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"Johnny Appleseed" find his way
g _ to thousands of our schools this fall he
would see something that would well re
pay him for all the weary miles he
mj; walked planting apple seeds years ago.
jn many states Arbor day comes this
fall, but the school children of the coun
try promise to make almost every day Arbor day
this year and during the spring of 1920. Hundreds
of towns and cities have been entered on the na
tional honor roll being compiled by the American
Forestry association at Washington. The associa
tion hopes to see every young American citizen be
come a "Johnny Appleseed, Jr."
You remember the story of Johnny Appleseed,
as they called him, who, many years ago, went up
and down the land planting apple-tree seeds? That
was not his real name, but that is what to
be called. Of course a lot of people laughed at
him, for there were so many trees then. Many
thought him crazed. But now his idea is taken to
be a good one. For many things have happened
since the day of Johnny Appleseed. The world
war has set our people thinking about many
things. One of these things has been the way
lumber is being consumed. Then, too, there is the
high cost of living that agitates everyone. In many
places the planting of nut and fruit trees is advo
cated, and a campaign is on to have every victory
gardener plant a nut or fruit tree in his garden or
back yard. Another fine opportunity for planting
is memorial trees along the motor highways and
good roads that are in the process of building.
To these calls of the American Forestry associa
tion the people of the country are responding in
hearty fashion. So to the school children of the
country comes a great chance to enter actively into
the study of outdoor life through the planting of
trees. The American Forestry association will
send any one a free planting day program and in
structions how to plant a tree.
Coming Arbor days are: Georgia, first Friday in
December ; Hawaii, first Friday in November; Colo
rado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, lowa,
Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota.
Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Da
kota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont,
Virginia, Wisconsin, Washington and W T yoming all
have days set aside by proclamation of the gov
ernor; North Carolina. Friday after November 1;
Porto Rico, last Friday in November; South Caro
lina, third Friday in November; Tennessee, No
vember date set by county school superintendents.
With this day before us, Charles Lathrop Pack,
president of the American Forestry association,
sends this message to the school children of the
"No finer memorial can be erected by any school
or class than by the planting of a tree. Every
pupil will have a close and intimate interest in
that tree and therefore the school after he leaves.
I need not attempt to picture what that tree or
avenue of trees will mean to the class of 1920 when
It comes back to the old school for the class re
union in 1940. A space on the campus or a walk
near the town can be lined with trees, one for
each member of the class. The American Forestry
association is registering all memorial trees in a
national honor roll and urges that all tree planting
be reported that it may keep its rolls complete."
What Is Best to Plant.
Last spring and fall hundreds of trees were
planted, but much bigger plans have been made
for tree planting this year and next. If you are
not planting fruit or nut trees you will want to
study what best to plant and here is a list of such
trees divided for you by states:
New England states, New York, Pennsylvania,
New Jersey, Ohio. West Virginia, Kentucky, Indi
ana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri and Iowa: Hard
wood—Sugar maple, Norway maple, scarlet maple,
green ash, white ash, American white elm, red oak,
white oak, pin oak, American linden, scarlet oak.
Evergreen—White spruce, Colorado blue spruce,
white pine, Scotch pine, balsam pine, hemlock,
Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Vir
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
Tennessee, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisi
ana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas: Hardwood
Tulip, sycamore, pin oak, white oak, scarlet oak,
black oak, red oak, white ash, bald cypress, Nor
way maple, scarlet maple, red elm, American white
elm, Kentucky coffee tree, American linden, red
gum, black gum, hackberry, willow. Evergreen
White pine, longleaf pine, magnolia, live oak, cedar
of Lebanon, American holly.
Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Da
kota, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Mon
tana and Idaho: Hardwood—Bur oak, linden, Nor
way maple, green ash, wild cherry, larch, American
elm, black walnut, hackberry, honey locust, black
locust (less desirable, cottonwood, box elder). Ever
green—Scotch pine, Austrian pine, white pine, Nor
way spruce, Colorado blue' spruce, white spruce,
red cedar, arbor vitae.
New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada: Hard
wood —Hackberry, honey locust, green ash, Ameri
can elm, black locust, bur oak, valley cottonwood,
mountain cottonwood, mountain ash, box elder.
Evergreen—Arbor vitae. deodar cedar, box, eu
California, Oregon and Washington (coast re
gion) : Hardwood—Large-leaved maple, European
linden, sycamore, weeping willow. Evergreen—
Deodar cedar. Monterey cypress, Monterey pine.
