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I 1.: fe'abwriV. 'ar Twa Dor-LARpnyaMe in f
I jJf J - ' i' n,o if nrt't n.iil in ailvntifft. Two dollars
I r-.. nf inn iniriuii:in. - i
44iAlMitf ff-yU bg charged-.
!' 'Lv4nCiJ. , r-- , - - - ,,
nivLf&rs inserfed at 1 lor the first, and 2 els.
ri.-Ji.ii.-li sliWaint insertion. Court ojrders ch-irged
I Wp 't. hagliefi than.' these Vntes. A, liberal deduc
i to' th& whbfad vert ise by the year;
j ittfr.its to Hie Kdiftors must be post paid.
0 M Se rtate and House of
j j ! Representatives of the United gate's :
j V v '(coclVded.) I i ,
lfThe preservation of the constiiuiju from in.
iCn is ilbc leituJenlsi highest dufy.i .N
houMto dischanze that duty, at wWieyer Imz-
. "ifnf f inclir riiM.4' I he ' displeasure of'rfl4se vvho
t mavl ifKaltwnti iliim Uyomon..lfyif bound
- ,i .. lit i . . - ri i.i' n
Y,t) . . ... i ', i .1 tt-ili mm ti ttio
in I Urhnnra it n wt'Il llV IIU OUJIfitlft O0s l 1116 .
trust h hv I i oat h of ollice, which he jmy not m
iiucuiiiii -sr' r r 1 .
htxieWi dirent from hu own in oneor both .;
V. ! L .v- . .:. . . . s . .
it is. reqmred- t.f clu ck ;,.
ldi if at ativ tune (
kit fat ativ limn Congress ha a iLr aiM.H. ,
rti v .full ) (Kilibeiation, re
lihfrli he detitas euliversivf
ive on ihenmes
tfhftli he dejims subversive tQ the coikiiiuiion,.
V.i .ILi i.i-u -. . r.t.' .1... i . ;
flrHriliQ v(ital interests of the cotinlry.fit a his
Solemn duly to stand m the breach abd resist
- - !
The Present is bound to approve or disap. ! "
. .j.t i.: i ...v. ' i . i
-.i I : ii .. :. i.
l I.rescnfeil top
. l . . U c i- . Jm
Wrsen ei I U him fur his rnina ure. 1 he con. i
V'siituiieii makes this his duty, and he cannot es- 1
, I 4. i. r, . , j. . ,
i, .(tii 1 1 ft I i j. ,
n; -cre fhf nvooW. e has no dec ion. In
J jec lyg upon aoy bill presented to . him,
. I flf xerd,e In, own best judgmen t If he j
rat noUnnrov.: lh conslilutioneorrurnds him 1
loKrarh tlie bill to the i which il ori-i- i
natetJi wji.n rns oiflecuons : U.i li no tail to do '
1 iiecomei a kuv without his. sanction.
fri.;Ul.'iPl;ii I.p not ih.fa nvpr.rnlpd hh. eob
"i. J T2Si"S 5d. d is relerl to lh.
ii ! iff.. ' t c .1. b .- i
Mites andthe people, tor their consideration .
; . .1 ; ..-. .. 1- 1
and fl pm 1 tin. A hp -I'rpaulfitU s oawpri is liPfrn.
j -is . . . ... .
I v.- - - . i' 1 - - ri :
lire mere y, and not aittrrnauve. ueeanenaci
.1 w .:.: . . . ... . .
, . . , r
m " iitr. iwii nifti,iu:iciic, iaiia iiu.-
1 ... "in. ' . i .. ..o- ii..t.nf..frt ni. 1. .
fTT , T 1 . ' 1 ' P
'a lie Irk unfliii llm rtTlOilir l:Hl'a III romim '
1 t. i.:u '.r i.:n ,.nJ,,i i... .
Ki F TO , f ""'L ; i
..! n rrpil: t nn Inn rip av nrra n ipi . la nnlv '
.""',nv,i ...... , -( - ,
il4t re qui
rjl tA aViotdi iK Minioa nl 'ilva n.n
j'lnrrisfider and ac uoon the subiect. ii tlie !
t i II .1
1 e ... 1. ...:n .
ItlJ C "7: " ' v " 7 1
1 ni ir u lines uiiil nisi i ul.iiwii? it tuir i' in
. . .,,,., ',.,:'J k
T-T !V. TV "-Ti I
. yiolation t)f lhe spirit of the constitution, palpa
file and (Irtfirant j.artid if successful, woijld break
downlihe ilideitndence of the executive depart-
i .v.aV.v. - ...w.. . , w, T. .
.j l:i:,i ; . . it. , !
rncnt; ardim:ik( the. IVe? ident, elected the !
- I LI
people, anu cie iie-i y ub comuiuiion wnn
hed by Uhe constilutmn will, f
:; vjih!his olieclions : a.l if,ho fail to do i X u n . 'i V ":'t navmg out uepresentanvesj in tne live, .egtsiative, and judicial must te ie.it. it
U iK b W'thiii ten navs. f rSund i v-5 pvppintoo it.. . . . . ..... . 1 iu?c m ncsnnauic aim containing less uic cacicisu oi us appropriate powers, n u
t i . . . ' . i . i'i'vv , 1 1 ii (i ii iu inn it mi ii nil ip in 4 s... a s-.t i ' ... -n .. A : . . i i . i. . : n ,
lUili become a law without -m V inAture !C, 11 ong,nal w 'f ohjectrons. In than one.sixteenth of the whole population of executive or the judicial branch be deprived o
iSib! C! L i lhM,t rom 11 l"mvV !d g"afure, ; ,L United States. ' ' Powers conferred unon either as checks on th
W i. F"! vv, . V '".Ji " v" ! 13 executing the w.ll of the people constitu- i Th PxirPm, I..,,,! ;ii..0iM,tt ,oi,,;iv .r. i..
ol iwo.t&mis! ol eiicn uouse ; arm, in mat event, ;
.ouer to d.-fl-nd. their rights, lhe mere instru. ; H,iU5. of Congress shall difier with him in opin--ment
of a jnajonty of Cujtgrcss, A surrender, iot)f , hey exercise their veto upon his recommeh-
"rt 1W T P'r Znn wlMC . Jint C(,n !
