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The Alamance gleaner. (Graham, Alamance County, N.C.) 1875-1963, December 13, 1945, Image 1

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The Alamance Gleaner VoL LXXI GRAHAM, N. C., THURSDAY, DECEMBER 13, 1945 Na 45 WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS Congress to Probe Diplomacy of State Department; Maneuver to Modify Demands of CIO Unions __________ Released by Western Newspaper Union. ____________ (K>rrOK1 NOTE: Whin ?pinions are expressed In these cetamss. they are these ef Western Newspaper Unlen's news analysis and net necessarily ef this newspaper.) Although handicapped by an aim oat complete lack of tools, these Ger man prisoners of war in PW camp at Fowejr, England, still managed to tarn ont this varied collection of toys to help All Santa's bag for little Britons. The amatenr workmen included a for mer Berlin Judge, a doc tor from Hamburg and university students. U.S. DIPLOMACY: Duplicity Charged lan( under fire lor its implemen tation of American foreign policy in be wake at U. S. victories on the NtteWd, the state department was scheduled for congressional in vestigation following ex-Amb. Pat rick Hurley's charge that some of Ms personnel had worked counter to his efforts to promote the uni ?catkn of China. b loosing his bombshell on Capi tal Hill, Hurley declared that cer tain professional diplomats were in viting future conflict by siding with be Chinese communist party and the imperialistic bloc of nations in keeping China divided against itself and unable to resist encroach While he worked for a democratic China which could act as stabilizing hdhence in the Orient, Hurley charged, some state department of baals told the Chinese communists bat his activities did not reflect the policy of the U. S. and they should aot enter into a unified government mdess retaining military control. Agreement to investigate the state department followed the de mand of Senator Wherry (Rep., Neb.) for an inquiry to determine whether there was any variance be tween U. S. -foreign policy and the Potsdam declaration and whether be foreign service was interfering with domestic affairs in South America, influencing other coun tries toward communist govern aaent, or clashing with the army and navy over occupation policy. Meanwhile, Gen. George C. Mar shall, ex-chief of staff, prepared to embark upon his duties as special envoy to China in the midst of Chiang Kai-shek's redoubling of ef forts to unify the country and open be way for vigorous postwar eco nomic expansion. In announcing his program to modernize the country, Chiang declared the No. 1 goal euakl be the improvement of trans portation to facilitate an exchange of materials between the various regions. LABOR: On Defensive Heretofore on the offensive with its *nwii for higher wages to main Uq high wartime pay, the CIO was eartdc nly thrown back on the de fcasiie with the Ford Motor com pany's proposal that the United hnfcnuubilu workers pay ? $5 a day fcsr lac. workers involved in un anHnn ill J- strikes. Fend asked for this protection agahsst production losses as officials caatmned negotiations with the HAW, whose leaders have main hM that the industry can afford W per cent pay boosts without rais iag prices because of large re aarses and promises of substantial peaffts from huge postwar output. While UAW immediately chal leaged the effectiveness of a line in cathiag wildcat walkouts. Ford offV riik insisted that the union could naart sufficient pressure on its lo Asdsns and controlled produc Meanwhile, General Motors, re eeeaiag a previous stand, agreed to caaaSflt with government officials aeaeeming resumption of negotia ?aaa with the UAW after the union ?a?a gieund in itStRfhands'for a 30 par neat wage increase. With the asaapanp holding out for a modiflca ?aa ef terms, the UAW declared Wat ft weald seek no wage Increase necessitating a rise in prices. With the work stoppages in G. M. plants threatening to paralyze prac tically all of the automobile indus try because of its dependence upon G. M. for parts, a further menace to reconversion was posed in the United Steel workers vote for a strike if leaders deemed one neces sary to enforce demands for a $2 a day wage raise. OPA refusal to grant steel manu facturers price increases until the conclusion of the year's operations permits closer study of their profit also has hardened company re sistance to the UAW demands. To the union's assertion that the indus try could well pay the increase out of alleged "hidden profits," manage ment has replied that government findings have classified the so-called "hidden profits" as reasonable busi ness reserves assuring future expan sion. WAR CRIMES: Pleads Innocence First major