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$Jh4 (lhatham jucorrl
H. A. LONDON, Jr.,
K1HTOR AXP I'UorUIKTOH.
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION:
One square, one insertion,
Oue square, two insertions,- - .
One square, one mouth, - - - -
i 'in 1 ". '" J't'ar, -
0'I' .lV IIIOIIlilH -
one voi) threw muutlis, -
PITTSBOKO CHATHAM CO., X. C, FEBRUARY 6, 1879.
For larger advertisements liberal contracts will be
V y I II II IV 1111 II VI. II II II
Cheapest Goods & Best Variety
CAN BE FOUND AT
Hew Goods ReffiiYedOTT Wert.
You can always find what you wish at Lon
don's. He keeps everything.
Dry Goods, Clothing:, Carpeting, Hardware,
Tu Ware, Drugs, Crockery, Confectionery
Shoes, Boot?, Caps, Hats, Carriage
Materials, Sewing Machines,Oils,
Putty, Glass, Paints, Nails,
Iron, Plows and Plow
Sole, Upper and Harness Leathers,
Shawls, Blankets, Um
brellas, Corsets, Belts, La
dies' Neck-Ties and Huffs, Ham
burg Edgings, Laces, Furniture, &c.
Best Shirts in the Country for $1.
Best 5-cent Cigar, Chewing and
Smoking Tobacco, 8uuff,
Salt and Molasses.
My stock Is always complete in every line,
and goods always sold at the lowest prices.
Special inducements to Cash Buyers.
My motto, "A nimble Sixpence is better
than a 6low Shilling."
fcs?All kinds of produce taken.
W. L. LONDON,
Pittsboro'- N. Carolina.
H. A. LONDON, Jr.,
Attorney at Law,
PITTSBORO', X. .
JBsafSpeeial Attention Paid to
J. J. JACKSON,
AT TOR NE Y-AT-L AW,
pittsboro x. a
"All business entrusted to him will re
ceive prompt attention.
R. H. COWAN,
Staple & Fancy Dry Goods, Cloth
ing, Hats Boots, Shoes, No
CROCKERY and GBOCERIES.
RALEIGH, . CAR.
P. H. CAMERON, Preident.
W. E. ANDERSON, Vice JVc.
W. H. HICKS, AVc'y.
The only Home Life Insurance Co. in
All Its fund loaned out AT HOME, and
among our own people. We do not Bend
North Carolina money abroad to build up other
States. It is one of the most successful com
panies of H3 age in the United States. Its as
set)) are amply sufficient. All losses paid
promptly. Eight thousand dollars paid in the
list two years to families in Chatham. It will
cost a man aged thirty years only five cents a
day to insure for one thousand dollars.
Apply for further information to
H.A. LONDON, Jr., Gen. Agt.
PITTSBOKO', N. C.
Dr. A. D. MOORE,
Offum bit profession! services to tbe citizens of
Cbthm. with an experieoot of thirty year he
hupea to g lv vutir. satisfaction.
Attorney at Law,
PITTSBOEO', XT. C.,
Practices in the Courts ot Chatham, Harnett,
oore and Orange, aud ia the Supreme and Federal
O. S. POE,
Dry Goods, Groceries It General Merchandise,
All kinds of Flows and Castings, Baggy
BaterUli, Furniture, tto.
PITTMBORO', N. CAR.
A WOMAN'S QUESTION.
KMZAHKTH BAUHKT DROWNING.
lo you know you have asked for the costliest tiling
Ever made by the Hand above
A woman's heart and a woman's life,
And a woman's wonderful love ?
Do you know you have asked for this priceless thing
As a child might ask for a toy ?
Demanding what others have died to win,
With the reckless dash of a boy.
You have written my lesson of duty out,
Man-like you have questioned me
Now stand at the bar of my woman's soul,
Until I shall question thee.
You require your mutton shall always be hot.
Your socks and your shirts shall be whole ;
I require your heart to be true as Hod's stars.
And pure as heaven your soul.
You require a cook for your mutton aud beef ;
1 require a far better thing :
A seamstress you're wanting for stoekings and
1 look for a man aud a king.
A king for :i beautiful realm called home,
And a man that the maker, Hod,
Shall look upon as he did the first.
And say, "It Is very good.'
