Skip to Content
North Carolina Newspapers

The Alamance gleaner. (Graham, Alamance County, N.C.) 1875-1963, February 08, 1945, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation of this newspaper page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

The Alamance Gleaner Vol. LXXI GRAHAM, N. C., THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1945 Nn j ' WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS Nazis Put Homeland to Torch As Russians Sweep into Reich; Yanks Gain in Drive on Manila r Released by Western Newspaper Union. J (EDITOR'S NOTE: When ?pinions are expressed la these eolsrans, they are these et Western Newspaper Union'e news analysts and net necessarily of this newspaper.) As huge Allied pincer squeezes Germany from three directions, map Indicates disposition of Nail troops, with majority concentrated In East. TITTn/\*S*l * *- *" " ** ' " - - culture,: Reach Reich Having severed the rich agricul tural province of East Prussia from Germany, the Red tidal wave of upwards -of 4,000,000 men rolled clear up to the eastern border of the Reich itself, with the Nazis des perately trying to check the drive. Biggest threat to the Reich lay in the Russian advance on Silesia, the "little Ruhr", of southeastern Ger many, where Red columns closed in on the rich coal, zinc and iron resources and the industrial cen ters built around them. Once able to produce about 700,000,000 tons of coal annually during the height of her conquests, defeats in both the west and east, coupled with severe aerial bombardment, are said to have reduced Germany's output to around 200,000,000 tons. From Silesia northward, the Ger mans fell behind the flat, forested banks of the Oder river in an effort to check the Russian tide, relying on defenses reportedly in the making as far back as two years ago, when the Nazis foresaw the probability of being forced to fight alone. Reaching the river, the Russians boldly exploited their ini tiative, throwing armor across its frozen expanse, and bitter fighting raged as the Germans attempted to contain their bridgeheads. Fanatical Resistance Having given no quarter during their invasion of Russia, the Ger mans asaea none as the Red tidal Wave swept onto their own soil, with the army putting their own villages and factories to the torch to deny the Reds the use of any facilities. Meanwhile, thou sands of German Himmler refugees streamed back toward the Beich from East Prussia and War thegau province, which Hitler took from Poland after the latter's fall in 1939. further straining the already burdened transport system. As the German army fell back, women and children were hoisted onto tanks and other military vehicles and carted to the rear. Rushing to the eastern sector. Home Front Commander Heinrich Himmler was given sweeping pow ers to complete the organization of the "people's army" (the volks sturm) for military as well as labor service, evacuate civilians and in ?. dustrial facilities, and confiscate or dispose of personal property. Hold in West Despite the seriousness of the Rus sian attack, the Germans continued to resist Allied pressure in the west in strength as they once again found their backs to the important industrial Rhineland. As the enemy pulled back into the Siegfried Line, reconnaissance showed extensive Nazi troop move ments inland, with conjecture that the high command was tending re-, fhforcements to the east. But even as the shifts were being made, the Germans themselves expressed con cent over a new Allied drive in the west, with claims that General Ei senhower was massing troops above Aachen. Meanwhile the British maintained their pressure against German lines above Aachen, while the U. S. 1st and 3rd armies, having ironed out tha Belgium bulge, proceeded to puxicn 10 uie neicn Doraer. in Al sace to the southeast, the Germans continued to harass General Patch's 7th army, extended by the original withdrawal of elements of the 3rd from this sector to relieve the threat df '? the enemy's - Belgium ? break through. PACIFIC: Sight Bataan With mountainous Bataan hover ing ahead in the distant haze, U. S. motorized elements, followed by the 40th division, swarmed onto Clark Field's airdrome, 40 miles above Manila. Eager to avenge the gallant Yanks who stood their ground so steadfast ly on Bataan in the early weeks of the war, the advancing U. S. troops encountered but little stiff opposition, but farther to the north, on their left flank, their comrades faced strenuous enemy resistance. It was here that the Japs contin ued to put up their stiffest fight from entrenched mountain positions, In an effort to check the Yanks' drive to cut off their forces on the northeast ern neck of Luzon. As the Amer icans creeped forward against the embattled Japs, U. S. warships were called upon to train their big guns on the enemy fortifications, also being heavily pounded by field artillery. Tkir a ATnrtTFm t* niAiiru w n,n: Channel Workers "Even as congress considered "work or fight" legislation