 bushels to the acre, ??* thousands at acres of seeded land have been abandoned year in and year out. But at last the government has developed a comprehensive plan aimed at the relief of this agricul tural arsenal of the nation. Fran Cut Bank, Mont., in the northwest to St. Louis in the southeast; from Denver in the southwest to Devils Lake, N. D? in the northeast-the harnessed Missouri will extwtd ita benefits?but not until after the war. ONE OF MANY dam; and reservoirs already constructed to the Missouri VaUey basin is the Gibson dam on the Sun river in ltartmaa. The top of the great wall is about 200 feet above the river bed. Eighty nine more snch projects are planned.

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