I am fair and young, but the rose will fade
Prom my soft, young cheek oue day
Will you love me then, 'mid the falling leaves,
as you did 'mid the bloom ot May '!
Is your heart an ocean so stroug and deep
1 may lauuch my all on its tide ?
A loving woman finds heaven or hell
On the day she is made a bride.
I require all things that are grand and true.
All things that a man should be ;
If you give this all, I would stake my life
To le all you demand of me.
If you cannot do this a laundress aud cook
You can hire, with little to pay ;
Hut a woman's heart aud a woman's life
Are not to be won that way.
A WHITE ROSE AND A STRAW.
Mr. Frederick Woodman, acred twentv-
two, was the master of the village school
of Pigsborough, and one of the best little
men. as far as temper and looks were con
cerned, that you could possibly imagine.
All his scholars and, in fact, almost
everybody liked him. Indeed, it would
have been very difficult not to like such a
weu-spoKen gentle anil amiable little
On the dav mv storv commences, how.
ever, he was neither gentle nor amiable.
He treated the schoolbovs with annmmmt
of severity which surprised them greatly.
jL-ireeuy ne naa dismissed the boys for
the day, he locked up the school, and
waiKea aostracieuiy into his own little
Taking oil' his hat he sat down upon a
chair, looking greatly worried, and then
burst out with :
" What a fool I was to quarrel with lit
tle Nell last night ! What does it matter
if she does flirt ! I might know by this
lime that she likes me better than the other
Having thus relieved himself, he rose,
sauntered out, and paced up and down
the little flower garden in front of the cot
tage. Presently he was fired with an idea, and
returned to the parlor muttering :
I know. I'll write Nell a loving and
penitent letter, asking her forgiveness for
my hastiness last night. First of all, though
I'll secure a messenger.
Trotting out to the end of his garden, he
soon sighted a knot of pupils playing at
cricket, and selecting one called out :
Hi ! Briggs, my boy, I want you."
And in another minute up came Briggs,
anxious to get in his masters "good books,"
and hot trom his exertions at cricket.
"Yes sir 1" panted he.
"Step in, and sit down a minute Briggs,
I want you to take a letter for me."
And the little schoolmaster went in,
while Briggs sat down on the porch, fan
ning himself with his old misshapenedjhat,
and wiping the perspiration from his face
on the sleeves of his smock.
Mr. Woodman had said he would write
a letter, but doing it he found very dif
ferent. He commenced five, one after the
other, tearing them all up in disgust.
Then thinking Briggs would get tired of
waiting he employed a little artifice to de
tain his intended messenger, while he
made another attempt at a long and peni
"Briggs, my boy," said he, coming out
with a pen on his ear, "would you like a
piece of cake?"
"Oi think oi could eat joost a little
crumb, and thankee, sir," said Briggs,
So our hero went in and cut him a
"little crumb," weighing about half a
pound, brought it out on a clean plate,
and then retired to think what he should
say in his billet-doux.
As he sat considering, a "happy
thought" struck him. He would send
her a message in flowers.
He reached to his book-shelf, and took
down a little book called "The Language
of Flowers," which he at once began to
study, searching for an appropriate em
blem. " 'Union a perfect straw, ' " he read.
"Ah, that will do. Reunion is just
what I want. Now for a little flattery.
Ah, here it is: 'Delicate beauty a
white rose. Hurrah 1 That will do
splendidly. I have heard her say she
undersiands the language of flowers. It
was a capital idea of mine."
He hurried out into the garden, past
the astonished Briggs, and plucked a
beautiful white rose, alter which he came
back, and asked Briggs "if he could get
him a wisp of straw anywhere."
"Oh, yes, sir," answered Briggs, much
astonished, and away he went, his mouth
full of cake, and soon returned bearing
the trophy, which he handed to our hero,
and resumed his cake and seat in the
porch, with serious doubts as to his
His reflections were interrupted by Mr.
Woodman coming out, bearing an envel
ope, which contained the rose and the
straw, carefully wrapped in scented wad
ding and sealed. This he handed to
Briggs, with a smile and sixpence, and
"Make haste and take this to Miss Mor
ris, and bring me back a reply."