for 18, 800,000 men in the 18 to 44 year age group, the War Manpower com mission tested a new voluntary plan for channeling employees from un essential to essential industries in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Dela ware. Under the WMC's new plan, the number of workers unessen tial plants can retain is reduced, with men released then offered suitable jobs in essential indus try. If they refuse to accept, the United States Employment service will not give them a re ferral card, necessary for ob taining work elsewhere. Under the work-or-flght legislation shaped by congress, workers in less essential jobs would be asked to shift to more critical employment by their local draft boards, with the latter then ordering them to trans fer if they failed to act voluntarily. Physically fit men violating the or der would be inducted into the army while the physically unfit would be liable to fine and imprisonment. CLOTHING: Shape Controls In an effort to increase the output of more essential apparel like work clothes, children's wear and under- 1 wear, the War Production board re vealed that it would grant priority assistance to manufacturers pro ducing such goods from cotton, wool : and rayon. At the same time, the Office of Price Administration announced plans for reducing present clothing | prices from 8 to 7 per cent by fixing costs at'the average level of the first hak ft 1843. In reporting its plans, CPA said that better than 100 per 1 cent rise in the. nation's clothing bill i from 1939 to 1943 threatened the | whole anti-inflation program. Although the effect of the WPB's 1 program will eliminate luxury cloth ing, medium-priced apparel, along i with essential grade, will continue i to be niade, it was said. Quality of < cheaper garments will be controlled , to provide maximum serviceability. , CABINET CHANGE j Wallace Bucked When President Roosevelt asked Jesse Jones for his resignation aa Secretary of Commerce to make way for the appointment of Henry Wallace, he precipitated a political turmoil, which saw the senate first take up consideration of a proposal to divorce all of the multi-billion dollar lending operations from the department before considering the confirmation of the ex-vice presi dent. Long at the head of the Recon struction Finance corporation and it many subsidiaries before its incor poration into the commerce depart ment in 1942, bluff, big-businessman Mr. Jones made no bones about the fact that he thought only an experi enced businessman with traditional American ideals of free enterprise should be entrusted with the han dling of billions of dollars of govern ment funds available for credit, and its huge investments in factories, fa cilities, etc. Upon being apprized of his nomi nation, lank Mr. Wallace, long the bellwether of New Deal liberalism and favorite of the CIO, declared: . . The Department of Commerce and federal loan agency provide an opportunity ... for intelligent work in behalf of the producing and con suming public. Roughly, the job is to promote a maximum of national employment by private business. Government must accept the duty of seeing that all men in health have jobs . . ." RATION COUPONS: Find Fakes Breaking into a west side apart ment in Chicago, Hi., early in the morning, government agents found SO,000,000 take red meat coupons worth SOb,000,000 points, distribution of which would have thrown the whole rationing program out of kil ter and necessitated the issuance of new books. Valued at $2,300,000 at the prices at which they were being sold to meat markets and restaurants in Chicago and elsewhere, the coupons Jamei PoUte ut Gutut Pottto. were but a part of a total with an estimated worth of 2,000,000,000 points in the possession of a nation wide ring of counterfeiters, OPA offi cials said. Held on $25,000 bail apiece were alien Gaetano Polito and his wife, in whose apartment the fake cou pons were found, and sons James, 22, and Gaetano Jr., 19, both med ically discharged war veterans. Twice convicted for operating a still, the elder Polito, who said he was a cook at a north side cafe, has a minor police record. WAR FREIGHT: Emergency Control With severe winter weather con tinuing in the northeast, with tem peratures in many parts of New York and adjacent states down to 32 degrees below zero and blizzards piling up snowdrifts, temporary stringent regulations were main tained on rail traffic in 10 states , both east and south of the Great Lakes in an effort to move war ! freight. Although originally permitted to 1 move into the congested area, live stock and poultry, fresh and frozen 1 meat, coal and coke were later tern- 1 porarily barred from shipment J along with less essential civilian rreignt. Passenger service also was ' curtailed in the original regulation. ' Requested by the Office of De- 1 fense Transportation, and volun tarily complied with by the rail- ! roads, the restrictions were ex- ' pected to serve as a model for future regulation of rail traffic in ! emergencies to provide for the movement of goods for overseas j shipment and necessary material to | vital industrial plants. JOB PLAN: J Full Employment Goal < In the first legislative proposal to l provide full employment in the post- ] war period, four Democratic sena- i tors introduced a bill under which ' the President would be empowered I to furnish full employment if private < Industry failed in the goal. j Sponsored by Senators Murray 1 (Mont.), Wagner (N. Y.), Thomas < (Utah) and OMahoney (Wyo.), the c bill would require the President to 1 estimate possible employment by i government and industry each year, i and then institute measures for tak- I ing up any slack. 