Skip to Content
North Carolina Newspapers

The Alamance gleaner. (Graham, Alamance County, N.C.) 1875-1963, October 04, 1945, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation of this newspaper page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

?' * J.." 1 / The Alamance Gleaner 1 VoL LXXI - GRAHAM, N. C., THURSDAY, OCTOBER 4, 1945 . No. 35 P WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS CIO Strives to Maintain High. Pay Level in Postwar Industry; Act to Spur Building Activity ?????? Released by Western Newspaper Union ? r Ub1?b'? sews analysts and net nseessarlly ed this newspaper.) (KPfTOR 8 NOTE: When eplnlons are expressed la these columns, they are these el racing tough winter In war-torn Austria, Viennese scratch for future jiwiiluii. At left, woman is shown picking up stray grain in harvested ?aM, while at right another woman is pictured carrying home wood found in shelled forest LABOR: Seek Peace Armed with emergency powers, Secretary of Labor Lewis Schwellen bach moved into the troubled indus trial front, where CIO demands for appreciable wage boosts threatened to retard the reconversion program aad jeopardize stabilization policy. Sdrarellenbach faced no easy task, what with the strategic oil, au tomobile. farm equipment and steel ?striving for wage readjust ments to bring 40-hour-a-week pay ap to wartime overtime levels, and aoajor producers bucking the de mands in the face of rigid price con troL la all instances, CIO demands for arialenli il wage boosts were predi cated on the claim that the big com panies had made sizable wartime profits and could use the money to defray part of the increases until peacetime production could be re established on a volume basis. While oil workers already had walked out of midwest refineries in B. J. Thomas a strike tnat threat ened to spread and imperil the national fuel supply, princi pal interest con tinued to center in thf troubled auto mobile situation, where the United Automobile Work ers headed by R. J. Thomas laid plans lor enforcing their demands for a 30 per cent wage increase by walking ant on individual companies and leaving their competitors free to in vade their markets. In assuming command of a labor department strengthened by the in clusion of the War Labor board, war manpower commission and United Slates employment service, Secre tary Schwellenbach planned to pro ceed slowly before everting emer gency powers, first exhausting ordi nary procedure. PACIFIC: UacArthur Disputed Taking sharp difference with Gen. Douglas MacArthur's declaration in Tokyo that only 200,000 American traspo may be needed for the Japa nese occupation, Pres. Harry S. Tru man feared for its effect on army demobilization plans and Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson said that at this time it was difficult to lamul the eventual size of the Rasing his estimate upon the Japs' wholehearted effort at co-operation wdfc his command, MacArthur's Moat igure of 200,000 was a sharp mdaetien loom the 400,000 recently pmiected and the 900,000 at ffrst ??aught necessary. In making his statement, MacArthur said that the Japs' execution of his dictates ?aoagli their governmental frame wart relieved the U. S. of establish mg an elaborate military authority (a perform the same tasks. _*a seeking to offset expectations teal MacArthur's announcement might lead to speedier demobiliza tion. President Truman declared the program was not dependent upon Speaking for the state depart ment. Acting Secretary Acheson as serted that the ultimate size of the *eliuu force will depend upon *e or rye of the Job of eradicating *e whale Jap war-making aeon DEMOBILIZATION: Point Cut Asserting that no man would be kept just to maintain a big army. Gen. George C. Marshall revealed a stepped-up demobilization program providing for a further decrease of discharge points to 60 on Novem ber 1 following the October 1 slash to 70. At the same time, the total necessary for officers was to be cut to 75. Marshall reviewed demobilization plans at a meeting with 300 con gressmen at which he also affirmed receipt of General MacArthur's es timate of an occupation force of only 200,000 for Japan by next summer. Though MacArthur had reduced his .estimate, Marshall said, General Eisenhower's figure of 400,000 for Germany remains the same. Declaring that the present rate of releases has been determined solely by the availability of discharge fa cilities, Marshall said that all G.I.s without useful army work would be freed within three to four weeks. With the exhaustion of high point men by late winter, the army may further alter its demobilization pro