st.twtujr nas inve8u.(i.s.o.Me, wouiu etiect a
kicjrea aheraj.on of lhat instrument wnhoul .
in lo Uho prescribed process ol amend- i
i . . i jt . .1
Uith .tho motives or consideratioiis Jtvhich
tnat induce Congress to pass: any buHniie Pre.
sideai Tafl naye jiioitung to 'do., tie rm 1 1 ? t pre-
fiuriif the in to he as- pure as his own, iantl look
W. ,lt praical cUVct of "their . measures t popuiar ,ranrh of Congress a rei Chosen direct
'W Compared with the connitutto i. or the y hy tbe pe,e,-tt is a.n.sw'ered; jthe peohle e-
i lill ihl.Aa ItAkin tt.i.l t.i tlinn ...KJ nI..iI 1..
iliej bxercTv of 'thi iiuihobted cotit ittil ionu)
lil. It llt.1 lVII Ulilt:VJ I y I IM'M; ll-l III
j'eri that it assails the reiiresentatite princi-
and th capAcily of the .people lb govern
tosefvesi ;;? that there is greater safety in a
mjfticrotis representative body than id the sin
pWexecutive cheated by the constitu! ion, and
tbat the executive, veto is ar" one-man p nver,"
tfetpotic in! its. character. . To expose the fa II a
rvtif this.ohjecliioiV, it is only necessary to con
iiJer'tlie frame and true character -of our sys-
Qurs i not' a consolidated emigre, but a
Cuiedcraed UQion. lhe Mates, hp to re the
&ctplion ofthe constitution were coprdinate,
co-equal, abd f epernte ,indepdndent Bbvernign-
tJc, and. by its hdottion they did not jlose lhat
tHa,racter; 1 hey clothed l9 ledera;l govern
tnent wilh certain' powers, and reserved all
,Stai and ; tbr
i- fl; i-
ng their own soveriegnfy to them.
guarded their own rights as
rights of tho people, by the vf ry
7. nl" . i- ? , " 1 ' 7 . I ' I
Jiajjfations-ixyhu h they incoi poi atel into U.e ;
fedffal const itnUon, whereby the dilfejent de- ;
a, .il- (.. -fiA- l I :
!X-:icti-.,- c . t b , . k . i
Wt. uPPn Tf h otUer" niW"y t
fihquki govern, is a general principle, cohtro- i
verica hy none ; but they mu,t goverin acbord- !
thoVonstilntiVn. and not aecordinff loan !
yyv" IV.: V'-r -jr.j i
undefined and unrestrained discretion
iney may oppicss the minority. j " I
r The people- of .he.Jnited States are not Idind
;td tho fart' that ihey may bd temporarily misleld..
nd that Ihcirj representatives, legislative and
iCXfcutivej may ? bo rhistnken .or infl icnced in
fbdr fiction jmproter motives. They have
:.?,iA-tJ.. .. :,( . '. r4 !.. . ..
irure muqi-poseo. ueiweea jiiemsiejves anu
-i'uiaws wriiciijmay oe passeii oy inpir puoiic
T a . J: - Jt. ..a a - I
ins, various represeniaitonf, suctiias assem- j
. sendtes. qnd aoyeroors i i the r several
fifes;; a; louse of Il)epreseni:!res, a Senate
Iia : . t ... i -i . -. A t .. i ,
sua a I'rehideiiT ol l ie United ft ates. 1 h
.biiU-'Lli' iL ii....sl .......
. S , ,7 - - . 7 L .1 T ' " ' ' ' 1-1 J '
I'VIML l.illl. UV UK II IIV 11 I I I T L t il ' ' t !l r 1 11 ll(VL
aw ; nor tan the I louse of Kejr( sental iyes
Imfediatelylecledf by ihem ; norcajn the Sen-
l . ) ' I ' i.i . y . . . I T ,
rS-ir f l,d f r a Vo,e ofo-l hi, ds
T v " ; "J ' r- t .
HilaWlvr themVeives.iihp nPrtnUi in f.nm.
Miliar! admirable nystem of government, xyere 6u ,l,al Pres'rnl ma recommend a mea
layouifoflhd infirinitiesotMheirKepresolnta. sure ,0 c""ress, and it may receive the sane
Afij -aiji '.in" (jeleiJaling to them ll e power of l;nIfr Hroval of more than thiee fourlhs of
;gktionl rtv; havc fenced Ihem ground with , e House of Representatives, and of all the
'kk., la guard against the cflvcts Ifhasly nc1 Senators from lhe large Stateponlaining more
:MSbt k&ovi ol coinbiualion. and if nos.ible Min lhree.f,urths of the whole population of the
VrfdbtUi? - Krror. Selfishness and fiction have
o hnd asunder thuyweb of checks
he; government to the control
foaatlc ajidi;ui$ter influences ; bnt.ihese e
. ' .. . j
i save ton -b;ri.i ii.s
fcWJk'i Which they lave impo ed, and of
necjJ ofi preservm Ihem un mpaired.
. (The trb. tery our tysm M not to be
iQirrV!i.J.ui'-.. L ..:jJ.- -
iirra . J. . . ' .,.T . . i . .
V.Tv ' ; -mauve?, i lie constitution ml
. Mpon; aJl brand
7, ---'Maiuii, in nnta n-
.esofihogovernmenl,.in , power ofthe Vice Piesident to give the casting ?' " ,:" V, Z
error lo be corecled. and vote upon an equal division ofthe Senate should f' Vu . V r. irrnnsti m
. . i . ... . '.. . . i .... .. -Kih ikav imH npver 'riven tneir consiituuonai
p-i"iiU9 nass ayay ; but if lhe people settle j be abolished also. I lie Vice ; 1'resideni cxer-
i,JtIUn!ji afUrr1 coqvictioiiditleren from that ( cises lhe veto power quite as ejfl'ectually, by re
"'J rur; renreentat iveu. iintT ;-. m i ii,:- o i.ill hv hi rniincr viip iKp In-ai.
repreentatives. ihev wJvp pfript o lUir
100 changing their public servants.
j Me.checfesjwhich the pepplo tmppied on their
iff.nUjiiif lhe adoption ofilieiconsfitu.