1 According to provisions of the bill, i these measures could include propo sals for encouraging private invest ment, or ? federal spending pro- y gram, primarily consisting of the - construction of public works. Notes of an Innocent Bystander t The Radioafs: Fred Allen shelved his regular once-a-week program be cause the rigorous routine taxed his health. But during one week Allen guestarred on three different shows ?and improved them all . . . The new Danny Kaye program is bound to click- He rates a tip of the hat for avoiding the gag flies and for trying a unique brand of microfun with original stuff . . . Henny Young man's gagging is funnier than it has ever seemed before . . . The "Two on a Clue" CBSession rates atten tion. A welcome relief from the usual afternoonsense. . . . Radio sta tidhs may be forced to suspend the' round-the-clock (all night) recorded programs?if skilled technicians are drafted. It would save electricity, say Gov't execs, for both stations and tuner-inners. The Magaxines: Mr. Justice James F. Byrnes has turned out an incisive blueprint via American Magazine, which should serve as an excellent guide for taking Congres sional procedure out of its covered wagon rut and converting it into a legislative streamliner. This article is a model of constructive criticism. . . . Harper's contains a plague-by plague report of the Argentinazl malady. ... In Vogue, Harriet Van Home takes apart radio listening gullible: who write letters of condo lence when a character in a soap opera dies. Difficult to believe that people with their mentality can write. . . . W. Davenport's "The President and the Press" in Collier's is a must for editorialists, too. . . . The Page 121 cartoon in Esquire shows two penguins looking at a de serted shack marked "Byrd," with one saying: "Wonder whatever hap pened to him?" . . . FDR decorated him last week! Midtown Favorite: This one will amaze his pals?not that Frank Far rell would run from a fight, but none of us ever saw him in one. ... He is better described as a mild guy. . . . Slim, good-looking and we all like him very much. ... A Liit artist (who drew a picture of Far rell in action last year) told this story last night. . . . Frank was pos ing for the artist, nonchalantly (with a gun over his knees), in one of tha South Pacific islands. . . . Suddenly Frank (Cap't, pod'n me, sir) Farrell of the Marines looked up and said: "Look at that over there!" . . . The artist looked across to the other side of the atoll and saw nothing but jungle. . . . But Frank had spotted a camouflaged Jap. . . . And fired four times in rapid succession. . . . Later when Frank and the artist walked over?they found four very dead Japs there. . . . Pretty good shooting for an ex-Night Club editor. The Intelligentsia: Walter Daven port, associate ed. of Collier's, is fly ing with the Air Transport Command in the Pacific for a 8 weeks' tour. . . . Paul Hunter, publisher of Lib erty, says Marshall Field was inter ested "about a year and a half ago" in the purchase of the weekly, "but it never came to anything." The recent rumors came from staff ers. . . . Perfect name for a critic: Motion Picture Herald's London movie embalmer is Peter Burnup. . . . Bing Crosby's top songs for IMS are expected to be his recordings of . Cole Porter's "Begin the Beguine" ; and "Night and Day." . . . Philip J Wylie was unimpressed by an item , concerning a Marine's children who were born on the same day in vari- i 3us years. Wylie was born on May 1 12, 1902. His late brother on the i same day in 1904, and his late half. < brother, Ted, on May 12, 1913. i The Grandest Canyon: ' Faces About Town: Jimmy Du rante, in the ailing room between , broadcasts, prepares this financial ; report: Owe $50?you're a piker. 