California, Oregon and Washington (Columbia
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basin) : Hardwood —Norway maple, European lin
den, sycamore, green ash, silver poplar, Russian
poplar, white willow. Evergreen—Lawson cypress,
On the planting of a tree you will want to pro
ceed with the greatest care. For the best results,
organize a tree-planting program in your town. If
there is no shade-tree commission or city forester,
interest yourself in the proposition. In selecting
trees for street planting the following qualities
should be considered in about the order named:
Form, hardiness or adaptability, rapidity of growth,
shade protection, neatness and beauty. If there is
any doubt on the question it is advisable to con
sult the state forest commission, the local forester
or some other authority who can tell what va
rieties are best for a given locality.
No general rules, of course, can be given, but In
a larger part of the eastern United States it will
be found that for narrow streets the red maple,
red gum or ginkgo can be recommended; for wider
streets. Norway maple, basswood, horse chestnut
or pin oak; and for wide avenues, white elm,
white oak. red oak and tulip poplar.
Qualities Needed in Street Trees.
Street trees should have hardiness and adapta
bility. They should be vigorous, be able to re
cover from mechanical injuries and be as re
sistant as possible against insect attack and dis
ease. It is not desirable to have trees which cast
too much shade, particularly on narrow streets.
Houses and sidewalks need sun, even in summer.
Deciduous, broadleaved trees are most satisfac
tory. Again, the question of neatness should be
be considered; and the tiees which will break up
the pavement, such as silver maples, or those
which cover the pavement with then bloom in the
spring, such as cottonwoods and poplars, should
ue avoided. Black locust should not be planted
because it is likely to be destroyed by the borei
worm. Beech is a slow grower and casts to«
dense a shade for any street.
Trees planted along a street should be of the
same kind, the same size and uniformly spaced.
On narrow streets trees planted every 40 feet
apart, and alternated on opposite sides of the
street, will be found sufficiently close. On wider
streets they should be from 40 to 60 feet, or even
farther apart, the distance being determined partly
by the size which the tree is likely to attain and
by other habits.
Every tree should have at least six square feet
of earth above its roots. It is more important that
there be plenty of space where the pavement and
roadway are paved with concrete than if brick or
otfier loose-jointed materials'tire used.
Keep the Roots Moist.
In planting a tree, move as many of the roots as
possible. A cloudy day is better for transplanting
a tree than a bright, sunny one. because a bright
sun quickly exhausts the stored-up moisture. An
important point is in regard to packing the earth
around the roots. They should have close contact
with the ground. To do this, fill in around the
roots with finely pulverized earth, working it
under and around the roots by hand and compact
ing it. If the earth is wetted down as it is put in, it
will make a much better contact.
Many trees which are unsuited for one reason or
another for a sidewalk are most attractive and
ornamental in a park or on a lawn. The beech, for
instance, which has no value for street planting.
THE COURIER, FOREST CITY, N. C. -
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makes a beautiful lawn tree; either the native or
the European species may be planted. The sour
or black gum grows under most adverse circum
stances, but apparently is not well suited foi
street planting, although as an oramental tree it
deserves a place.
Purchase trees from a reliable nursery; beware
of tree peddlers. Choose healthy, well-formed
trees. Trees two or three inches in diameter and
ten or twelve feet high are large enough for any
purpose. Where smaller trees can be used, they
generally give better results, because the root
system is less disturbed by transplanting. Do
not expose the roots to the sun, wind or frost.
Keep wet blankets or canvas wrapped tightly
about the roots until the tree is ready to be set
out; then plant with the least possible delay.
Trim off any broken, torn or injured roots. Use
a sharp pruning knife and make a clean, smooth
cut. Remove all broken branches and cut back
one-half to four-fifths of the previous year's
branch growth. The size of the top must be pro
portioned to the size of the root system or the
roots will be unable to supply sufficient water and
food for satisfactory growth. Forest-grown trees
have poor root systems and must be severely
pruned by removing the greater part of the side
branches. Never cut back the main stem or leader.
Dig Wide, Deep Holes.
Dig wide, deep holes. Trees become root-bound
and make poor growth or die if the roots are
cramped or twisted. The holes should be a foot
or two wider and deeper than is needed to ac
commodate the roots. For street trees, the hole
should be about twice as large as the root system
actually requires. Partly fill the hole with rich
loam and pack it down well. If poor soil must be
used, mix with well-rotted manure. Green or
partly decomposed manure will burn the roots apd
must not be used.