Briggs trotted off merrily, and Fred
stood in the garden watching his messen
ger's retreating form, and anxiously
awaiting the answer to his floral message.
Pretty little Nellie Morris sat alome in
her mother's little parlor, crying.
Her parents had gone to a neighboring
fair, and would not be home till late, and
she was so lonesome and wretched that
she felt she must cry.
"Why was I so unkind to poor dear
Fred, last night?" she asked herself be
tween her sobs. "Oh, how I wish he
would come and make it all up !" she in
wardly uttered. "I do feel so miserable."
At that moment there was a tap on the
Nellie's heart beat wildly.
"Come in," she said, feebly. And oh,
how she wished, yet scarcely dared to
hope, that it was Fred come to make up
the quarrel, and be good friends again.
But she was disappointed.
The door opened slowly, and Briggs
entered, holding out a crushed and dirty
letter and mumbled that it was from Mr.
Woodman, and he was to wait for a re
ply. Nellie took the soiled missive, broke
the seal with trembling fingers, and took
out a faded white rose, and a broken
straw, the definitions of which she knew
too well the former meaning "I loved
you once," and the latter oh, cruel stab !
"Thus do I break my fetters!"
Nellie, scarlet with indignation, flung
the letter out of the open door, motioned
Briggs to follow it, which he did more
amazed than ever, and then sank upon a
chair in an agony of tears.
All this sorrow was caused by Brigg's
weakness for cricket. He had stopped to
have a game on his way, and put the let
ter in his pocket, whereby the rose was
faded and the straw broken.
Our hero was waiting impatiently in
the garden when Briggs ran up, looking
very frightened, and holding out the re
jected billet doux in his hand.
He at once broke out in a string of dis
jointed sentences concerning his luckless
"I gave it to her," said he, "and when
she took out the brukken straw an' the
faded rose, she turned me an' the letter
fair out o' the house."
"Broken 1" echoed Fred. "Faded !"
Then a light suddenly dawning upon him
"Did you get playing on your way, sir ?
Answer me." shaking the unhappy mes
"1 only '' commenced Briggs, fear
fully : and then he began to blubber, and
applied the sleeve of his smock to his
eyes in the most woe-begone manner.
"For goodness' ake run home before
I'm angry with you," said our hero ; and
Briggs obeyed, thinking it a very strange
Fred ran in, thinking perhaps he had
sent the wrong emblems, and looked again
at his "Language of Flowers."
No ; they were quite right.
Just then his eye caught an item as fol
lows : "White rose (faded) 1 loved you
once," and he groaned. Then he turned
to another page, aud had another shock
on seeing these words: "Straw (broken)
Thus do I break my fetters."
That was truly the last straw which
broke the camel's back. Fred leaned
back in his chair, and almost cried with
vexation, to think of the sorrow his care
less messenger had caused.
The shades of evening began to fall ;
still he sat there, thinking how ho could
heal this fresh wound.
Meanwhile: unhappy Nellie sat crying
in her dreary parlor. Ah, me !
At last our hero came to a resolution.
He would go and see Nellie and explain
the whole of the wretched blunder.
He was soon striding away over the
fields in a flutter of hope and excitement.
The sun was just sinking in a dazzling
mass cf gold as he reached his destina
tion. He tapped gently on the door, hut ob
tained no answer, so he softly lifted the
latch and stepped gently inside.
Nellie was sitting by the window, her
face buried in her hands sitting still as
Fred advanced noiselessly and touched
her upon the arm.
She sprang hastily up. and, seeing who
it was crimson with anger and wounded
pride she ordered him to leave tbe
house ; but the effort was too much for
her, and she sank upon her chair again,
sobbing as though her poor, innocent
little heart would break.
In an instant the little schoolmaster
was on his knees by her side, and in less
than two minutes had poured the whole
history of the mistake into Nellie's wil
In another five minutes they were bet
ter friends than ever.
The" schoolboys were surprised next
day when our hero, in addition to a half
holiday, gave them a penny apiece all
But they did not know what we do, did
Briggs has been forgiven. He often
carries messages from Mr. Frederick
Woodman to Miss Nellie Morris, but
they are invariably in black and white.
The little schoolmaster has had enough
for a little while of the language of flow
ers. THE COLD SHOULDER.
