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5SB Finds Workers Want
Jobs, Not Pay to Be Idle
Only One in Six Who Lose Jobs Ever Ask for
Unemployment Insurance, and Even
They Soon Leave Rolls,
Netct Analyst and Commentator.
WNU Service, 1616 Eye Streel N. W.,
Washington, D. C.
Two men who have been life-long
friends will have occasion to re
member the month of August, 1945,
for a long time to come. Sgt. Peter
Pugh, waiting for invasion on an air
craft carrier oil the coast of Japan,
heard that the war was over. Hank
Haines, welder in a medium bomb
er plant, drew with his pay envelope
a notice that his job had come to
an end because medium bombers
were no longer needed.
Of course the sergeant was not
discharged immediately. Neither
was Hank?not immediately. He had
two weeks. Then he went downtown
to file his unemployment compensa
tion claim and put in an applica
tion with the United States Em
ployment Service for a new Job.
Within six weeks he was back at
the aircraft factory, but instead of
welding parts for medium bombers
he was working on the engine of a
giant passenger plane.
Then Peter came home. Before he
went off to the Pacific he had
worked at the same plant, did the
very same type of work Haines was
now doing. Peter needed a job and
since be was a veteran, Haines once
more had to give up his position and
file another claim with the unem
ployment compensation office.
Fiction? The names are. But the
stories contain facts that have been
happening thousands of times in all
parts of the country since the war
ended. Facts like these are telling
some important things to an agency
in Washington that was set up at
the bottom of the depression to try
to help people meet the economic
crisis that comes to almost every
one some time. This agency is the
Social Security board, and I am
thinking particularly of that division
of it which administers the state un
employment compensation laws.
The sudden end of the war brought
manifold problems to this agency.
Like many others, it had expect
ed reconversion and demobilization
to be gradual processes and unem
ployment aid was ready to meet that
situation. But the atomic bomb
changed the picture and suddenly
millions of men and women were
thrown onto the labor market. There
was a sudden rise in claims for un
employment insurance as the coun
try grappled with the problem of
creating jobs for the workers who
were no longer needed when war
contracts were terminated and for
the boys who were doffing uniforms
f acta on
In this first experience of its kind
since the SSB came into being some
important facts are being uncov
ered?answers to such questions as:
What is the truth about peace
induced unemployment in this coun
When on the average will the un
employment compensation periods
run out and the crisis become acute
if there are not enough Jobs?
What kind of people are asking
for jobless pay? Is it true that they
are taking this money and not both
ering to look for work?
Let us see what answers the Em
ployment Bureau of the Social Se
curity Board is finding to these ques
tions as experts here In Washington
and in the field sift through a great
mass of data. First, I might say
that unemployment compensation
claims at this writing are a good
barometer of the unemployment
throughout the country brought on
by the war. Later this would not
be the case. When there is a long
period of heavy unemployment, peo
ple who have been out of work for
four months or more would not ap
pear on the claims lists and there
fore would not figure in the statis
tics. But the situation is different
today. The rise in unemployment
is fresh and the periods of payment
I have not yet been used up by many
claimants. So the rolls reflect a
true picture of the situation.
As these Maes are written, the see
jod wave of unemployment to hit
the eeoatry since the war ended Is
mounting as the first wave recedes.
At the present time workers are
being discharged because they are
being displaced by servicemen who
are being demobilised. The first
wave was made ap of these persons
who found themselves out of fobs
because war Industries bad to eon
vert to peacetime operation.
In the first wave about six million
workers found themselves out of
work as a result of the ending of
war contracts. Of these, three mil
lion shifted to peacetime jobs right
away without any interruption, two
million registered in unemployment
compensation offices and about one
million are unaccounted for?they
may have found other jobs without
registering in the unemployment of
fice, or they might have gone or
vacation or retired. About 1,100,000
former war workers of this numbet
found it necessary to draw unem
ployment compensation. Eight now
the claims for jobless pay are drop
ping each week and Social Security
officials say that means the full im
pact of the first wave of unemploy
ment?the reconversion wave?hat
been felt. The bulk of the war work
ers have been laid off. The bulk of
those who are going to file for bene
fits have already done so.