1 Owe $50,000?you're a businessman, j Owe $50,000,000?you're a tycoon. Owe $50,000,000,000?you're a guwiil- ? mint. . . . Harold Lloyd, the clown jrlnce, near the City Center Theatre, ] unrecognized by auto grafters?who were searching tor him. ... In Reu- ! bens, Frank Conville (the No. 1 man it the U.S.O. entertainers three ' rears overseas) handing his butter to a civilian at the next table, who ' was making such a to-do about "only 1 jne piece." . .. Bea Lillie of the flaw- ' less diction pausing outside Theo- ' lore's to chat (in rich cockney) with ' ? lonely-looking British tar. . . . Ann Sheridan, bound for South America, ' ?rhere she has a job at $2,000 per ! week. Broadway Confucius: The Trouble ] With Dream Girls Is That They Keep , Ton Awake All Night. , Women's Bureau of Labor Department 25 Years Old;, Busy With Present and Postwar Needs of Workers ? This specially trained firl makes some adjustments so the Base as sembly of a P-39 Airaeobra. There is scarcely any task la ariatlssi manufacture that women hays not mastered. Agency Watches Over Rights and Security Of Eighteen Million By C. V. PETERS Eighteen and a half million women are now working for wages, mostly in jobs essential to war. Some five million of these are new to the labor mar kets; they have gone into fac tories and fields since 1940, when the nation began to buckle down for the great conflict. All in all, women have been doing a mag nificent job. No task has been too dirty, or dangerous or diffi cult; they have cheerfully ac cepted all discomforts and haz ards. In World War I, when, as now, millions of women were called upon to replace men in a thousand occu pations, the department of labor be came interested in the special needs and problems of working women. In 1920 a permanent subdivision, the Women's bureau, was established, which superseded the temporary Woman in Industry Service, set up in 1917. Miss Mary Anderson, director of the war agency, was appointed head of the Women's Bureau. After developing the Bureau to its pres ent impressive status, she retired last June at the age of 71, with 25 years of service to working wom en accomplished. Under the guidance of Miss An derson, the bufeau made intensive study of conditions and problems of women workers in various types of employment?professional, business, industrial and domestic. She was responsible for calling two impor tant conferences of wpmen in indus try, in 1923 and 193d, attended by representatives of all 'important women's organizations. The princi ples she advocated were: 1. Complete equality of opportu nity for men and women on the basis of their Individual merit, skill and experience. 2. Wake rates baaed on Job eon tent without regard to aex. 3. Establishing' of precise and ob jective ' standards far determining Job content as a basis for determin ing wage rates. , -? - ? In IDld there were ieight and a half million women workers. In the ? e *? Mrs. Nora T. Storm, outstanding member of a elan of "Traetorettes" pilots a big machine on the 260 tere 8term (arm. She la a Triple-A woman, and organiser of her class of women tractor opera ton. spring of 1940 there were 13 million. Now there are 18 million women in the labor force. These 18 million women make up 38 per cent of the total nonagrlcultural labor force, and 20 per cent of the agricultural labor forcf of the'United States. Machine Age Changes Life. The amount of gaipfp) prork done by women at home has decreased steadily, while the amount of their gainful work outside the home has increased. At the beginning of the 18th dellUii y Women stffi were spin ning at home, but the yarn was brought for wt*ving to large rooms where looms were in use. The ear liest cotton mill was astablished in 1814, and thereafter weaving be came a factory occupation. In 1831 there were 38,000 women employed in various cotton factories in the United States. By the middle of the century, the sewing machine came into effective use. Usually op erated by women. Thus into a world of gardening end raising sheep In the back yard, of grinding dour, of weaving cloth in the "front room," the first ma chines appeared ami revolutionized our whole manner of life. Since many of the earlier machines did work that had always been done by women at home, manufacturers looking for factory operative* turned to women. The factoriea, located with a view to available power and future mar keting, soon developed communities, and these attracted other workers in various lines of activity. As towns grew in size, many of the older household occupations became im possible. The entrance of women into wage earning occupations was tremen dously speeded up by the Civil war and World War I. Of the role wom en played during the first World war, we have a dramatic picture. The war itself wrenched the whole industrial machine. In tha quick shift from peace to war, women as well as men were rapidly ab sorbed by the iron and steel mills, metal factories and foundries; they were practically drafted to make munitions and other war supplies. Aerial warfare created a new indus try, in which women were indispen sable, and it expanded the indus tries that made the material neces sary for aircraft manufacture. Meanwhile the army of 4,000,000 men had to be fed and clothed, and in addition th* nation's industries had to continue to supply the needs of the people at home. There are striking parallels be tween the first World war and th* present one In regard to women workers. In steadily increasing numbers, then as new, women en tared fields wMeh had been