Expressions which are apparently
fanciful and illogical are sometimes
more telling than others in which no
criticism could find a- flaw. For in
stance, the curious and rather awkward
phrase, "giving the cold shoulder,"
has acquired by usage a force which
could scarcely be equalled by the most
faultless English. We can not pretend
to account for the popularity of this
idiom, which has long been exalted
from the de radation of slang to the re
spectability of conventional English.
It may be more interesting to consider
the uses and abuses of the thing than
to speculate on the history of the word.
Precedents of great antiquity may be
found for the use of the cold shoulder,
but it is nevertheless a special charac
teristic of the day. In past times ene
mies had many resources duels, horse
whipping, tournaments, pluckings of
beards, and smitings under fifth-ribs;
but in these days their only choice lies
between a dead cut and the cold
shoulder. The readiness and portability
of this last weapon renders its use but
too common, and it is rarely that any
social gathering takes place without
some very pretty fighting with this in
strument. It has also this advantage,
that its use is not confined to the male
sex, for women can wield it on occasion
with the fierceness of petroleuses. The
graceful use of the cold shoulder fairly
deserves to be ranked among the fine
arts; while, on the contrary, nothing
can be more ungainly than its awkward
application. When a tactless man
meets the object of his detestation, he
looks nervously self-conscious, and
seems undecided whether to cut. or
merely slight his enemy. After blush-
mg in a foolish manner, he gives an
awkward bow, which, intended to be
graceful, is in reality ludicrously clumsy.
A casual observer might impute his
singular behavior to shyness rather
than hatred. The most successful hand
at cold-shouldering is the heartless and
listless man, who can put his victim
completely out of his mind, and forget
his presence, if not his existence, as
soon as he has accorded him the coldest
of recognitions. Without insinuating
that women are more heartless and
listless than men, we may observe that
they are far greater adepts in this art
than the opposite sex. Most men are
more or less ill at ease when they know
that they are giving pain to others, but
this is by no means invariably the case
with women. We might even go so far
as to say that ladies sometimes too
evidently derive satisfaction from the
annoyance of others while retaining
their own caloric; but men cannot ob
tain a like result without first becom
ing icicles themselves. The lords of
the creation, moreover, when wishing
to appear dignified, are apt to assume
an air of vacant stupidity. They are,
in fact, bad actors; and when a man
would like to knock another down, he
rinds it an effort to treat him with cold
But if the art of giving the cold
shoulder is worthy of acquirement,
much more so is that of receiving it
judiciously. It is quite possible to en
dure its application with such becom
ing dignity that the aggressor comes off
decidedly second-best in the encounter.
Perhaps amused indifference forms the
most efl'ective armor against its thrusts,
for few things so disconcert an enemy
as to find his attacks affording diver
sion to his antagonist. The probability
in such a case is that he will either lose
his temper, and thus put himself im
mediately in the wrong, or else sur
render unconditionally on perceiving
the absurdity of the situatiou. It is
said that people who have an inordinate
fear of infectious diseases are more sus
ceptible of them than others; and, in
the same manner, those who are
always dreading the cold shoulder are
most vulnerable to that kind of attack.
Indeed, men who live in perpetual fear
of slights from others become so con
strained in their manner that it is ex
tremely difficult for their friends to
treat them with geniality. The coldest
mannered people are frequently those
who look for most warmth from others;
and when their expectations are not
gratified they forget that the coolness
they meet with is but a dim reflection
of their own. But miserable as is the
state of persons who suffer from over
sensitiveness, it is to be preferred to
that of the hardened wretches who are
impervious to the sternest onslaughts
of the cold shoulder. There are beings
who are so convinced of their own at
tractiveness that nothing will per
suade them that they are objects of
special aversion. If they observe that
the manner of an acquaintance is un
usually cold they attribute it to dyspep
sia or to a depreciation in the value of
It may be doubted whether any
human being has ever lived to the age
of thirty without experiencing the cold
shoulder in some form or other. Who
does not know what it is, when casually
falling in with a couple of friends, to
see them smile significantly at each
other, and then accord him a colder
greeting than he expected? Or who has
not heard a knot of his acquaintances
chuckle with ill-concealed mirth when
he left them? If any one has escaped
such a fate, has he never found the
conversation of a friend cold or abrupt
when he had hoped it would be sympa
thetic aud familiar? Is there a man so
lucky that he has never been made to
feel that he was in the way when pay
ing a call? Have not most of us oc
casionally found that our most interest
ing communications have been re
sponded to by a vacant "Really,"
while our best stories have failed" to
provoke a smile? Do no friends who
once signed themselves "yours yery
affectionately" now conclude their let
ters with a chilling "yours truly?"