axis personage to be brought to trial for war crimes. Gen. Tomoyukl Yamashita, erst while "Tiger of Malaya" and Jap commander in the Philippines, flat ly denied charges of countenanc ing rape, pillage and murder and then rested his case. As the Allied military tribunal pon dered the case, Yamashita consid ered appeal to the U. S. Supreme court i n case of conviction on grounds of illegal ity of the pro ceedings. Previ ously the Philip pine Supreme court had refused a similar protest, with the demand the defendant be freed for trial be fore civil author ities. In taking the stand to deny charges against him, the squat, browned Jap general declared he ordered none o( the atrocities re lated by scores of witnesses or con tained in hearsay evidence ad mitted by the court. To the accusa tion that he had planned the exter mination of the Filipinos, Yamashita declared that common sense indi cated the intpracticability of killing 18 million people. The case against Yamashita was complicated by the apparent divi sion of command in Japanese ground, naval and air forces in the Philippines. While as ground com mander Yamashita said he had or dered the withdrawal of his troops from Manila for warfare in the mountains, Nipponese naval detach ments remained within the capital for the fighting which heavily dam aged the city and exposed civilians to danger. Meanwhile, the trial of 20 top Nazis proceeded apace in Nuern berg, with the U. S. prosecutors drawing from voluminous evidence to prove charges of German coo spiracy for aggressive warfare. Citing a statement of Diplomatist Franz Van Papen that southeastern Europe was Germany's hinterland and must be brought within the political framework of the Reich, D. S. Prosecutor Sidney Alderman quoted documents*?' show that Hit ler had delegated Von Papen to de velop a program of Nazi infiltration into the Austrian government to take it over after the aborted putsch of IBM. Gen. YmmaihiU PEARL HARBOR: Kept Top Secret Because of a desire to keep secret the U. S. breaking of the Japa nese code, the intercepted mes sages Revealing Jap political and military moves were be known only to nine top officials, Maj. Gen. Sher man Miles, former head of army in telligence, told the congressional committee investigating Pearl Har bor. Along with President Roosevelt, others possessing knowledge of the decoded messages included Secre tary of War SUmson, Secretary of State Hull, Lt. Gen. L. T. Gerow, head of the war plans division. Sec retary of the Navy Knox, Admiral Stark, chief of naval operations, CoL R. S. Bratton of the army intelli gence staff, Gen. George C. Mar shall, chief of staff, and Miles. Though Maj. Gen. Walter Short and Rear Adm. Husband Kimmel were not apprized of the breaking of the code, Miles said, they were kept informed of the course of events. However, with officials anticipating an attack in the far east. Short and Kimmel were advised to take only such action as they deemed necessary at Pearl Harbor and guard against sabotage. When asked what significance was attached to a decoded Jap mes sage of Sept. 24, 1941, asking espion age agents in Hawaii to advise Tokyo of the disposition of the American fleet in Pearl Harbor, Miles replied: "Taken alone, it looks exactly like what we know now it was?a plan for bombing Pearl Har bor. But unless we look on it with hindsight, it was only one of a great number of Jap messages seeking in formation on our warships. It was perfectly normal for them to be doing so. . . ." Loses Half of House When the mum of Silver Lake, Minn^ decided to widen Center street, the village council attempted to in duce Mrt. Clara Caspryzk, 44, to move her five-room residence, extending 16 feet into the area required for the ex pansion. Not only did Mrt, Caspryzk refuse a proposition for the town to move the building back and pay her $800, Mayor Frank Bandes said, but she also ig nored a court order to relocate the structure, leading to the judges per mission for the village to remove that part of the property blocking the im provement. After a crew of carpenters virtually sawed the building in half, Mrs. Cos pyrzk was left with only one bedroom intact, the living room having been completely shorn and the kitchen, din ing room and an upstairs bedroom bisected. Because she had no other place to live, Mrs. Caspryzk, who is crippled by arthritis, returned to make her home in the one remaining bed room after a brief stay with her broth er-in-law. GERMANY: Review Rule With French obstruction to Allied plans for a central administration for Germany resulting in the eco nomic breakup of the Reich and dif ficulties for a restoration of nor malcy, the U. S. was asked to study the advisability of revising the Pots dam declaration pledging this coun try to