gram by releasing all men with two years of service. POSTWAR BUILDING: Lid Off With removal of all building con trols, government agencies bent themselves to the task of speeding up construction and at the same time keeping costs within bounds to head off an inflationary boom dur ing the reconversion period. As experts looked for the erection of 500,000 private dwellings next year and a peak of 800,000 in 1948, officials sought to increase the sup ply of scarce building.matarials^per mitting wage and price boosts and priorities to break bottlenecks, if necessary. Inventory controls also were to be strengthened to prevent hoarding and creation of artificial shortages. At the same time, OPA announced that it would tighten price control over building materials to counter act heavy demand, while federal credit agencies prepared to discour age loose financing in a market booming with home needs and pros pects for high postwar employ ment. RETAIL PRICING: Absorb Increases Declaring that up to now retailers have not been squeezed by price control, OPAdministrator Chester Bowles reiterated government pol icy that dealers would have to ab sorb any increases in manufacturing costs in the reconversion period. Rejecting a plea of a retailer group that such absorption would be uneconomic and unfair, Bowles said that dealers' markups were not reduced during the war, and records show that profits soared under in creased volume and lower operat ing costs. Whereas the profit mar gin of department stores stood at m during the 1934-'39 period. It reached 12 per cent in 1944, he said. Under OPA's pricing policy for manufacturers for the reconversion period, some increases will be per mitted to allow for higher labor and material costs. Profit margins will be held to half the industry-wide average for larger businesses or prewar levels for smaller firms, however. NAVY; Ttvo-Ocean Dimension A two-ocean fleet almost five timet the size of the pre-Pearl Harbor force was proposed by naval chiefs at a hearing of the house naval commit tee. Under the proposal advanced by Secretary of the Navy Forrestal and Fleet Admiral King, 300 ships would remain in active duty and another 100 would be kept in ready reserve. The remaining 680 vessels would be laid up but maintained in sea-going condition. A total of 500,000 enlisted men and 58,000 officers would be needed for the 300 active ships and planes and 815,000 to man the en tire fleet. For implementation of U. S. de fenses, the navy recommended es tablishment or retention of major naval bases for the Pacific in the Aleutians, Hawaii, Canal Zone, Guam, Saipan, Tinian, the Bonin Volcano island group, the Admiral ties and Philippines. Atlantic posts would include Argentina in New foundland, Bermuda and Trinidad. ATOMIC TEST: On Battleship Even while plans were being mapped in Washington, D. C., for the postwar fleet, naval officials pre pared to carry out a test of the atomic bomb's effect on surface ves sels 500 miles off conquered Japa nese shores. Target for the experiment, which might eventually lead to a redesign of surface vessels as followed Billy Mitchell's test bombardment of the Virginia in 1923, will be the Jap battleship Nagato, with its 14-inch steel armor plate. Although the restyling of warships after Mitchell's successful experi ments led to their strengthening against air attack, they have re mained vulnerable to underwater at tack. So far, reports on atomic bombings have indicated the main force of the explosion is up and out, but naval chieftains also would like to determine any underwater effect. 16th Child Her Biggest The mother of IS children* Mrs. Francis Strohf i 16th child was an 18 lb. baby girL The infant was one of the heaviest deliv ered* with a 25 pounder born in 1916 top ping the record. 58 years old, Mrs. Strohl is a resident of Lawton, Pa. LONG FLIGHT: Across Great Circle Approximately 25 houri and 43 minutes after taking off from north ern Japan, the first of three giant B-29 bombers glided onto the sprawling Chicago airport, to be shortly followed by the remaining two after a 5,995 mile experimental run. With three top U. S. air force com manders in the planes, the original plans called for a non-stop run to Washington, D. C., to test the great circle route and attendant weather in the far north. Because of strong headwinds during the early stages of | the flight necessitating increased use of gas, however, the B-29s decided to land in the Windy City for refueling. ; Though traveling 5,995 miles in a long journey which took them over i Kamchatka, Alaska and Canada be fore reaching the U. S., the Ameri can airmen led by MaJ. Gen. Curtis