Have none of the old nick-names and
familiar expressions been dropped, and
are all the standing invitations to
luncheon still in force? Have we not
written affectionate and detailed epistles
which after long delay have received
but purt notes in reply, containing no
allusion whatever to our friendly re
marks and inquiries? Are not our
tempting invitations sometimes re
fused with no better excuse than re
grets that those whom we invited are
unable to accept them?
At first sight it might be imagined
that nobody would be subjected to cold
shouldering unless he had committed
some heinous offence, or at any rate lay
under suspicion of having done so.
Practically, however, it is otherwise,
as the punishment of which we are
speaking is apt to follow comparatively
innocent actions, while real wickedness
often escapes scot-free. Conduct which
might bring the offender into the
Divorce Court may possibly expose
him to the cold shoulder of good so
ciety, but visits to the houses of the
leaders of the opposite cliques, or inter
course with respectable people whom
"nobody knows,'' would quite cer
tainly render him liable to severe penal
ties. Again, it is simply "sad" when
a man becomes a confirmed dipsomaniac ;
but if he changes his religion, however
conscientiously and at whatever sacri
fice, he is visited with the severest penal
ties of the cold-shoulder. Those, how
ever, who wish to taste the cold shoul
der in all its bitterness should take an
energetic part in canvassing at an election--!
f possible, selecting one in which
both candidates are of similar politics.
Instead of being a political contest, it
then becomes a purely personal affair,
and although, when it is over, there is
a great deal said about letting bygones
be bygones, and although it is generally
understood that no absolute cutting is
to be allowed to follow, the families
and supporters of the rival candidates
find abundant opportunities for the use
of the only alternative weapon of
modern social warfare, nor are they
slow to use them. The two champions
very likely may shake hands, and de
clare each other to be excellent fellows,
and at public dinners it may be given
out that there is to be peace on earth
and good will towards men; but. for all
that, it is said in private that this man
has acted like a traitor, and that man
like a scoundrel, that Brown told a lie
and shall be some day made to eat his
words, that Jones represented the fa
miliar friend of evil notoriety, and that
Robinson behaved in a manner that can
never be forgotten. It can not, there
fore, be a matter of surprise if freezing
politeness is the warmest kind of inter
course that takes place between the
rival factions for months, if not years,
to come; and the cold-shouldering
which follows resembles a general en
gagement rather than a little quiet
dueling. Bad, however, as are elec
tioneering contests in this respect, the
most enduring chilly treatment is that
which a man experiences after heavy
pecuniary losses. At first the sufferer
meets with a good deal of ostentatious
sympathy and patronizing condolence;
but this is succeeded by coldness, as
surely as the autumn follows the sum
mer. But hardest of all to bear, to a
man with any real self-respect, is the
coolness of the poor and of social in
feriors. Nothing can well be more
humiliating than this, for it implies
that, much as it would be to their
private interest to curry favor with
him and put up with some disagree
ableness on his part, they have such a
contempt for his behavior of character
that no accidents of birth or circum
stances can make up for his personal
It is sometimes scarcely less disagree
able to give than to receive the cold
shoulder. Its infliction occasionally
becomes a duty, and few things require
more discretion. However necessary
it may be to administer this form of
chastisement, there is no reason for
making it unduly painful. The lesson
will be far more taken to heart when
given in a gentle manner than when it
is accompanied with rudeness and
sarcasm. When we consider ourselves
called upon to inflict a little cold
shouldering, it is as well to remember
our own experiences under like treat
ment, and we may also profitably re
call the ridiculous fiernre sometimes
cut by those engaged in its administra
tion; nor snouia n oe iorgotten that,
however wholesome this kind of disci
pline may be in moderation, it has a
peculiarly hardening tendency when
used to excess. It is desirable, too,
that we should be on our guard against
being supposed to be bent on cold
shouldering when we are quite inno
cent of any such purpose. London
ITS WISK AXI WIJOLJEbOME COUNSELS.