;j?ob,J are it he- best evidences of their capacity
, f if-government. They know that tho men
' fe. ,NrMct-t6 public-Btatfons are of like
S,ef f,idipa?8ions w thfev. iridi
i'rT0 Mriis,d without beini? restricted bv
without being rest rioted by co-
. " - fifiWr. 4- Proprietor,. ! - 1 ; - . J ctiT " ! f J " SlMl?"-"
- . ; i - : . j - i- . ' .
ordinate 'nuih'drilies and constitutional limita.
lions. Vho that has witnessed thcJefi!niTon
of Chress fur the last thirty vears will say
hal hc knowsof
- iiu iiixiuucc in wqicn measures
i t.j . ... ... -
- , -1 . 1 p , g;ern
nrnvtttSt Y ' ZTY j .
prove mnt adopted, and dpjtts pntm rl tun tha i
I . . I .ia i
r-nMO'L i U . . 1 ' . !
' ' : ' . r rt " fe V .
.t " I . ,J; . v ' . 1
,t.. ttlta ,, , , ' , i 11 V nno' . v8a.ia
'HaL absolute, unclieclccd eower isLsaft? m ihn
r l . ,M;V,VC8' ur ,uai...
"if trapaciiv 01 wie neon e inr sp .nvpmmn
. . - . ; -
"1 , 17 " IL . "1 I. f i 13 a i
-."w.i.. ursuiirem .w iuutj i iiu- oruuence.
vviskIoiii and integrity of heir representatives.
... , , .J - ' ' "r ?
, i' .V ' i? " , vu.iumiuip, nae com.
'aanded the President, as much as tbev - have
"I'iiiuku i j f-Mut-ni, us mocn as tney - nave '
corwlanded lhe legislative1 brancn of the gov '
ernrnt, lo exectde their will. They hate !
9aiw flim iu the con,titutiont which thT re! i
I i " , . -WW. re. ;f
T - T-Ti f PPb
t, h. , i, .
i 1 , - '
tionally. expressed, as much as.'Ute Congress ,
that nassed it. IN o oilUis nresitmpd Inhp in nc. !
i ' -i , .7, " . . '. .7 ;
rf-u 4U,W"S" " "c """Vica luc
va,nnnv ! ,..,nct;i,,i;,n t mia
.ru,MtuRilT. - :U u vmu,.,,, ru...n.c
. 1 . t -1 1 ...v.!u . l n..- .r
1 aw. 1 f 1 1 1 1 1 v il if 11 nssfs iiik riiiii ill
unrpiprtttivps m,iv he reieted hv the Senate
ivppri x niniies oij uc 11 itneu o; iiicoeuaie,
. , . - ... ,
nri, e-7, ., In n.icepd -hv Ihp. SpiIaIm rrvov ho rn.
: .... r . . . . : r .
JHt ,, (J ,he House..; In each case the respec. i
1 - .1 . .
. . . .. . . . . r
11 .1 fl . I - L - I.l
....-"-.. ...... .w-
J,ve ftouses exerc ine vol Rower on -me
.1 y '. - 1
ninpr ' -
, J . . . i
s- Oil ' ' t . (LIIIJ I ill II I IJIIDr III I I II " I r . I I I I 11 I 1
Pi.- . " Lt. ' J .l V.
ouutrr me cousiiunioii a. cuecK upon me rresi- v
... i r
t,enf anu ne ne Pe' lne abhed veto, ;
... i . i w ki 11 1
cuecK upon congress, unenine. rresiueni
recommends measures to Congress, he avows i
id me most:-solemn torm. his opinions. n-ves tns i ih-
voice in their favor, and podges himself in ad-
vance to approve them ) passed by- Congress. ;
.vc 1 1 j u i viw uviisiuvi,aiiuiif ui 11 cl
been innaenced hv imnrrmer nrmt mmivo
11 no acts wunouioue consiaeriaiion, or nas i
or if.frin any other cause Congress or eithe
f,r ;r rr : anv n,hW 11Sp efln(W(
dations, and. reject them ; and there is no' ap-
peal fVom thpir decision, but to the people at lhe
j;iHot-box. Tlrese are proper checks upon the
......u ...:i,i.. i... .i.U !
CAcuuini:, hibcij i mr i miflcu i iuc tuiniiiuiiwn,
I None Vill be found to object tothjenior to wish
j ihem reiiioved. Il is equally impjorrant that the !
! constitutional checks ofthe executive upon the I
j legislative branch should be preserved.
I It'il bp s:iid lh:il llip rporpsphf nil vp: m . the
j lect the President. If both IlaUses represent '
j the States and the people, so does the Presi-
dent. T he President represenls in the execu
live department the whole pemple of the'liuited
States, as each member pf theegislaiive de
partment Represent portions of l hem.
The doctrine of restriction upon legislative j
and executive power, while a wll settled pub-
uc opinion. is;e.na.e. wun.n a reaeonauie time
H.U J A t J;'Jl ; 1 . f
io uecoinpiisu ns euus, nas maipe our conn. .y
1 what it is, and ha3 opened-to nis a career
jglory and happiness lo which al other nations
! nave neeu strangers. .
In the exercise ofthe power jf the veto, lhe :
Presiilcut is. responsible not ohli to an enlighl- I
ened public opinion, lit to tht people ofthe
whole Union, who elected him. us 'the' reore- i
sentatives in lhe legislative branches, who dif. '
fer with' him in opinion, are responsible to the
people of particular Stales, or districts, who i
eompose their respccitveVorisiituehcies. To
(lenyto the President the exercise ot this power,
(t f() ,hal proVjjn (f the consli-
... .,,-;., ' a ,' ' k;,L e ,U,0
iTpnvh ihp PrpsidpnMhp PTPrpiaU of thU'nn-'Pi-.
illi'UMi uyju coiori s u ijiioii nun. i vitiligo
.hat its exercise unduly controls) the legislative
,vi . is to cofnR -in r,he const tution itselh
'will, is to complain of he conslltut
r. . . ' . .... , ',.