What's ahead, then, is the second
wave?the unemployment which will
come as an aftermath of demobili
It Is estimated that from six
to nine milUoo servicemen are
destined to return to industry
in the next t to 12 mouths. In
addition, about two million
workers who have been in gov
ernment service during the war
will be looking for new jobs.
That means that about eight
million persous will be thrown
on the labor market in this
second wave which win come
as a result of the end of the war.
As nearly as can be judged. So
cial Security officials see a crisis by
1947 if there are not enough jobs.
That is, they expect that unemploy
ment compensation payments will
carry people over jobless periods
until about 1947, by which time pay
ments will have been used up. Since
the amount of compensation and the
length of time for which it is paid
are based on previous length of em
ployment and wages, it is plain that
a period of spotty employment will
affect a worker's future benefits.
A different type of person is ap
plying for jobless compensation
these days than when the system
was set up in the days when apples
were being sold on street corners
and unemployment was a major
threat to family security.
? a <hj> aavtw thlrtl? ?I
collected their benefit* (or the
entire period of their eligibility
and (till were without Jobs. A*
of this moment they ere col
lecting for en average of four
week* end then getting Job*. To
day more women are applying
for unemployment compensation
than men. Skilled workers make
up more than M per cent of the
claimants; semi-skilled rank
neat In number.
As unemployment comes into the
national picture again and efforts
are made to get more complete job
less legislation out of congress, ar
guments are heard that people who
are able to get unemployment com
pensation do not bother to look for
jobs. This is answered by the So
cial Security Board on the basis of
what they have been finding out
from the postwar claims.
They point out first that little bet
ter than one in six of the persons
who lost their jobs as a result of
reconversion is receiving unem
ployment compensation payments.
This shows, they say, that a worker
prefers e job any day to being paid
for not working. Moreover, they
point to the fact that over 790,000
persona, or about 33 per cent of the
workers who filed claims initially
since V-J Day, have already left the
rolls and taken jobs. Then there is
the testimony that In two represent
ative cities where special studies
were made it eras found that two
third* of the workers who left the
claim rolls took jobs before they
drew any benefits at all. They say
that other cases can be cited to
prove the point.
Meantime, as the second wave of
jobless worker* hits the labor mar
ket, the unemployment compensation
agencies prepare to handle growing
claims for Jobless pay unless?and
until?peacetime industry gets its
wheels turning to provide the job*
that are needed.
BARBS . . . by Baukhaf
When we hear all this talk about
how the schools and colleges aren't
educating their students I can't help
thinking of two of the best educated
men 1 know, Louis Brownlow, for
mer commissioner of the District
ot Columbia and authority en civic
* administration, and Watson Millar,
reowrtiy made head ^ of the Federal
There is talk of running General
Spaatx, former commander of the
U. S. airforcea in Europe, for fov
ernor of Pennsylvania in 1S46. Well,
so far nobody has defeated him.
? ? ?
About 18,000,00s women were work
ing on V J Day. And now they say if
they and the teen-agers and the over
agece would go home it would settle
i the employment problem.
Winners of National 1945 Cora Growing Awards
?????? 1 111 1 11 ?? "----^'11 ?????
The thamp^e earn (Towers of America were announced durinf the meeting of the Illinois Agricultural
association at Chicago. Shown left to right are W. W. Middle ton, Mount Jackson, Vs., the national cham
pion; Mrs. O. 8. Lee Jr., Forest Hill, Md., woman champion; and Charles Beattj of Ohio, junior champion.