Who composed the following des
cription of the Bible we may never
know. It was found in Westminster
Abbey, nameless and dateless ; but,
nevertheless, it is invaluable for its
wise and wholesome counsels to the
erring race of Adam.
A nation would be truly happy if it
were governed by no other laws than
those of this blessed book.
It contains everything needful to be
known or done.
It gives instructions to a senate, au
thority and direction to a magistrate.
It cautions a witness, requires an
impartial verdict of a jury, and fur
nishes the judge with his sentence.
It sets the husband as the lord of the
household, and the wife as the mistress
of the table tells him how to rule, and
her, as well, how to manage.
It entails honor to parents and en
joins obedience to children.
It prescribes and limits the sway of
the sovereign, the rule of the ruler, and
the authority of the master; commands
the subject to honor and servants to
obey, and the blessing and protection
of the Almighty to all that walk by its
It gives directions for weddings and
It promises food and raiment and
limits the use of both.
It points out a faithful and eternal
guardian to the departing husband and
father; tells him with whom to leave
his fatherless children, and whom his
widow is to trust, and promises a
father to the former and a husband to
It teaches a man to get his house in
order, and how to make his will; it ap
points a dowry for his wife, and entails
the right of the first born and shows
how the young branches shall be left.
It defends the rights of all, and re
veals vengeance to every defaulter,
overreacher and trespasser.
It is the first book, the best book.
It contains the choicest matter,gives
the best instruction, affords the great
est degree of pleasure and satisfaction
that we have ever enjoyed.
It contains the best laws and most
profound mysteries that were ever
penned; and it brings the very best of
comforts to the inquiring and discon
solate. It exhibits life and immortality from
time everlasting, and shows the way to
It is a brief recital of all to come.
It settles all matter in debate; re
solves all doubts, and eases the mind
and conscience of all their scruples.
It reveals the only living and true
God, and shows the way to Him, and
sets aside all other gods, and describes
the vanity of them, and all that trust
in such; in short, it is a book of laws
to show right and wrong; of wisdom
that condemns all folly and makes the
foolish wise; a book of tiuth that de
tects all lies and confronts all errors;
and it is a book of life, that shows the
way from everlasting death.
It contains the most ancient an
tiquities and strange events, wonderful
occurrences, heroic deeds, and unpar
It describes the celestial, terrestial
and internal worlds, and the origin of
the angelic myriads, the human tribes
and the devilish legions.
It will instruct the accomplished
mechanic and most profound critic.
It teaches the best rhetorician, and
exercises every power to the most skill
ful arithmetician, puzzles the wisest
anatomist, and exercises the wisest
It is the best covenant that ever was
agreed on; the best deed that ever was
sealed; the best evidence that ever was
produced; the best that will ever be
To understand it is to be wise indeed;
to be ignorant of it is to be destitute
of true wisdom.
It is the king's best copy, the magis
trate's best rule, the housekeener'a hfist.
guide, the servant's best directory, and
the young man's best companion; it is
the schoolboy's spelling-book, and the
great and learned man's masterpiece.
it contain's a choice grammar tor a
novice, and a profound mystery for a
It is the lemorant man's dictionary
and the wise man's directory.
It affords knowledge of witty inven
tions for the humorous, and dark say
ings for the grave, and is also its own
It encourages the wise: the warrior
and the swift it overcomes; it promises
an eternal reward to the excellent, the
conqueror, the winner, and the preva
lent. Ana tnat which crowns all is,
that the author is without uartialitv
and without hypocrisy " In whom
there is no variableness or shadow of
CURIOSITIES OF CURRCENY.
The bank officer who saw a compen
sating advantage from the passage of
the silver dollar bill because payments
of silver would be so bulky as to assist
in checking runs, and in cases oi large
amount would render a wheelbarrow
necessary, probably based his remarks
upon a knowledge of the experience of
the Swedish merchants of the last cen
tury. During that period copper was
the chief medium of exchange in Swe
den, and business men who went out
to collect their bills carried wheel
barrows to contain the copper dalers.
