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VO!.. I., NO. 13.
PINEHURST, N. C, FRIDAY, JANUARY 7, 1898.
PRICE THREE CENTS.
Primitive Dwelliags of the Re
gion About Pinehurst.
Log Cabins and Rough Board "Shacks"
Popular With the Natives.
Beautiful Buildings of Our Yillage a Strik
ing Contrast to Those of the Sur
The architecture of a new place should
he an index to the manners and customs
of its inhahitants, for we well know that
the architecture of all times has heen a
clear indication of the hahits and needs,
the mental, moral and physical condition
of the people ; and the history of past
.Miles is most cleanly and comprehensively
studied through the architectural inonu-
,ments and remains that have heen per
mitted to withstand the ravages of time.
With this fact in view, a little study of
the native architecture of this region
may not lie amiss.
Wo must remember that this section of
the country has heen poor from the first
settlement, when, in the last century, it
was thinly peopled by sturdy emigrants
from Scotland. They have continued
here to this day, honest and industrious,
intelligent, considering their opportuni
ties, jrenerous and hospitable, glad to
welcome and entertain the Yankee from
the North. The prefix "Me" is almost
universal ; and they show clearly their
origin. They speak of families within
four or live miles as neighbors; so school
houses are few and far apart. There
have heen no great plantations, no aris
tocracy and no large settlements.
The sandy soil was until recently
covered with forests of long-leaf pine,
which has been almost killed by boxing;
t lien nit for the northern market. Now
'"'I these conditions necessitate a certain
wanner of life, and determine the social
status of th,i people and consequently
A northerner who is familar with the
iiiigiiificent colonial mansions of the V.
1 VYs in the .James and Potomac valleys
s" short, a distance to the north "liran-u--"
"Tulip Hill," "Westover," etc.,
I'll look in vain lor reminiscenses of a
Minilar golden age in North Carolina.
will lind, it is true, some interesting
' "'y work in Fayetteville, which at
1:1 "'! some importance one hundred ago
ils ! toss Creek," a frontier trading post
v'!,! the Indians; and, by the way, those
"i'1 '' Med in such things will find a set
,r of this store, a branch of the
1 I1011.sc in Wilmington, in the Pine
s Museum, a most beautiful example
of copper plate penmanship on What
man's paper, well worth careful study.
At Wilmington and Ualeigh also there
examples of early work, but they do not
approach the artistic perfection of the
Maryland and Virginia mansions.
As we study the architecture of our
early English ancestors, we trace the
"mansion" back to a house of a single
room, which in the half civilized condi
tion of the people answered all purposes
of life kitchen, dining room, sitting
room, and sleeping rooms, all combined.
As the people became more fastidious,
another room was added, then another,
till in the 15th and IGth centuries they
covered large areas, enclosing one or
more large courts ; as, for instance, llad
don Hall in Derbyshire. Now here, at
the present time, we find scattered all
over the country houses of one room
form, having a very interesting color
effect, and very strong shadows under
the porch and gable ends. They, in some
eases, very much resemble some types of
the little chalets I have sketched in
Switzerland in form, color and simplic
ity, and in the fact that the construction
furnishes the ornament. The founda
tion is usually a large block of wood. at
the corners and as required for support;
the remaining space being open for free
access of air. The logs are dovetailed at
the corners, as usual. The heating and
cooking is done in a huge fireplace,
sometimes extending entirely across the
house; with a huge beam, supporting its
fellows, forming the end of the house.
This fireplace is built of logs, and is
shaped like a bay window on the end of
the house. Above the beam it is drawn
in by means of small logs and sticks laid
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satisfying all demands, as of old in Eng
land. Hut we lind when the family re
quirements or refinements demand more
room they usually add, not an extra
room to the original, but another one
room house, then another; so in course
of time they have a little group of three
or four that with the numerous out
buildings make a little settlement of ten
or a dozen structures.
Now the reason for this growth is two
fold: first, climatic; second, building ma
terials. Further south, in the South
west and through Mexico, where the
climate and conditions are analogous,
they grow as they did in England, by
adding to the original house. Uut in each
of these cases they use a different build
ing material in England stone, in Mexi
co" adobe, both easily added to. Here
the only building material was logs, and
it was much easier to build a separate
structure than fasten on to and extend
the old one.
In many cases, these original log cot
tages are very picturesque in general
in clay to a square tine of sticks and dirt,
as they say, which is carried up above the
ridge pole. The roof is carried out over
and beyond this chimney, to protect the
clay over the fireplace from being washed
out ; and this great projection, with the
interesting construction of the angles,
corbelling out of the logs to support the
roof ; the pole construction of the roof,
the grey weathered logs with the yellow
clay tilling of the chimney ; the black,
rough four foot split shingles, covered in
patches with bright green moss ; all in
its setting of fruit trees, climbing vines,
and flowers of the typical front yard,
makes a picture worthy of the brush of
the artist, and full of delicious sugges
tions and stimulation for the amateur.
The fireplace is lined and floored with
clay, six or eight inches thick ; but this
is carried up but a few feet, and it is a
great wonder that the sparks and roar
ing flames do not ignite the logs of the
chimney ; but this seems to be a very
Some of the barns and out-houses are
also very picturesque, with their color,
strong texture, and tremendous over
hangs. Everything seems so delightful
ly sincere, so unafl'ected and natural,
perfectly adapted to the requirements;
and all the simplest and most direct
result of the various needs and materials.
Most of the old houses are of round
logs, chinked with clay; but we find,
now and then, a house of squared logs,
in some cases a marvelous example of
ax work. In one case, in a house built
about a century ago, the logs were so
smoothly and beautifully hewn that
they look like siding, except for the very
perfect dovetailing at the corners. The
logs lay together so closely as to neces
sitate no pointing or chinking. In some
of these houses no iron was used at all.
When wood was to be put together it
was done by means of strong hickory
pins, the board doors swinging on
wooden pivots and having wooden
One other peculiar feature is that win
dows are almost unknown; the door or
doors admit light by day, and the fat
wood fire brilliantly illumines the in
terior by night. I once asked a woman
why they had two doors. She said they
needed two doors in summer to cool the
house, and in winter so as to open the
one opposite the wind.
Now, these thick, solid log walls, like
the adobe of Mexico, are the most
comfortable possible. They repel the
heat of the sun's rays in summer, and
the cold winds of winter, and retain the
heat radiated from the fireplace. Some
times the room has beams and a ceiling
of wood, making a dark loft; but very
generallv the pole rafters and first layer
of shingles are exposed. These very
soon get coated a glistening black with
smoke. Some of these houses have been
made to appear modern by being covered
with siding outside, and ceiled with
boards inside, plaster and paper being
seldom seen, the wood walls being white
washed instead. In some localities
those understanding brick making and
possessing a clay pit build for them
selves a chimney of brick, but the stick
and dirt chimney is most common.
After the advent of the lumberman and
the saw mill, the method of building
construction changed ; and we find now
many cottages looking somewhat, bar
ring paint, like the farm houses of New
England, with an enormous outside chim
ney or two and without paint, and what
is typical of this later period, the "shack."
Now, the shack has an interest as a type.
It is built of rough pine hoards through
out, even to the roof, doors and chimney ;
and it is quite often a very picturesque
affair. There is an unconventionality, a
certain disregard of all custom, and it has
the chic of a crisp sketch.
The boards project above the ridge in
irregular patches, and hang over the
walls here and there, varying from two
to six feet. The big chimney is very
picturesque, and the entire structure is