Do not plant the tree too deep. The upper
roots should lie only an inch or two deeper in the
soil than they grew originally. Spread out the
roots in their natural position and work soil
around them, a little at a time, compacting it firm
ly with the fingers or a pointed stick. Occasion
ally tamp it with the foot so that no air spaces
remain. Also see that the stem of the tree is kept
perfectly vertical. Now water the soil generously.
The final inch or two of soil should be left fine
and loose over the top of the hole to act as a
After planting, the tree should be staked to
prevent it from swaying in the wind and growing
crooked. The stake should be long enough to
support the trunk for two-thirds the height of the
tree. Trees exposed to traffic, horses and children
should be protected by suitable wooden or metal
guards. In case any injury to the young tree re
sults, apply tree surgery methods at once.
Shallow cultivation of the soil for three feet
around the tree is beHeficial during the first few
years of growth. Loosen the top soil with a spade
or hoe several times during the season to keep
down weeds and grass. During the hot, dry sum
mer months watering should be done not oftener
than twice a week.
Tree planting should form a permanent part of
the improvement program in every city and town
in the United States. It should not be undertaken
in a temporary or haphazard manner; but it should
receive the constant thought and attention of those
who are interested in making the community at
tractive and at the same time in adding to the
future timber resources of the United States. It
must be remembered that what is done in one
city or two serves as an inspiration to others.
Let us keep in mind a thought of future so well
expressed in the poem by Lucy Larcom, who said:
"He who plants a tree,
He plants love.
Tents of coolness spreading out above,
Wayfarers he may not live to see."
So in honoring loved ones let us of the present
look to the future and by memorial tree planting
make this a better country in which to live, which,
after all, is all the memorial those loved ones ask.
Yet what a memorial, if it be" accomplished!
TREAT OATS AND
WHEAT FOR SMUT
Reports Show That It Pays to
Use Formaldehyde at Time
of Planting Crops.
WORK OF DIFFERENT AGENTS
Practically None of Fields Given
Treatment Shewed Any Signs of
Disease—Farmers of Porter
County Lost $140,000.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Evidence that it pays to treat wheat
and oats at the time of planting with
formaldehyde to prevent smut is given
in reports of a number of demonstra
tions conducted by Indiana county
agents. Fields of oats in Dußois coun
ty, sown with seed treated with for
maldehyde for smut as recommended
by the United States department of
agriculture and the State Agricultural
college, showed practically none of the
disease, while fields planted from seed
not treated contained about 15 per
cent smut, according to the local coun
ty agent's report.
Work in Warren County.
As a result of the demonstration
conducted by the county agent in
Warren county it was found that a
plot of oats planted with untreated
seed showed 33 per cent smut, while
another plot ill the same field planted
with treated seed was free from the
disease. Other oat fields throughout
the county that were not treated were
infested with the disease in amounts
varying from 7 to 35 per cent.
As the result of the damage done by
wheat smut in Porter county, farmers
will lose about $140,000 on the crop,
according to statistics compiled by the
county agent. In checking up the dam
age done by smut the agent found that
the disease had caused 7 per cent de
crease in the county's yield. About
two-thirds of the farmers of the coun
ty treated their seed and effected a
saving of nearly SIOO,OOO.
Smut in Steuben County.
The county agent of Steuben county,
in company with a representative of
the United States department of agri
culture, found one field of wheat with
as much as 84 per cent of smutted
heads, and considerably more than 50
Protecting Seed Wheat Against Smut
by Formaldehyde Treatment.
per cent of the crop was lost. Other
fields showed as high as 40 to 50 per
cent of scab. ' Where wheat had been
sown in corn stubble ground the scab
was much worse than where it fol
lowed other crops. The agent took
advantage of the gatherings of farm
ers while they were thrashing to show
how smut and other cereal diseases
wer ( e causing losses and to demon
strate methods of seed treatment.
PASTURE FOR STOCK IN FALL
Highly Important to Keep Animals in
Good Condition Through Fall
One of the essential factors in keep
ing live stock in good condition
through the fall and early winter,
which is highly important, is good
fall pasture, says Andrew Boss, vice
director of the Minnesota experiment
station. Nothing excels the grasses
for pasture, though mixtures of the
grasses and clover are better than ei
ther grasses or clover alone, and fur
nish the best kind of feed for all kinds
Where an abundance of cultivated
grasses can be obtained for pasturage,
no further attention need be given the
subject. Meadow aftermath contain
ing clover, or timothy and clover,
makes good fall feed. Clover growing
in the stubble field is also an excellent
fall pasture. Pasturing stock on clo
ver often enables the farmer to pick up
some of the wasted grain, and the
droppings of the live stock are bene
ficial to the land.