The inconvenience of such a medium
kept down trade a result which the
Spartans of old sought to obtain by the
introduction of iron money. Cattle
were the medium of exchange in still
earlier times, Homer frequently valu
ing the armor of his heroes at so many
head of cattle. Indeed, it is now gen
erally conceded that our word pecuni
ary is derived from the Latin pecus,
cattle. Sir H. S. Maine, in his interest
ing Early History of Institutions, shows
that being counted by the head, the
kine were called capitate, whence "cap
ital," "chattel," and "cattle." Skins
were early used as currency, and lea
ther money is said to have been cir
culated in Russia as late as the reign
of Peter the Great. Among the few
facts that are left us about the laws
and usages of Carthage is the employ
ment of leather currency. Maize
formerly circulated in Mexico ; and in
Norway corn is even now deposited in
banks, and lent and borrowed. As our
Indians use wampum, the natives of
East Indies, or portions of them, have
resorted to cowry shells as small
money, and a considerable export of
them goes on from the Maldive and
Laccadive islands. The Fijians cir
culate whales' teeth red teeth ex
pressing the higher denominations.
The introduction of American gold
into Europe displaced silver as the
common measure of value a position
it held in Queen Elizabeth's reign.
The French use the word argent (silver)
as a comprehensive term for mone , a
circumstance illustrating the position
the metal once held. A French savant
is of the opinion that in the very earli
est ages stone implements were used as
the circulating medium between tribes.
He bases his theory on the circum
stance that some of the implements
are made of materials not to be founi
in the region of their discovery. In
our own colonial period, bullets and
tobacco passed as currency, and, dur
ing the civil war, hotel tickets, car
tickets, and even shoe-irons were ac
cepted as such. Olive-oil continues to
be the medium in some of the Mediter
ranean countries, and large transac
tions have been based upon it. Auti
och and Alexandria are said to have
used a wooden talent. Lead passes
current in Burmah. Tin farthings
wrere struck by Charles II. in 1680, a
stud of copper being inserted in the
middle of the coin to render counter
feiting more difficult, and tin half
pence and farthings were used as late
as 1691, but never obtained a really
wide circulation. Tin coins were form
erly employed in Java and in Mexico,
and the metal is said to be still current
by weight in the Straits of Malacca.
The Bussian government, which owns
the principal platinum mines, began
fifty years ago to coin that metal, but
after seventeen years of experiment
gave it up. The appearance of the
metal is inferior to gold, and the fact
that it is seldom or never used for pur
poses of ornamentation is also against
its use. Nevertheless, at the monetary
conference at Paris, in 1867, the Bus
sian representative proposed that plati
num should be employed for the coin
age of five-franc pieces. The forms of
coins are represented in almost every
shape, from the gold button or grain of
Pondicherry to the scimetar-shaped
pieces once employed in Persia. Au
stria finds it profitable to continue the
coining of the Maria Theresa silver
dollar, with the original design and
date (1780), because of its great popu
larity in Northern Africa and the
Levant When the British govern
ment undertook the Abyssinian expe
dition, the military chest contained
large quantities of these dollars, which
are in great demand among the natives.
In some portions of the Orient porcelain
coins are used, and are quite in demand.
Boston Journal of Commerce.
At the late meeting of the British
Association, Dr. II. Muirhead made a
communication on "left handedness."
He thought it depended upon which
half of the brain took the lead. Left
handedness once begun in a family was
likely to run in it. It was a curious
lact that lett handed people had the
left foot one-third to one-eighth of an
inch longer than the right. Med. and
Every prisoner in the Covington
(Ky.) jail got a Christmas present.
Mr. Henry Esler, of B?rgen county,
N. J., has been postmaster of the Sad
dle Biver Post-office for twenty-five
years. He was appointed at the time
the post-office was established, during
the administration of Franklin Pierce,
and through all the changes of the
Government has retained his position
down to the present time.
The Poor Directors of Erie county,
Pa., have applied to the County Com
missioners for the sum of 25,000, to
improve the almshouse by the addition
of a department for the insane. The
Commissioners have refused to comply,
and the Directors ask the Court to
issue a mandamus compelling the
former officers to grant the money.
The apple which tempted Eve is
not probably in existence, but there is
a very old one in Muhlenburg county,
Ky. It grew at the lieginning of the
Revolutionary War, and is now in the
possession ot Mrs. Drake, widow. Mr.