its present course. In UPffina o rn-nvomino4ir.n ! U. S. occupation policies, Byron u Price, former director of the office of censorship who undertook a spe cial mission to Europe for Presi dent Truman, declared that the Ger man people were nursing old and new hatreds with increasing bitter ness as their sufferings Increased and disposing themselves to what ever new leadership desperation may produce. With German agriculture and in dustry seriously impaired during the closing stages of the war, Price said the U. S. must also decide whether to deliver foodstuffs to the country to prevent starvation and epidemics this winter and help re move some causes for unrest LABOR-INDUSTRY: Meet Lags Started with high hopes, the labor industry conference called in Wash ington, D. C., slowly ground toward its conclusion with indications that no important new machinery would be constructed for the speedy set tlement of employee-management disputes. In seeking orderly procedure in drawing up an original contract the conferees recommended collective bargaining first then conciliation, and finally voluntary arbitration. In cases of grievances under existing . contracts, the delegates resolved that pacts should Incorporate provi sions for settlements without resort to strikes, lockouts or other in terruptions to production. As the conference faltered toward its end, with neither side apparently disposed to surrender any of its bargaining advantages, labor-indus try representatives approved a pro posal to meet for consultation when ever they saw fit Tale of the Town: NBC's Ben Grmuer report* that Albert Einstein, the top mathema tician and atomic bomb authority, likes to relax with a violin. Recent ly he invited the renowned pianist, Arthur Schnabel, to his home for a musical week-end. They were running through a rath er involved Mozart sonata and Ein stein was having some trouble play i ing. Finally, after several explana tions, Schnabel got Irritated. He banged his hands down on the key board and groaned: "No, no, Albert. For heaven's sakes, can't you count? One, two, three, four. Ain't It the Trnt||: On One 5th | Avenue, a patron was telling a bar tender his views on the atomic world. "Jet planes, sky highways ' and there'll even be machines as bartenders! These machines will do everything you dol" "Mebbeso," said the bartender, "but those machines wouldn't last a week. They might mix you a drink and hand it to you?but no machine would ever put ap with some of the lushes we meet!" Quiteso, Qnlteso: Marie MacDon ald, just arrived for the premiere of her latest film ("Getting Gertie's Garter"), was asked if she wasn't bored with people who keep call i ing her The Body, "No," said Marie, "I found out that in Hollywood a gal can't get | anywhere by being referred to as The Brain." Arlene Francis relays the one about the Hollywood producer who squawked when he got an estimate depicting Civil war scenes. It was for $1,000,000. "Why, you money wasters 1" barked the producer. "The battle between the North and the South didn't cost $790,0001" "The original battle," snapped an accountant, "was a flop." Boo, Y'self! Boris Karloff met Beta Lugosi the other middle-of-the night and compared notes. "I had a wonderful day," said Karloff, "I picked up three more corpses!" "V don't say I" said Lugosi. "That's wonderful. You must coma to my house some time and see my bathtub full of blood!" "I'd love to," exclaimed Boris. "What's your phone number?" "Call me any time," giggled Beta. "I'm at PLazma 9-2299." A Hollywood star and a West Coast "Dorothy Parker" haven't talked for years. They met at a party the other day, and the actress purred: "The critics all say my latest picture is a must." "That makes two in a row," said the other. "You mussed up the last one, tool" New Yorkers are talking about President Truman's very good friend from Missouri, who recently went to the White House for a favor. "My boy is overseas, and his old mother may not live. Can you help me bring him home right away?" Mr. Truman obliged. ... A few weeks later the same old pal went to see the President for another "break." ... He hoped Mr. Truman could arrange the transfer of some factories (in the reconversion man ner) for him. "It would put me on Easy Street," said the old pal .. . "Now look here," said Truman sternly, "helping get your boy back to see his ailing mother was human. Don't ask me to fix anything in which money is involved. I'm not go ing to be part of any Harding ad ministration!" New Yorkers are talk tag about the headache* Paul McNutt will Inherit when-he land* in the Philippine*. . . . Blanche Payrs new understudy role (to G. Nleeen) hi "Follow the Girl*," a funny ahow The digest mag which expect* to be** a circu lation of forty million