regard ed as men's exclusive province?al though thousands of women carried on in traditionally feminine food and fabric Industries. Experienced wom en who were already In manufac turing in 1917 were utilized largely for munitions making. They helped to train new groups formerly other wise employed, such as school teach ers, who Joined their ranks, as well as the large numbers of inexperi enced women never before in the labor force. Growing numbers of women were hired In such indus tries ? as iron, steel, lumber, trans portation equipment, chemicals, metal and metal products and oth ers. The Women'f Bureau had record ed World War I experience in the use of women labor, so it was nat ural that the bureau should be rec ognized as the official agency for all matters relating to women's em ployment in the present war ef fort. On March 13, 1941, the Un dersecretary of War indicated that he would take measures to see that the War department take up all matters of concern to women work ers with the Women's Bureau, and there has been close cooperation since that date. Cooperative relationships have been established with the Navy Department, with other Government departments, and with state organ izations and war contractors. Can Do Any Job If Trained. The peacetime work women were doing on punch presses, drilling ma chines, milling machines, lathes, grinders, and polishers, as well as their high record of achievement in inspection, assembly, filing and other bench work in metal and electrical industries was well known to the bureau. The extent to which these developed skills would be useful to war-implemented industries was easily demonstrated. In the' Mat war women had proved themselves able In an emergency to make good cm any job If adequately trained. The transfer of vast numbers of agricultural workers to the war in dustries, as wall as the rapid induc tion of others into the armed forces, resulted in a growing demand foe the employment of women in agri- . cultural work. In interesting wom en in such work, the bureau cooper ated with other government agen cies concerned, and in addition for mulated and helped put into prac tice standards for women's employ ment on farms. Today, women are being utilized in three broad categories of Jobs: 1. Those that women have always done, now multiplied by the de mand* of war. 1. Those where they have beam ased as substitutes for men. either dustries. 3. These that are new pseiisses never performed by either ens (some at these are the result sf sah di vision sf skilled ?nnlhsi to fa cilitate mass production, while eth ers are the result sf mseefenhme ef new binds at equipment). Though men are still tamd lamest of the top and highly skilled todae degree are doing the mere tolHed, difficult sad disagreeshla Jabs, as wen as eertaia dangereas and seme times inappropriate types at work. During World War I the question was: Would women remain as work ers when the war ended? Many people thought this question would be answered by the return at women to their homes or their old occupn tions. This time die question is: How may we best organize and car ry out the shift from wartime to peacetime employment? Three Million Will Qait. The Women's Bureau believes that at least 3 million women will vol untarily withdraw from the labor market?young girls will go back to school; older women at retirement age or past, will retire; many of ton 3,710,000 housewives who Joined ton labor force for the duration only, will be glad to take over full time homemaking duties. This anil leavn a force of about IS women workers for the immediate postwar oeriod. ? ' ' Min Frieda S. Millar, who becama Director of the Women's Bureau am August 17. 1M4, believes the shift to peacetime jobs is a manageable thing, if we are both forehanded and farsighted as to planning. She believes this planning must begin at local levels, and provide for advi sory counsels for all groups, and facilities for training and retraining of war workers for peacetime eaa ployment. After the last war, the Assistant Secretary of War, acting as the Di rector of Munitions at that time, paid this tribute to women. "For the successful carrying cat of ear program far the predastlem of vast g nan titles of explosives and propellents, as well as she! leading, the woasea of America mast he giv en credit sa account of the highly important part Ufey took In lih phase of helping to whs the war. Folly M per cent of the namhee at employees In oar cTplartm piaato were women, who braved ton dam gets connected with Ode Una ad work, to which they had bean, of coarse, entirely anaeenetoasad, bat whose perils were net unknown to them." Miss Miller believes that woman's contribution has been much mow extensive tat World War n. In the poetwtf .World, she says, "Let us dovetail the skills and experience* of men and women Workers so as to rounded living for em people." won, women of America give every

North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.

Digital North Carolina