Drake received it from her, she being
betrothed to him, just as he departed
for the army. He kept it during the
whole war, and when the war was over
he returned and married her. The
apple, which has been sacredly pre
served in the family, is dry and
shrivelled, nothing remaining but the
The Buffalo Commercial prints its
annual statement of the lake trade of
that city, showing that the receipts of
flour have been heavy, reaching nearly
1,000,000 barrels, but they were not so
large as in several preceding seasons.
The arrivals of gram, however, were
far ahead of anything on record. This
year's totals reach 83,517,233 bushels,
or nearly 11,000,000 bushels in excess
of the best previous year. The lumber
trade also shows a marked improve
ment over the two previous years, the
aggregate receipts being 175,820,899
feet, to 130,731,000 in 1877, and 114,
582,000 in 1876. But, outside of grain
and lumber, the down lake movement
shows a general decline, which ac
counts for the low rates of freights that
prevailed last season.
Mrs. M iry Pardosanchez, of Mal
aga, Spain, died on Wednesday morn
ing at the residence of her daughter,
Mrs. Mesea, No. 83 Middagh street,
Brooklyn, at the remarkable age of one
hundred and ten years, five months and
sixteen days. She was the thirtieth
daughter, her mother having had six
teen boys and fourteen girls. She came
from Spain fourteen years ago, and
was married seventy-three years ago.
Both her husband and father were
architects. When she was ninety years
of age she lost her sight, and was totally
blind. At ninety-seven she recovered
her second sight, and could see much
better than her daughter. She was
smart, and did the housework until
after she was one hundred years old.
She was up and about the house until
within a few days of her death.
The Hungarian papers announce
the death, in prison, of the celebrated
bandit, Rosza Sandor, known in Hun
gary as the "Bobber King.'' He was
born at Szejedin in 1813, and both his
father and grandfather were robbers
by profession. His achievements,
however, soon eclipsed those of his
family, and he was admired as much as
he was feared. The reckless courage
with which he attacked the police, and
even military escorts, on the high road
in broad daylight, his generosity to
ward the poor, and his gallantry to
ward women made him a sort ot
national hero. He was twice captured
and imprisoned, but afterwards par
doned, but soon resumed his old pur
suits, and in 1872 he was captured for
the third time and sentenced to death,
but the sentence was commuted to im
prisonment for life, and was carried
The French Court of Cassation
consists of fifty-six members, and their
salaries aggregate $210,000. The nrst
president has a salary of $6000 a year;
the three other presidents each receive
5000 a year; the forty-five councillors
$3000 each, and the six functionaries
called procureurs general and avocats
general much like public prosecutors
receive salaries varying from $3600
to $6000. The several courts ot appeal
are estimated to cost $1,207,260 there
being 20 first presidents, 02 other presi
dents, 617 councillors, VJ4 procureurs
general and avocats general, aud 61
substitutes. The first presidents get,
with a few exceptions, S-'iOOO a year,
while the majority of the other presi
dents get only 1500. The salary of the
councillors of the Court of Appeal is
from S1000 to 2000, while that ot the
procureurs general and avocats general
is not more than 81200 a year.
The House of Priam might, in the
opinion of Dr. SA'iemanri, have had
more than one hundred rooms, and he
thinks it was originally five or seven
stories high. One of the rooms now
contains a jar so large that it is nearly
filled by it. Four of such jars have
been found by him, each measuring
five and a half feet high and four feet
seven inches broad. The large number
of jars found on the ground floor in
duces the belief that it was used for
store-rooms. The four huge jars con
tain a number of beautiful terra-cotta
vases, of which also many fine speci
mens were found in the brick-colored
ashes with which the rooms are filled.
Dr. Schlieraann thinks the most re
markable thing in the ancient mansion
is that here and there beneath it the
walls of a still more ancient building
are found; he ascribes them to the first
city erected on the site of the famous
city. All the fragments of pottery
which he has seen in the rooms of the
mansion immediately below the Trojan
stratum have, he says, on both sides a
beautiful lustrous red, black or brown
color which he has never found any
where except in the strata of the first
city. He is further of opinion that the
great circuit wall was not built by the
people which inhabited Troy at the
time of the catastrophe, but by their