5 L If ,he PresideiitiaIVet. be objec
the Kr,jU,ld ,ha,,t chocRs ancl.,hvvl
cted to upon
;irls the pub
principle the equality of
L: hit. t;,ML aiAold
it s i.i i mi. i- c iia iiuuiu .
lie will, upon the same
representation ofthe Sate
be stricken out ofthe constittililon. The vole
of a Senator from Delaware hals equal weight
m - deei'dfiVg upon the most important measures
with the vote of a Senator from New York-;
and yet Ike one represents.a j?late containing,
aci-ordinrtittllie existing apportionment of rep
resentatives in lhe Itouse of Refuesentatives,
rpsentat ves nlhe Ilouse o Uenresentatives.
,i-,.r i; , c - ..!,: .,' c
lllll lllir .1 111 I I I t 1 I Ml I I II llllll UI ttl!U 1M7KUK1 lllll Ol
. - i ' . .
1 , l"v 7. 7 ,
4,1 " " a 1 ' a : i ii Jr " , i
. n a i I p r S I n t p s .rp ii rp cp ii I ass Innn nop. ion rl n ol
, " : ' v" ::r v .
There are thirl '
i. j, 'x v' i
the people ot the Union.
es6htatives, there arSO LinVr. in
. .....w ,i. U.i: .
! ,f rePres6
; tl... 11,
, mmhprs . Jnf, v( ii, o.nninr f'
- . i it - r i l . : ctiiiA.. fii. .
the House 'of -Representative?.
I j a
but fifty members ; and yet the Senators from
ihese States constitute a majority of the ftenate.
mU'u c ; suld ?e may be de
ftat' e Vot oF he ena.ors fVom ine
ottC" 7 . . " ri .''7' .
........ I ... .ii. n n 11 i-ii r f ..p........ i.. . i .
,,u,,vl- ivauj iu i-iirti-gi- iiib an iz.a' ion oi iiiu
Senate on this account, or to strike that body
pract.ca ly out of existence, by requiring that ,1s
i ac,,ou sha!1 be conformed to th? w,!l olthe more
it . .1. C .ki. ,u r.v
, t -i . . , . - 1 1 - i ii i .
erposes i riesiaent should ne practically aooiisneu, me - i r - - - '.:tv pffprtpd
jecting a bill by his casting vote, as the Presi- The Supreme Court of the United Stales is
dent does by refusing to approve or sign it. invested with the power to declare, and hasde
This power has been exercised by the Vice clartj," acts of Congress passed with the con.
President in a few instances, he most impor- cur. nee of the Sernite, the House of Represen.
lant of which was lhe rejection of I he bill to re- j tatives, and theyappriival of lhe President to be
charter the hank ofthe United Slates in 1811. unconstitutional and Void; and yet none, it is
It man Lonnnn 1U1 o I.ill mi v hp nncpd bv ft
a billmay; be passed by a
i House of Representatives,
large majority ofthe House of Repre
timj iiaf'ivil iimi
iond may be supported byfhe Senators ifrom the
SAIJSBUHY, N. C, THURSDAY, JANUARY 4,
Inrper State?, and the Vice PresidenUmay re- power necessary alike to its independence : and
JVct it ,y giving his vole wilh the Senators the rights of individuals, f ,
Ircm the smaller States; and yet nonei it Sis pre. I For the same reason- thit the executive veto,
s jmed, are prepared to deny.to him thelexercise j should, according to the doctrine maintained, be
of this j)ower junder the constitulidn. j : - roniered -nugatory, and he practically expmig
Itjt it is, ii point of fact, untrue lhi an act ed from the constitution, this power ofthe Couit
rias?ed by Coogresy is conclusive evidence that ' should also be rendered nugatory and he ex-1
is an emanation ot iiie popular will. A ma- :
JX" OI tfie wJ,oI numher elected to e.ach
rr a ..a- .-. . !..- -i
'I 1 - r- - - - - - f
Ywr u congress constitutes a quqrurnip com. a
eieni to pass taws, it might happen Jhat
orum ol the Uouse..of lleprescntaties,
sslln ' H Sn?le member mre thin ha!f!df '
,i.,.t i i -l a. i :i: : - l.
Pf1 a 'll hy a majority of a -single fbte, and i
iii uirti tase h racnon more man or.etoiirin fl
:j. .u,. . r. :.
lfc i110 lhc United States would e repre
sentea by those who voted tor it. Umight hap. !
J pen that the. same bill miht be passed by a
j.npajoniy ol one, ol a qtforunroF a Senat;e; wni- !
f nLprl f S0n,ra rm.!,-, mnii.U
a single senator irom a srxteenth Slate,
if the Senators voting for it happepnd to be ;
m the eight of the smallest of theseJStates, it .
onld be passed by the votes of Senators from ,
X . M""u,,a,;: e
; ' - " x ' . ' . . . v ( iy Hill .(I till, 1 lit
flcH that the mere passage of a bill ?by Con-
: . i. .. i ji . i . . 1
r " ,r conclusive t -iqience 1 nat uiosc wno
!" ,he "W'. "f i
o me united State?, or truly renect their will.
il ..-r-:i..-. . . . . ,
ii sucii an exireiiie case is not iiKeiy to nappen,
. . . J
vu. - i ,t , mil ci 1 m u 1 iimi c it ai r oi i;oiiSiillll uccur- 1
nftcj ihot n .. , r , ... n iv
rlnna ft i j., ,u , , i
rence. It is nel eved thiit ntit a sinalla w hns
,.T .. i.i..rii m 1 un int. Mfifiiiiiiiii tit r h rnnei r 1 1
l. - v 1 : .1.- . J...;. ... -.i - . ..
- v.- .. v...... -. . . .. . ....
t,bu. upon which all the members elected to
.1 ..- '
! ---.-v-...--'...w....AiIvlil....:.v)l, .