E. Le May fell 1,100 miles short of the record non-stop flight set by two Britons flying from Egypt to Australia in 1938. WAR CRIMES: Try Nazis Charged with systematic starva tion and neglect of internees at the notorious Belsen concentration camp, 45 Nazi men and women tried to fight back at their war crimes trial conducted at a British military court in Lueneburg, Germany. In seeking to defend themselves, the accused followed the line that most of the 40,000 prisoners in the camp were all habitual criminals, felons and homo-aexuals. Britons taking over the camp upon the Nazi collapse claimed that their experi ence showed it was not necessary to use force to govern the internees. In first seizing the camp, the Brit ish counted 13,000 dead, and another 13,000 died later because their con dition was beyond treatment, med ical officers charged. Though sup plies were obtainable in the imme diate vicinity at the camp, no ef fort was made to procure provisions. Portrait of a Man: The namby-pamby treatment ac corded Japan has become a bone in the throat o( peace. Hirohito has become the (air-haired rat; Jap propagandists drool he is solely re sponsible (or making peace, while the American conquerors sit around twiddling their bayonets. That is just another form of discredited ap peasement which incited the warl . . . The impression is being created that the Mikado was just an inno cent bystander. Hell, you would think Killer Hirohito was Lord Fauntleroy. Such horse-radish) . . . On Dec. 7, 1943 (the anniversary of Pearl Harbor), the Jap Emper or sent this cable to Hitler: "I ex press joy to see our goal realized step by step." Not only is Hirohito being cod dled, but the whole Imperial Jap family has been absolved of any war crimes. However, the blood on their filthy paws shows through the white wash. . . . One of the most bestial ? crimes in history was the rape of Nanking. Prince Asaka was in com [ mand at Nanking when that un speakable atrocity took place. . . . Asaka is the Mikado's brother! It is a crazy world. The Greeks who were supposed to be liberated got toughfr treatment than the Japs who are supposed to be conquered. Japs are being treated as ebnms. Indicted seditionists continue their i pro-Nazi sprees. Nazi war prisoners are coddled. Nothing is being done about the Argentinazis and Spanish fascists who aided our enemies. Our l diplomats are leery about punish ing all war criminals. ... At the same time, isolationists are sling ; ing slime at FDR. Our Russian ally is being rapped. Some politicos op pose plans to make certain Ameri cans will have jobs. WHOONELL WON the war? Berlin newsboy Gladwin Hill re layed this striking contrast between the Soviet's stern realism in Nazi land and America's hemming and hawing. . . . While the Americans were working out the fine points of a long range program to provide Germans with non-Nazi movies, the Russians blandly authorized Ger man movie houses to reopen with the implicit warning to every Ger man exhibitor that if he peddled any Nazism he might turn up missing. Using their own ugly hatred in stead of facts, some jack-asstrich rags are attempting to pin the blame for Pearl Harbor on FDR. . . . However, none of them raise their voices about the fact that Gen. MacArthur was caught nap ping at Manila. Almost our entire airforce in the Philippines was de stroyed on the ground TEN HOURS AFTER the PH attack. Some of ns wondered why Cole paugh and Gimpel, who were de posited on the Eastern shore by a Nazi submarine, had their death sentences commuted to life in pris on. .. . The col'mdearns that Cole paugh (the American) "was of con siderable help to the U. S." (with information), which is why his sen tence was commuted. . . . Put Gim pel cava no help whatever and ha was spared, too. You've gotta hand it to those ter rible Russians. When they capture spies they fix it so they never again have toothaches. When Admiral Halsey visited the U. S. it was said he came for a rest, which isn't the fact. . . . Halsey was beached for sassing a Big Boy from the Navy Dep't. . . . This exec had flown to Halsey's ship to probe something that had to do with los ing a ship. It turned out to be short age of shells, which was not the Ad miral's fault. The blame rested with the supply men In SF and San Diego. ... At any rate, this biggie arrived on Halsey's birthday and as the ship's officers gave Halsey a surprise birthday cake with candles, the Man from Wash ington put a damper on the party by saying: "A birthday cake? With people starving? You all ought to be ashamed!" ... To which Halsey, whose men love him for his cour age and war record, said: "I'm vary sorry, sir, you are unhappy about us all having a little cake. Tell me, how's the food been lately at the Stork Club?" . . . When Mr. Big got back to Washington Halsey was beached. President Truman's warm humil ity has been bis most striking char acteristic. Perhaps It la best illus trated by his favorite motto: "It's what yon Main after you know It , an that cowls." American Farmers to Continue High Production Goals in Satisfying Demands of the Entire World Peacetime Need for Products Assures Farmers of Good Market and Price. What will the impact of war's end mean to American agriculture? That question has been raised with increasing frequency ever since Hirohito accepted President Tru man's unconditional surrender terms and the Jap hordes have laid down their arms. It has brought in its train other questions: Will a farm slump occur? Will continued vast production smash prices? Will transition to peacetime schedules upset farm economy? Three fairly definite answers have emerged and each is hearteningly reassuring to everyone who lives on or near a farm: 1. Demand for foods, fibers and oils will continue to require a high rate of farm production. The world must eat and American farmers must feed it. 2. Farm prices will not be deflated. The government has already guar anteed the farmer support prices for many of his products for one or two years after the war. 3. The farmer, unlike industry, is not faced with reconversion prob lems. His job is growing crops and he needs no different set of tools to accomplish his objectives. ' All of these factors eliminate the possibility of a sudden crash in farm income. Farm economists are agreed there will be no immediate cutback in production despite the end of the war. In the months to come, do mestic and military needs of the United States plus the relief de mands from liberated areas in Eu rope and the Pacific will take all the food this nation can produce. With vast areas of Europe and Asia laid waste, American farmers will be called on to produce and keep on producing. It may be years before the ravaged countries can come back anywhere near to nor mal. In the meantime 'American farmers have a big job ahead to help keep whole continents alive and healthy. During this same time the United States itself must be fed. As demobilization of our armed forces proceeds, there will be less need for the various services to have great stocks of food in reserve. That will tend to increase civilian sup plies as well as permit better dis tribution. No Major Farm Surplus. With industrial reconversion get ting the green light, the dislocation of workers caused by war contract cutbacks may bo of much shorter duration than has been anticipated. That means more peacetime civilian jobs. One thing the war demonstrat ed was that if the entire nation is at work, there is no major farm sur plus problem. The greatest crops in history havs been produced during the war. The record year was IMS. Next was 1944 and indications are that this year will exceed 1943, so that 1949 may be the third best. Credit for this epic achievement must go to the nation's farmers, but , the contribution of the fertilizer in dustry should not be overlooked. Ag ricultural authorities estimate that more than 20 per cent of the crop production in the war years ha* been due to the use of fertilizers. The use of plant foods has been of es- 1 sential importance to the food pro duction program because it has en abled farmers to produce bigger crops on existing acres instead of having to plow up millions of acres, of additional farm land. The saving' in labor, equipment and man hours has been enormous. Farm income during recent years has passed the peaks reached dur- < lng and immediately after World War I. Prices are now near or ??????????mi 1)1 ? l I ? i ? , t. f - - -? ? III II nUiiiiiri tM The war production ot garden crop* reached a new high. The demand will continue (or wme time. New varieties, improved soil fertilization and new equipment will aid the farmer in repeating his record production of these crops. above parity. Even if prices should come down to government-support levels?a drop of perhaps 15 per cent below present peaks?farm purchas ing power will be enormous. The farmer has a higher amount to spend out of his income than other wage earners, for the reason that less of his income is required for rent, food and fuel than is the case with city dwellers. Six million farm families comprising approximately 30 million people having a gross in come in excess of 20 billion dollars a year will be a factor of tremen dous Importance to America's peacetime economy. Fanner