First American-Made Jet-Propelled Robot Bomb
This U. 8. built Northrop Jet bomb, a oast Improvement over the German version, is built on the flying
wing pattern and carries its Jet engine in the stnbby, barrel-shaped center bulge of the wing itself. Giant
magnesiom easting in the inner wing carries the bomb's warheads, or explosive charges. These bombs were
built by Northrop and delivered to the army. Spaa of the Jet bomb is about 3* feet. Model is snown on minia
ture track. In the air, insert, Is the real thing.
Adopted Chinese Get Into Spirit
Since the British liberation of Banc Kane, these two Chinese brothers,
named Bif Wines, U. and Little Wines, S. have been adopted by the RAF
Spttftre squadron stationed at Kaltak airport. Their father was killed by
the Jape and their mother is serienaly UL
First New Irons Off Assembly Line
Newest kW of Iran. ? Earcka company cordless electric, which
operates from safety kut to which ewt is attached, b showa comtaf off
the uwaMj ton. The ton operates (ran a them act a I controlled elec
tric safety ban (Mac which toataat heat to drawn by brief electric con
tact. a -..-a ? ?. rrrt-n Imnnlni
Navy's New Coach
? - ' '"I? " "fT-MH
Comdr. Louis J. Kin, who has
been reported selected to succeed
Comdr. Oscar Hagberg as bead
coach of the Nary football team.
Photo shows him when he starred
for the Nary in 19*1. He will take
charge next year.
Heads Legion Women
Mrs. Waller Q. Cram, Charlotte,
M. C-, who waa ritrttl pet sMrot
at the AterWaa I apt? aaxUtary at
M* ta'Sea**'"1 rWW?r
PRESIDENT'S MOTHER IS D
WASHINGTON. ? The President'*
mother is 93 years old. It's been a
long 93 years of taking knocks and
enjoying good times since her birth
November 25, 1852.
That was just two years after the
famous Missouri compromise which
historians claim contributed to the
Civil war. In the years that have
passed, the Jackson county farm
where Martha Ellen Truman was
born has become 33rd and Indiana
avenue in Kansas City, while her
son, whom she never expected to be
President, now sits in the White
Like her son, Mrs. Truman is a
friendly person who likes company,
including newspaper reporters. And
if it wasn't for her maiden daughter,
Miss Mary Jane Truman, who lives
with her, and another son, who lives
not far away, the President's mother
would be a mecca of news interest.
But whenever her son and daughter
see a reporter approaching, death
lurks in their eyes. The newsman is
treated as a carrier of bubonic
If yon are fortunate enough to
meet Mrs. Truman, however,
yon can understand where her
son gets his energy. Except for
being slightly hard of bearing,
she is exceptionally hearty. Her
voice is crisp, her observations
pointed, and she possesses a
poise and calmness of spirit rare
in women of her age.
Like tier son, wno uses to get up
early, Mrs. Truman ia up with the
dawn and about her household tasks.
The house in Grandview, Mo., is a
one-story affair, which enables her
to get about without climbing stairs.
A hall-acre yard, enclosed by wire,
surrounds the house. Four rocking
chairs are in the front room.
HELPED HARRY'S CAMPAIGN.
Mrs. Truman reads with interest,
occasionally attends the Baptist
church, knows everyone in Grand
view and until recently took an
active part in the affairs of the com
Back in 1934 when she was a rela
tive youngster of only 82, Mrs. Tru
man even took an active part in
Harry's campaign for the Democrat
ic senatorial nomination, making
frequent trips into Missouri counties
visiting old friends in behalf of her
son. Then, during the last Presiden
tial campaign, she opened her home
to women of Washington township
communities and served as chair
man of county group meetings for
women party workers.
When Truman first was mentioned
as vice presidential nomineee, his
mother didn't want him to be vice
"Harry It doing a good Job in
the senate," she said. "And he
ought to stay there."
But listening to radio returns the
night of the election, she switched
chairs frequently and refused to go
to bed until definite word of a Demo
cratic victory was received.