. ' ... . ' ; -
lA,th houses, have, been present and voted. j
.1 . '
vt.. ri . ; . .. 1 1 1 !
j 'J inosi imnoi.iini acis wnijcn nave ;
ln ? n 1 .k-rv j-kn n lvAn . . I i i
T""U '" ca.ueu oy a uiose, ,
IZI fc . . : .
te in thin houses. ! Many instances of this
,riigh.t be given. lndeed,our experience proves i
that many of the most important acts' of Con-
.,i - . . -
ess are postponed t
last days, and otten i
inn, vtjen they are dis- 1
pbsed of in haste, a; I.--, houses but jiitlo ex-
cfeeding the number necessary to forM a 'nuo
Besides, in mos
of-the Sla'es the members
presentat ;-vs are chosen by
oi me House oi Ki
p uraiuies, ana not t;y majoti:i' i ot ai me vo-
i .I- ii .i
I tirs in their respective districts, anil it may
: happen that a in;nrtrity of that house uiiy be re-
turned by a less aggregate vote of tile people
i than lhat received by the minority. : j
ni t n p inlo i ncicto i i,rt cMinrf til on iVio
ji uju m inv iimv' iiiicu u MI OV uin iiilu U1U
cnnstitu.ion should be so changed tinft no
siail becolne a lawiunless it is vote for ,y i
members representing in each ho-ie mnjori-
It ofthe whole, people ofthe United States?-
Ur , i i i i ' . , . , i
We mut remodel our - whoiw s'stem, strike
,i , j . i i , ! i -i
d nvn and abolish not only the salutary cIiccks
i.i j - ,i - i i i . " , . i i
Uklged in thn expcutive branch, but muststnke
i t r i ii i i i ' i
out and abolish those lodged in the beivate also,
ahd thus practically invest the whole power of
Piia ifArnrnmant i ii n inn ;ni.j 1 1 f o cinirlii flcomr I
u- iiw.viiini- ni in um r-n ravi m .ui;t. uoot,...- ;
- . il iii, i :
bly a majority uncon(roled and absolute, afld
yhich may beef)me despotic. To c$)nform to
ltd doctrine of th ri.ht of inniorii lek to rule.
dependent of the cheeks and limi
ejion, we .mu8t revolutionize qur whole .
sutem. We must destroy the constitutional
,mnn,.t hv whteh 1 ho severa Sta1es?arrdod to
.,.,..,.0 o.v, n rM.r.1;t;rM. ?. and v-t
doctrine maintained, if carried outinust lead
,L res:ulti I
Ue great oKject ot the constitutioai in con-
ff rring upon the President a qualified negative
ljlon ,lie h'gislatipn of Congress, wastoprotect
'minorities from injustice and oppression, by ma-
jorities. The equality of their representation
" l"c oeiiaic clini p' oi nor i n-i-
'nt, ae the constitutional guaranties which the
smaller Stales have lhat their rinhts will be re- :-
in tlie benate, and the veto power ot me t resi-
smaller Stales have lhat their rights will be re-
anunfol ' WltK-iJif I hoif friifi rn nl id cf n 1 ll 1 1 1 P I r
ihterests would be at the mercy of majorjtSies in ;
Congress representing lhe larger Slates. To
the smaller and weaker States, therefore, the
preservation of this power, and its exercise tip-
P"Pe-r occasions demanding it, Is of vital
. ! , , . . t A
importance, i op raiiueu mo fuusiiiuiiuii, au
entered iutct the Union, securing to themselves
an equal representalion with the larger States
ui the Senate; and they agreed to? be ioiii)d
J'y all hiv s passed by Congress upon "lhe jex-
ijress comJition, and none Mother, that they should
lip nnrlrovpil b V I hp. Pi'Pidt'llt. or liaSapd. his
7r."'' - v '
objections to the contrary notwithstanding, i,y a
. . ... .
vote of two-thirds ot both houses. :upua tins
. Condition they have a right to in,t, as a.partf
ofthe compact to which they gave their assent.!
. .1 . i
bill might be passed by Conijrpss against1
the will ofthe whole people of a particular Stale
lue win uiihcmiumc nrw ur w ti...VM
H "S 'I? Vo, of its feenatort and Kepte-
st-uun 1 1 fa iisniru-i. juiuwiwhii u ipiH v .
r.a-.rt...i - , I1v-'1t- niOlP1iel I I II m I I T II I I 1 f WI
of such State, it would be bound by
it if theTres.dcnl shall approve it, or it shuuld
be passed by a vote of t vvo-thirds of both hons-
es; out u nas a ngni 10 oemana nai inc ip.
siuent snail exercise mscousiuuiiionai powr rtou
i . ii i l si .1
arrest it. if his iijdi?ment is against it. If he
surrender this power, or fail to exercise it in a
case where he cannot approve, it would . make
his formal approval a mere mockery, and would
be itself a-violation ofthe constitution, and the.
dissenting State would become bound by a law.
which had not been psd according to the
nMm8 of ihp cotti uti -n.
The objection tot il.e eicisp
of the velo pow.
er is founded upon an respecting the pop-
ular will, which if carried out. would annihilate
State sovereignty, and suusuor V m
federa government -a consol.Jdtion. directed by
' State sovereignty, and subst'di.tcfor the i present
-x ennnospti juiiiipi iral iiiaioi ". A reoiuuon
- fresumed, can be found, who will be dispo
lo strip this hiiibest iudicial tribunal under
hrpsumpd. r6i Kr fAund. who will be disposed
p turs Uuihest iudicial triounai . unuer iu
a . m X 1 j . . I,
! ironstituHon, of this acknowledged power a
ot 4 ri r 1 1 1 1 . I e 1 uuicmuy kh 10 uuunc iineiesis. 11 imj m.-n . . , , v ..
v" form n fpdpr:il ohinn. and rnslu into rons n uta- '. . r n . .,1 nnh
! i . . . .'. . u . been am there s but tt e danger that it ever "P
; Hon, which must end in monarchy or despoil sm. ; ,..,, -v.. o :,i -...;n r,h. nuite in a foam. To ascertain
puugqd because it. restrains the iegisPalive and
executive will, and because the exercise of such
' . . ' . . .