WOOD ASHES ARE VALUABLE
As They Have Peculiar Fertilizing
Value They Should Be Care
fully Stored Away.
The farmer who burns wood for
heating or cooking should carefully
store the ashes and not permit them
to leach, as they have a peculiar fer
tilizing value. They not only contain
potash and phosphoric acid in appre
ciable amounts, but also contain mag
nesia and lime, and when applied to
the land they also act Indirectly to
Increase the available nitrogen con
tent of the organic matter in the soil.
GOOD STALLIONS TO
IMPROVE COLT CROP
Harvest Aid, Animal of Highest
Type, Is Purchased.
Work at New Breeding Station at
Buffalo, Wyo., Carried on by Gov
ernment in Co-operation WitK
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
A standard-bred stallion. Harvest
Aid, 63905, an animal of the very higfa
est breeding type, has recently l>e**a
purchased by the United States de
partment of agriculture and placed at.
the government's new horse-hreedinc:
station at Buffalo, Wyo. Work at this
station is being carried on in co-opera
tion with the state of Wyoming, the
object being to develop utility horses
especially adapted to western range
and farm conditions. Harvest Aid
by the champion trotting stallion The
Harvester, and his dam is Santos
Maid, a mare which holds the trotting
record of 2:08%, and a daughter of
A Sire That Insures an Improved Colt
Peter the Great, the leading sire of
speed in America. Harvest Aid fs an
animal of great stamina, good size and
conformation, and while he was se
lected on his merits as an individual,
the horsemen of the department say
they are extremely fortunate in get
| ting such a well-bred animal. It is not
the purpose at the horse-breeding sta
tion to develop speed animals, but it
is well understood that a good stal
lion from a family noted for its speed
is highly desirable for the production
of active utility horses.
MAKE MONEY RAISING BARLEY
Experiments Show It Will Surpass
Corn as Ration for Fattening
Hogs If Properly Fed.
Experiments at the Wisconsin ex
periment station show that barley will
surpass corn as a ration for fattening:
if it is properly fed. Twelve
lots of pigs were fed, using with some
a corn ration, while the others were
given barley. The return for eacia
pig over the cost of feed was $14.88
for the barley-fed pigs, and $12.38 for
the corn-fed porkers.
One of the most interesting fact®
brought dut was the value of a barley
and whey combination, which netted a
handsome return, and the gains made
with this ration were very rapid.
If you are in a region which is salt
ed for the production of barley," or it
you have been using It as a nurse crop
for alfalfa, do not be discouraged by
the prospect of a lower price, due t»
the curtailing of the use of barley to
the brewing industry. Perhaps it will
pay you more than ever as a feed for
your hogs and your other live stock.
LIMESTONE INCREASES YIELD
Demonstrations Carried On for Two
Years in Indiana to Show Value
of Ground Material.
(Prepared by the United States Depart'
ment of Agriculture.)
For two years the county agent to
Jefferson county, Ind., has been car
rying on demonstrations to show the
value of ground limestone on acid
soils. In one demonstration this year
an average of 25 1 / £ bushels of wheat
were produced to the acre. Neigh
bors who helped thrash this wheat,
and who have land that is just as
good, except that they did not make
applications of ground limestone, ob
tained only 15 bushels to the acre~
This high yield is hardly an exception
reports the agent, for similar results 1
were obtained by other farmers to
the section who used limestone.
ADVANTAGES OF SAME BREED
Better Prices Secured From Uniform
Product and Breeding Stock Se
cured Near Home.
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
There are many advantages to be
gained when the stock raisers of one
community raise the same breed. Bet
ter prices may be secured from the
sale of a uniform product and suitable
breeding stock can be secured near
FARMER WHO AIDS FERTILITY
Dairyman Who Studies Feed for Land
Is Not' Soil Robber—Something
Must Be Put Back.
(Prepared by the United States Depart'
ment of Agriculture.)
The dairy farmer not only studied
how to feed his cow, but how to feed
his land. He is not a soil robber, a*
he realizes that the farmer who re
duces the fertility of his land robe
without reason, since he steals trot*