in Strong Position. Just as significant as agriculture's high income rate In recent years is the fact that the farmer has been laying aside a good portion of his savings in war bonds to spend for essentials in years to come. Clearly the farmer has emerged from the war in a stronger position than he was at its start. To maintain that position the farmer should do some straight thinking and planning. Two things are especially important: 1?He should avoid overexpansion through the purchase of additional land in the peace years ahead; 2?He should make immediate plans to re pair the damage to his soil's fertil ity level which the vast war crop production quotas have caused. The experience of the last war with its farm land boom and subse quent collapse should be a reminder that the American farmer should not go in for more land than he can suc cessfully handle. Farm land prices have already risen dangerously to ward inflation levels. Far sigh ted agricultural authorities are urging farmers to "keep their shirts on" and steer clear of the pitfalls of land speculation. Better soil management methods sn a well-equipped and economical ly operated farm will prove safer in the long run than vast fields without efficient management. The key to successful farming op erations in postwar years will lie in increasing the per acre yield on ex isting crop land rather than in bring ing additional acreage under cultiva tion. a recent statement by the Mid dle West Soil Improvement commit tee pointed out. "In months to come the emphasis will be on reducing the cost of crop production per unit," the statement sets forth. "That means making ev ery acre do a better crop producing job. "In every community there are farmers who increased their war time crop output as high as 50 per cent, without increasing the cultivat ed area by one single acre. In every case the larger yield was the result of adopting good aoil fertility practices. The experience of these farmers can be profitably followed by their neighbors in their peace time operations. Their soil-conserv ing methods not only prevented waste of fertility, but actually have helped restore it. "Such methods include growing legumes to enrich the soil's nitro gen and organic matter supply, the use of adequate quantities of mixed , fertilizers containing nitrogen, phos phorus and potash, liming, contour plowing and a limiting, so far as pos sible, of soil-depleting crops." Sou Fertility Replenishaieet, The matter of aoil fertility replen ishment will have an important bearing on the peacetime continua tion of farm prosperity. If the nation's farms are to be kept pro ductive, a vast soil-rebuilding job Ues immediately ahead. How important this is may be un derstood from s recent report Issued by the Soil Conservation service of the department of agriculture which estimated that nearly one billion acres?more than SO per cent of the nation's farmlands need soil con servation treatment to protect them rrom erosion and to maintain their fertility. Wartime crop goals used up the soil's resources of nitrogen, phos phorus and potash faster than they could be replaced in spite of the fact that the fertiliser industry broke all previous production records. Farm ers have realized that this wartime drain on their soil's fertility level was a necessary contribution to vic tory But the tact remains that wealth borrowed from the soil to help hasten peace must be repaid. While every encouragement wiQ be given to soil rebuilding projects by the federal government and by state agricultural agencies, the ma jor responsibility for getting the job done will rest an the shoulders off individual farmers. The effectiveness of the individual farmer's soil rebuilding program can be enhanced by the co-opera tion of agronomists at state agricul tural colleges and experiment sta tions. Through research and experi mentation over a long span of years, these experts have developed infor mation concerning fertilizer needs tor various crops and soils that is helpful to the farmer who is under taking a replenishment program. The co-operation of the fertilizer industry will be an effective aid, also. The present plant capacity off manufacturers is sufficient to meet all peacetime needs of agriculture. Farmers are more fortunately sit uated for accomplishing their soil restoring job than at any time in the past generation. Dollars invested in war bonds, during the period when farm cash income has bees at a high level and farm debt at a low point, can provide the ready cash to pay for the nitrogen, phosphorus and pot

North Carolina Newspapers is powered by Chronam.

Digital North Carolina