- rv v. ii II
power by the Court may he reg.. ded as I.e.
ihimii contlicl vvr.h the caoacitv ol the noon e
to govern themselves.' Indeed, there is more
re.-isob for striking this power ofthe court from
.l ... .. .? ' . ., . ., .
fied veto of the Presidfjnt : because the decis-.
lOIl O thn rnurl i: in.i nnri r.m ifVir .r ro.
; versed, even thonh both Houses of Congress
and the President should ha unanimous in op. .
position to it ; whereas the veto of the Presi
dent may. be over-ruled by a vote of two-thirds
' c i . .i. ii..i, t i... ,u-t i..
at the polls, i
It is obvious that to preserve the system es-
labli.hed by the constitution, each ofthe co-or-
dinate branches of the government the execu
.rP.?,.i,,0,.ftuu- ,uuo.iai uuai .o m
...m , , v j iiiu H I. MMIUf. 1I.V; t'1 111'; laiKl, Vflli
become disproportionate and absorbing, and the i
.1 . . . . . .
oiners lmnotent lor ttie accompiistimeni 01 the
" -hich ,hev wcro ,
Organized as they are by lhe constitution, they
... . ... r
worK togciner uarmoniouslv tor tlie puolic cood
" ... -
executive and the judiciary shall be de-
. . 1 c.u ... . 1 ' . . ,
orivei! or thr pons! iini mnn I mowpi-.. invntpl m
.1 -.1 .. r 1 . ..! .1
..v..t.....u.IlJVILV I'l'l'1'll1.tl'. 1 ui- 1 uiii 11
1 I ' 1
ru'iii t j jki inu r nil, nrnmi r i inu uniii i
brium of lhe system must be destroyed, and con-
J J 1
solidation, with the most pernicious results,
musi ensue consoiiuauoii 01 uncnecKeu, oes-
ii . r 1111
ri, pu xerceu oy mouoes ui u.c .e
. . .m. -it
A . . i x . . . .a. . ft a iA
;ecuiive, legislative, and judicial, each j
s a separate co-ordinate department
;ernment ; and each is independent of ,
ot tne government: and eacn is inuepc
me oi tiers, in the peitormance ot their respec- ,
live duties under the constitution, neither can, j
in its legitimate action, control the others. j
They each act upon their several responsihili-,
ties in their respective
nheres: but if these
live must become, practic
lhe legislative, and lhe judiciary must become
subordinate lo both lhe legislative and the ex
ecutive ; and thus the whole power of the gov
ernment would be merged in a single depart
ment. Whenever, if ever, this shall occur, our
. , ,. . y
?Iious system of we,l regulated sell-govern-
meut Avill cmmhle in. rim.to he succop od,
tnsl b anarchy and hnally by munarcyor de,.
P- m far from believing thut this doc
nine is tne sentiment o the American people ;
... , , . . , ,
and during the shoi I period which remains, in
. . ... . , . . ,
which it wi be my duty to administer tho ex-
. . -, . .
ecutive dppartment; it will be my aim to main-
. . . ; . , .. , J , , .
tain us inoepenuence, uno uieii;ii"t; ns uuin:,
: without infringing upon the powers or duties,
. . , , . -.l
o either of the other departments of the govern-
,1)(r"1M' r .
- L ' w v'ul ' c l'
lessors, and by four of his successors who
l"cccuru mc." " of
armrinrt r,irl il lc lmll.iv.wl 111 nn IllClflllPn Ill'P.
V""'lV., " '
unneccessarily, to place his opinion ia opposi
tion to lhat of Congress. He must always ex
ercise the. power reluctantly, and only in cases
where his convictions make it a matter of sti'rn
duty, which he cannot escape. Indeed, there
j3 mr,re danger that the President, from the re-
pugnance he must always feel to come in cal-
fission with Congress, may fail to exercise it in
rases where the preservation of lhe conMiin-
caes wnere ine preservauon oi me cou.-um-
,;,Mr f,om infraction, or the public good, mav
demand it. than that he will ever excicUc il un-
d,.jnand it. than lhat he will ever exeicUc il un
. - , M . i-ri t.Jtr
Du, in- the -period 1 have administered the
executive department of the Government, great
anfj jmnoitant Questions of public policy ; for-
i cign and domestic, have arisen, upon which, it
was, my duty to act. It may indeed be truly
. t ... . . . i ! r 1 1 .
. said that my auinmisiraiion nits i inen upon
eventful times. I have felt most seusiiilv the
weight ofthe high responsibilities devolved up-
on me. With no other object than the public
good, lhe enduring fame, and permanent pros-
perity of my country, I have pursued the con-
il(jt!..uc iS mv nu'ii bp.il lud'.roit'lit. I lie i 111 -
r " r "'J ...
partial arbitranipnt ot enlightened puiilie opin-
.... . i
ionresent and future, viit determine .how tar
,he ,;uhic policy I ba?e maintained, and the
measures I have from time to time recommen-
ded, mav have tended to advance or retard the
..public prosperity at home, and to elevate orde-
; pres5 the estimate ot our national character a
1 , I
. m uau. s
, In,okinj; (he busings of the Almighty upon
: deliberations at your present important
6es.j0- my ardent hope is, that in a spirit of
-iiarmonv arKl concord vou mav be zuided
. J . .
wise results, and such as may redound to the
. happiness, lhe honor and the glory of our be
i JA.MHS K. POLK.
, WASiiixt;TON, Dec. 5jJ34S.
CULTIVATION OF INDIGO.
Among dyers and color makers, the
Beng indigo is highest prized.
It is far
superior to any other, kind.
mala or boutlr
rican is the next in
quality, and then the various grades of
Spanish float-, Scc. lhe best Bengal sells
for 82 per pound and it is a great source
of revenue to the British Government.
As this is at presenUhe most valuable of
all the dye drugs, selling lor more, than
cochineal, the l Slates must consume
more and 'more of it, as we increase in
manufactures. The culm-ation of the in
digo plant should therefore arrest the at
tention of our Southern planters,; as there
can be nodoubt of an open and ready sale
at all times, if the quality is good. We
a' n w m - . l M I K WIIII aV T I V W a V I M I t t -
. i ' i . . L. iu t.
j . . . , - .