on* day. If Russia permit* It there. . . . Greta Garbo'a apuming of the leading role in "Bella Donna" becauae, the eaid, ahe will never again play the part of a (infill woman. . . . The exciting Warner abort titled: "Hitler Live*?" . . . The record night at a mid town spot: $10,000 (on the Sat. mght of the army game). . . Burl Ivea and Helen Payne, who cancelled their merger plane recently, deciding I* wed in the next fortnight. . . . Play Wright Lillian tfellman switching i producer* after all thoea aucceesful years! . . . The backer* of a flop ahow wMo complained to the D. A. ' Saturday about the alleged misuse of their monies. A producer and as sociates will be investigated. . . . The fact that if you dial the letters MAE WEST an your phone (tee | he*), you always get a busy sig nal! Millions of veterans, like SgL Walter Osburn of Detroit, who was wounded in Normandy. want homes of their own. Most of them have considerable savings, and are ready to build if prices are within reason. OPA Straggles to 'Hold that Line' As Baildiag Costs Threateo to Zoom By AL JEDLICKA and WALTER 8HEAO lUlMMd br VtfUtn N*wspap?r Union. WITH ? huge postwar building and realty boom in the offing, sentiment in the nation's capital favors both government and industry work ing hand in hand to combat the dangers of an inflationary spiral resulting from the tremendous pent-up demand for housing. Already empowered to regulate costs of materials and services, the Office of Price Administration has sought the additional authority to control the sales prioe of finished homes and used buildings. Unless granted such permission, the agency argues, its check over the industry would be imperfect, and untram melled speculation would undo the benefits obtained by the other regu lations. Bitterly resisting OPA recommen dations, private builders asserted that further controls over the indus try would result in a dimunition of prospective construction, while the problem is one of stimulating more. Rather, the industry argued, OPA and other government agencies should concentrate upon the in crease of supplies and manpower to provide a basis for all-out construc tion. In the midst of the contro versy, Reconversion Director Sny der stepped in to announce that the administration favored a program embracing present government reg ulation of materials* and services, with no supervision Over prices of finished homes and used buildings unless proven needed. Borden ef Mortgages. ill vigiuug IUI BUUIUril/ WYW put* ing of Anal aalea, OPA pointed to World War I records, which not only showed a decrease in construction as costs rose, but also emphasized the serious mortgage problems later growing from the original over-valu ation of homes. According to OPA figures, build ing material prices showed a 218 per cent increase from 1914 to 1920, with more than half of the rise occur ring after the armistice. At the same time, total construction costs moimt sd 189 per cent from 1913 to 1920, with three-quarters of the boost coming after the end of hostilities. As a result of the inflationary Spiral, OPA aaid, actual home con struction toppled from the peak fig ure of 400,000 units in 1919 to 247,000 a year later. While prices auto matically fell with the drop in building activity, they remained relatively high, with another reces sion setting in around 1926. Against thts record of World War I, OPA cited the accomplishmenta during the present conflict, when government control of material costs held prfce increases to 81 per cent from August, 1939. Of this total, a 6.7 per cent rise occurred after is suance of the famous "hold-the-Hn^' order of May, 1943. Meanwhile, the increase in con struction costs totalled only 14 per cent since August, 1938, with only a limited amount of building done to accommodate necessary needs. Hage Demand, Sheet flsppUae. In contemplating the need for con trol over sales prices of awuiwwi homes sad need hwildlngs, OPA drew the picture ot a huge back-log of construction and a protracted pe riod of short supplies in the face of tremendous demand. In all, the nation has a need for over eight million new homes, OPA figures, as a result of the increase in families since 1940, servicemen marriages, undoubling in crowded quarters, the number of housing units now rated as sub-standard. Despite the need and the compara tive prosperity of the people, how ever, a recent survey by the archi tectural forum indicated that 37 per cent of the persons interviewed would postpone building if prices of finished homes should soar above $1,000 over present prices. Another 12 per cent had not decided what course they would take. Of the total of 51 per cent that determined to build regardless of a $1,000 increase in costs, most re vealed that they would raise more money, but a sizable percentage de clared their intention to purchase a cheaper structure. Most sales would be under $7,000. In analyzing the results of the sur vey, OPA asserted that the Indicated deferment of building plans in the ?' HERTS WHAT WENT WW0M8 COSTS WB(T UP-V0U1ME WENT OOWM ?I TKtr/ _ H x - 300, 000^yV/\ 30 ~T / X4t?cwi!micTfao^-^ ? 