"If Harry doesn't win," she com
mented then, "he won'f be dis
graced. After all, it won't kill him
Months later, when Tinman
was elevated to the Presidency
by the death of the late Frank
lin Roosevelt, she said: "I never
thought Harry would bo Presi
dent some day, like most mothers
think. I never thought he would
be vice president?nor senator,
for that matter. But whatever he
is?I'm for him."
An<1 anunna ntVin Isms ialLsJ
<uiu tuijuut miu una CYCI IOI&CU
with Mrs. Truman cannot deny that.
Her eyes never fail to twinkle when
someone mentions her son.
Mrs. Truman has enjoyed good
health since her recovery from a
fall in April, 1M4, when she slipped
on a rug and suffered a broken left
| hip and left shoulder. When she at
tends community activities she usu
ally wears a black dress and hat,
and a dark wool shoulderette to
keep her warm.
Secret service men who have
found it difficult to keep up with the
pace of President Truman undoubt
edly win agree with* her statement
describing her son when she said:
"He is no slow person. He gets where
he's going in short order."
? ? ?
After flirting with various law
firm offers, Franklin Roosevelt Jr.,
finally decided to team up with New
York's ex-Lt. Gov. Charlie PolettL
The firm is Poletti, Diamond, Rabin,
Freidin and Mackay .... Young
Roosevelt has been doing a swell job
pushing housing for veterans
dumped off the boats from Europe.
He is roaring mad at Mayor La
Guardia for neglecting this. . . .
"The mayor knew way last summer
that these men were going to be
coming back," says young FDR,
"but did nothing about it Most of
the men can't afford to stay in New
York hotels, even if the hotels had
any rooms, which they haven't."
... Kentucky Republicans view M0
pound Ed Pritchard (he reduced
from 300) as one of the smartest
political organizers in the state. But
they don't like having him around.
He is trying to mould split-up Demo
cratic (actions, and as long as they
remain split, the Republicans can
<1. <v. (V. 41. A. ^
\ ASK ME *\
AMOTHEK f \
I A General Quiz B \
1. la arsenic a metal, salt or
3. Is the governor of Alaska ap
pointed or elected?
3. Does a nickel or a cent con
tain its market value in metal?
4. The largest number of Indian
tribes are found in what state?
5. How many colors are visible
in the rainbow?
6 Why are stenographers among
the highest paid workers in Rus
7. The cost of the war last year
averaged $7,400,000,000 a month.
How much of each dollar went to
the army? The navy?
8. How can oil and water be
made to mix?
1. A silvery, brittle metal.
5. Seven ? violet, indigo, blue,
green, yellow, orange and red. -
6. They must know about 180
dialects that are spoken in the
U. S. S. R.
7. Fifty-three cents to the war
department and 29 cents to the
8. By the use of soap.
POULTRY, CHICKS it EQUIP.
IT'S EAST TO WORM TOUR POULTRY
with Greever's PHE-NIC powder or ?tab
lets. Only ONE dose removes round worms
and cecll worms. Ask your dealer or write
Greever's Inc. Chllhewle, Va.
Let's Finish It?
Buy Victory Bonds!
A iumIL ajl. _ l.l. . _ ilanalnnail
n syuinviK riiiiusi wvsiv|iss
entirely from petroteom Rases
Is now being esed In the
monufoctore of trecfc-tire in
ner tubes. Catted Butyl, the
new synthetic provides an
extra margin of safety
against puncture, holds air
Since Pearl Harbor, die United
States has produced as much syn
thetic rubber as the entire world's
supply of natural rubber for the 18
years from 1900 tfiraugh 1918.
The rubber industry's pre
war capacity of 65,000,000
tires a year has been in
creased to mere than 110,
000,000 civilian tires aa
UQUW, TABLETS. SALVE, NOSE MlK
CAUTION-USE ONLY AS MBCTO
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