IIII. llfl'rtlll.' .7M1I ' 0i.bi to. 1 aJ V I V
is not a
good m i
rkct for what is now
' maintained be correct, the execu-season,
coma practically subordinate to
fan in; iiuiicu. u 1 n-5 ucui i cui uxos.y, , - -
VOLUME V, NUMURIl a5.
made in t!MS'res., t Fiat which is raised
ia Louisiana. anI -;S. Carolina. Bat the
reason of the American indigo being un
saleable in the market, is owing to its in
ferior quality. It is far easier to Avork, as
it is called, a good than -W bad quality of
indigo. In maliing the sulphate of indigo,
the inferior requires more sulphuric acid
than tlTe superior quality while it does
not Yield one fourth the amount of color
ing m.-itter, and the labor tousc them both
is the same. It is therefore of .the utmost
consequence to pay attention and paitttHi.
lar attention to the quality. Bengal ex
ports more than right million of pounds
every, year and the quality has. been stea-
dik - increasing huli-'o succeeds best near
the trophies, where the mean temneratui e
reaches 75 and 80 deg. Fahrenheit. The
soil should be light "."and rich. 8ov in
April 12 lbs. to the acre, in drills 15 to 20
incnes oparr, Moisture is- n qmsite Out
I !.. .
undramed soil should be avoKled to he
iH iu. wooi wrnis rti.u .i.iss ,uw 10.0- .
ivu u,. iiuciu. woi Him ir"u iiwft
C nearthe ground, when about, the ilower, ' puS. Rs xvv as UJ)on tw native inhabi
, or so soon as the lower leaves; begin to tanrs. 0 tr;icft ()- tjie hjstory of these
turn: this neriod will he in JiiUf in South
I - J - ;
Carolina. ,A second crop is but at the
1 1 t : 1 . 1 1 . v-. . 1
enu 01 vugusr, anu a unru in uuaumaia
and India, The first 5rop i.,tbet.
lhe excellence of indiiio denends unon
the brightness of the season wet weath
er produces large plants, but a small quan
t it y of coloring matter.
The culture is very precarious, both as
regards the crrowth of the nlant from vear
to year and the quantity and quality of lrn, that the Bill making la liberal fap
the drug, even in the same season. Good propriation (see House proceedingsf for
indigo is known bv its lightness or small
sPec .g.ty. indicating the absence of :
hy impur.ties-by not readily parting
with its coloring' matter when a mass is j
uiawu over n huuc suimce , um auue
all, bv the purity of the color itself.
iaa a y-a ie.ai
In the Delta of the Ganges where the
best and largest quantity of indigo is pro
.lonprb thp nlant lsf for nnlv n vincrifv.
being destroyed by the periodical
innnd.itinns hut in'thp flrv rntrnl nnd
va s a. a w i 11 v a .m k xr aw w a a x-
a a va a a a v ( l a y v v A a a ill v . J -aaaaawa av
western provinces, one or two rattoon
crops are obtained.
In South Carolina the following method
is employed to extract the indigo from the
plant, which answers well enough lor do
tnestic purposes, but it is time that great
er attention was paid to the manufacture
of a better article
When the underbearers begin to dry,
they are cut down and put into a barrel
filled with rain water with boards and
wehts placed on them to keep them un
When hubbies heo-in to form nn the ton ;
an'c) the water begins to look of a reddish Perusal 01 all good and humane' men.j
color, it is soaked enough, and must be ta- The speeches oi Messrs. kayner and.Dob
ken out, taking care to wring and squeeze l"n re,.ve leanvto be published in ! am
ken out. talcuiff care to wruis ami squeeze
so as to obtain all the
t lh of the plant . itf-mUSt then-be
churneU (which may be done by means of
V -J J
H mUnhlp nn.n h..,L-Pt with h:dh to
the liquor is
is done enough a spoonfull is taken out
on a plate, and a small quantity ot very
strong lye put into it.
If the liquor curdles, it is a sign that it
is churned enough, when potash lye of
considerable strength is added by small
quantities and the churning continued un
til it is all sufficiently curdled ; care must
be taken not to put in too much lye, as
that will spoil it. When it curdles freely
with the lye, it must be sprinkled well
oVer thc. toP Wilh oil, which immediately
causes the foam to subside, after which it
must stand till the indigo settles to'tbe
bottom of the barrel. This may be dis
covered byihe appearance of water, which
must be let oifgradually by boring holes
first near the top, and afterwards lower,
as it continues to settle. When the wa
ter is all let off, and nothing remains but
the mud, it is taken and put into a funnel
bag, and hung up to. drip, afterwards
spreading it to dry on large dishes. None
ofthe fo;-im, which is the stretiglh of the
weed, should escape. Scientific At.i'n.
Cihi of ijjiiib'nj ICasl
in 'It is.
Bombay contains a population of above
three hundred thousand inhabitants, a
large proportion of whom are IIindoos:
the. if m; ukUm" are Malionieditns. Armeni
ans, Jews, and about 6t)00 Parsees. or fire
worshippers. The houses of the Parsees,
f any-of whom are wealthy, are often of.
eat extent because, if a man has ma- .
ny sOnthey continue, to live under the
same rcfof, even when married with their
families, and uncles, aunt., brothers, sis
texs, sons, daughters, and grandchildren,
and remain together till the increase of
numbers actually compels a portion of the
family to remove, and to erect new dwel
lings for their own accommodation. The
lower classes content themselves with
il !... . .it. ..tr -1 ' :U .1... r,...u
smaii iiui: most y oi uoty, wnu ioc iuv.
i r.u i I .
made of the leaves of Palmyra or cocoanut
Tn- nnnnlo i'.U t.o '.n rnri ed to lenrn
ATA-IIV J' W j I Mill ' - J' - - -- -- --
that the worshippers of tire sfill ex;t in
the East, but they are still numerous in
the Jndian. Arcl?iprlegot whejrc mr.ny of
them, found refuge" from thj" relent less'
Mahomt dan. Scientific Aiiij ican.