100,000/ 10 event of a $1,000 increase in coats would result in a lose of employment to more than 000,000 workers, there by reducing demand for goods which they themselves could be counted upon to purchase. Now that private industry will play an important part in the fight to hold sales prices of finished and used homes to reasonable levels, OPA will concentrate on the en forcement of dollars and cents ceil ings for materials and services going into structures. The flat prices will cover millwork, lumber, brick and tile, plywood, screens and windows, roofing, siding, insulation, heating equipment, hardware, soil pipe, plumbing supplies, etc. In addition, services controlled will include painting and paper hang ing, renewing of roofs, plumbing in stallation and other work adapted to supervision. "Increased Supply Needed." In attacking the OPA proposal to slap controls over the prices of new structures, the National Association of Home Builders, spearheading pri vate industry, declared that the only way to prevent a serious infla tion was by increasing the supply to meet the tremendous demand. "Although swamped with applica tions for new houses," Joseph E. Merriom, president of the asso ciation said, "the home builders can not complete the large new develop ments which are needed to ease the bousing shortage until they have assurance frosn the government that msnui&ctursn of hxfhr nccdti mt* terlale and equipment will be aided in getting into full production im mediately. At the same time, Frank W. Cort right, executive vice president of the association, set out the organiza tion's six-point program for speed ing construction and counteracting inflationary tendencies: 1. Continue present price centrals on building materials for only so long as is necessary. As rapidly as an Item Is found to be In ample . supply, it should be removed from price control. t. Inaugurate an active program by the Civilian Production agency, successor to the War Production board, to control the Inventory of short items in order to oHmtnsto the possibility of hoarding. S. Start an active co-ordtnsiod campaign by government agencies to increase the supply of scares building materiab, and, if neces sary, grant price and wage In creases to break bottlenecks. 4. Builders, realtors and financ ing Iniiiiutiouj win conduct a co operative program to maintain non inflationary prices of homes. 5. All segments of the home con struction Industry will formulate a co-operative program to rapidly In crease the supply of homes in all eiasses. *. The Veterans' administration, the United States Employment serv ice and other governmental agen cies should make immediate provis ion for the channeling of vets and experienced workers into the con struction field. In the matter of pricing of used homes, close supervision by FHA and private financial institutions will be relied upon to keep costs within reasonable bounds in the absence od ceiling regulations. Vm. AU Ml ? B-ia Realty activity has been lively since 1939 in the face of the housing shortage, but inability of property owners to find new quarters has served to decrease the supply of old buildings. Even so, 84 per cent at the localities reporting to the Na tional Association of Real Estate boards revealed price increases, averaging lift per cent. Economists have calculated that normally prices of single-family homes have approximated 100 times the monthly rental of purchasers. In July of this year, however, statistics showed that in Denver, Colo., costs of buildings were 98 per cent over this ratio; in Cleveland, Ohio, 85 per cent over; in San Francisco, Calif., 89 per cent; in Chicago, I1L, 47 per cent; in Atlanta, Ga., and New York City, 38 per cent, and in Dalian. Texas, 34 per cent. With property owners now able to move more freely, and ilsinaml for housing exceeding new con struction at the start, the turnover of used homes may became greater in the immediate future. To check an inflationary spiral then, institutions aril] have to be careful in appraising the real value of prop erty to prevent burdensome mort gage payments or serious looses hk future years. Having Indicated its preference fee private regulation at tba real estate market, the administrate will provide ample opportunity tw a real examination of lis practicable ; processes in o^perlod of laalr-tiiraal I _ . 1

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