Counsellors, of Stole. The-following gentle
jnen, ail whig, have been elected Counsellors
of Stale, viz : Lewis Btid, Joshua Tvjoe, Na
thaniel 'i;. Green, Charles L. Payne, Thomas
A. Allison, Adolphu's L. Erwin, and John Wbs.
slow, Esquires. R-tte'nih Star.
HINDOO CAVERN,; TEMPLE. V
Vt Bombay, in the East Indies, therp,
i re. i; interesting r'xcrj vatibrts nWmed the
Elephanta a name given by the PoffO
i gtiese from a huge stone elepbnnt fotiiitl
i at the lauding place It is carved out .of
the solid rock on which it stands, but U .
! now much )roken and mutilated. Tha
hewn entrance to the cave is jfrorrl. forty
to fifty feet wide, and its height about
twenty feet. It is supported by large co
lnmnsvcarved from the Folid rock. r Th
sides of the cavern are onia merited vilh
numerous figures, but tho brtver tiid of
cavern, opposite the entrance, is ibe
most remarkable. In the centre is a GoI
of cIossal size, with three heads1, repre
senting the Destrover, Giver and Preser-V
ver these are decked with, various orna-
ments. The features are all very good.
with the exception of the under lip. which;,
is amazingly thick. The length fiomthe
chin, to the top of the head is about seven
The parts, -of ".the figures are all perfect, . .
wilh the exception of the two hands whiehr V
are designed. On each side 6f the trk (
headed god are tw o statues, about Fifteen
feet high, leaning on a dwarf ; these are
much defaced. To the right is a scarp
tured group, embracing a variety -;of figf
ures,r the largestyot which is HV feet high.'
It is a double statue, half male" and half
female. Wiih four hands. Another por
tion of this design is filled with small fig
ures in attitudes of worship, execu-
tcd. The columns amlvarioui portions
Df the sculpture have been much defaced
t)y Uie I'ort ugucse, in lormer ttities, when
loey matie war upoi
uoon the rrods and tem-
caverns remains ; their origin is unknown.
They are supposed to be about twuTbou
sand years old, and .must have beeri the
worl of a people far advanced in the arts.
HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE.
It will gladden the heart of every pat- '
riot aild philanthropist in the State, to
ilie erection of so noble an Institution, has .
passed the. House by a very large majon.
. and wl 4 doubtless pass the Senate.
like wise In what more luting and beau-
tiful manner, could pur Legislators termi
nate their labors for the year a year
of political turmoil and agitation than
by this wdrk of humanity and Christian
charity ! The 'dawning of a new lear
"pens bright prospects to our unfortunate,
indigent insane may its close find the
mental darkness of many dissipated by
the morning of reason !
. The speech of Mr. Dobbin, in favor of
the Bill, oh Friday morning last, was otic
of the most touching!) beautiful efforts '
that -vc -have ever heard. Its noble and
eloquent conception, impressive delivery,.
I .1 : . . . ...1 1. . a . 1
ana ine en cuinsiances wincu proinpiuu
and attended it all conbined to render it
truly worthy ofthe occasion. , We sbali,
in all propubiiity, have the pleasure of
laying Mr.D's remarks before -our read
ers, and u so, we commend them (anq tho
olher speeches upon this subject) to -the
Pkiuav, Dec. 22.
' house or commons. ' '
' The Speaker annnounced the. arrival of tho
hour for taking op the order of the day, viz :
ilie esiablishuicm M an Asylum for the Insane,
Mr. Tobbin'moveoMo amnd the hill by in- -selling
centos on every -S'Od worth of prop
erty, and .V, cnts on eveiy Poll, for four years
leaving the CotWy Courts the liberty. to reduce
the Pour Ta, if found onerous.
Mr. Oubinti iheii went into a'most able and '
eloquent dffeuce ofthe bill and its ofject3 ; at
lhe close of which, the amendment proposed by r
him was adopted, and the bill passed ils second
reading Aves 101 ; Nfes l!).
Mr. S.anly thpii " mov.iMl the so pension of
the Rules ii order that the bid might he put
upon its third reading ; which wajj carried, and
it passed its third reading Ayes 01 ; Xdes 9 !
On motion, the House then adjourned
'it ox 'he Caroiina Watrhrnan. j
THf: fruit or Tin: vineJ
A .Missionary at Constantinople gives
an account of the various, usesof he pro
ducts of the' vine in the East at the pre
sent day : and as that is called by tn dif
ferent words in the BiblV all transljatetl
wine, it is tho object ol the writer to show
that wine in our gease of the term, fs pro
bably intended in but few of the many
passages of ilie Bible where the arjicle.is
sjioken of with commeiidation, andlasaii
emblem of teinporal bb ssing. SeejDeutv
, lfJ. Neb. iO, .J9, and also, ium. 6. 3. 4.
We shall give a mere abstract of the
au:h"r. He says " that in Asia iMinor
and Syria, the largest part of the produce
of the vine is used forother purposalhan
making intoxicating liquor." : j . - - -Another
man says in reference to Syria
" wine is not thrJmost important, 'but ra-
ther the least so, jf all the objects for
which lhe vine is cultivated." Andof an-
. ,n m.,i ,n item
other n ace, ' the Wine made is .an .i.ii-m
.w 'i ' i.i.
'of no considerauon." , Mial then (othey
raise the irraoes lor v I he author then
in answer ytatcs Uie muitipuea usesmauo
of the product of the Vine. " '..;"..
1. The green grape is used fresh in
food : the juice is expressed and presery-i-d
iirloitie ioi'nse : or lb y aio diicdln
lhc sun like raisins and kept lo? Marls : or t
when dried ar groiindto powder.'ahd that
put up for fu!.:o use. They' Jupr?ly fbe ,
place of leinoiis. - ,' . t y
to. The" fresh ripegrapesarc eaten from-
1 . 1- W
... I a
'- - t-
,1 - t
fi ; -
. i- i
" f "
i . ' ,
IT ! ''
V A ; ! ' I ! :
i i' " 1 ; .