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THE DAILY TAR: HEEL
TUESDAY, JANUARY 13, 1955
77)e Deadening Hand Of Government Atomic Secrecy
Does secrecy spell security?
"No" is the answer given on this page
by two careful observers of the American
scene. The Washington Post's Herblock and
The Christian Science Monitor's Roland
They are not alone. E. B. White, writing
last week in The New Yorker, said this:
We don't think the problem of contamination-by-experimentation,
has yet been presented to the world
in anything like the vivid, detailed, and com
pelling way that it merits. . . .
We suggest that the United States present
this nuclear problem fully and dramatically
in the near future, with the help of its best
scientists and dreamers and prophets, from the
forum of the United Nations. ...
And the American Association for the
Advancement of Science has viewed with in
formed alarm the dangers of peacetime atom
ic explosions as well as the disadvantage ex
cessive government atomic secrecy works on
scientists those laboring, on inventions for
defense against atomic war.
The chorus of objections against the gov
ernment's secrecy obsession fall into two cate
co! ics: Those who point out, as Mr. Whiter
1: -s, that the world is becoming an unhealthy
j)!.uc because of atomic tests and that peo
j'le. if they were informed, .might rebel and
find some way to keep from destroying them
selves; and those who strain against too much
secrecy as a hamperer of the spirit of creat
iveness. No secret formulas need be released. No
one is asking that. All these people request is
formal, official, public appraisal of atomic
potentiality and less stringent secrecy where
it is uncalled for and blocks the work of
The truth about atomic power has appar
ently not been told the people of the world.
Enough, however, has sifted down via the
more informed reporters and scientists to
lead one to suspect that the truth is massive
and frightenings In such circumstances, se
crecy does not mean security, but insecurity
of the sort that can undermine a nation's
very life. The truth is needed here; it should
The Movers &
Shakers Of The World
We were particularly interested in those
whom E. B. White would enlist to cope with
the problem of peacetime atomic explosions
"our best scientists and dreamers and pro
phets." We agree that there is a place in the
scheme for dreamers as well as for scientists
and prophets. We 'fear, though, that in this
case, as in so many others, the dreamer would
be relegated to an obscure place upstage.
Not so with scientists and prophets, of
course. Despite the current loyalty attacks
on scientists, the profession is admired, as
Anthony Standen has shown in Science Is A
Sacred Cow, alrhost to the point of apothe
osis. As for prophets, the old saying is that
they are without honor in their own coun
tries." But the subdued half of that adage
would suggest that prophets are at least hon
ored in all the rest of the World.
Dreamers, 'however, have historically
been assigned to the lunatic fringe. In prob
lems of nuclear physics, as of politics and na
tional policy, we look upon the dreamer as
one who is more hypnotized by the pale
moon he contemplates than he is interested
in finding out something about it. Dream
ers, after all, are
World losers and world foresakers
On whom the pale moon gleams.
But dreamer? have their niche in the
overwhelming conflict between conscience
and technology laid on us by the arms race.
There are shades of human problems where
the rationality of the scientists collapses and
the prophet's clairvoyance is dimmed, his
bursting forth stilled. Here moves in the
dreamer, lor, to complete the quatrain,
dreamers - ' .
. . . Are the movers and shakers
Of the world forever, it seems.
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-P: &'J&&rjjz NS I FASTS OF LIFE l J
--e k o c
A Message With An Edge
Ed Yoder .
Little time has passed since
the whole country drew a -sharp-breath
about an abuse of mili
in which a
geant at Camp
Gordon, G a.,
hanged a draf-
LOUIS KRAAR, ED YODER
Night Editor for this Issue
4 tee bis heels.
- I The Caine
s Martial deal
4 ins with the
same broad issue of military au
thority, its uses and abuses
came to Chapel Hill, Saturday
The Court Martial turns on Ar
ticles 184, 185, and 186 of Naval
Regulations which provide that
in "the last extremity" a subor
dinate officer may relieve his
superior. Herman Wouk, curious
about these regulations, started
to write the story in novel form
while he was in the navy. He
created a situation in which pan
ic during a World War II Ty
phoon made it necessary, . for a
naval lieutenant to relieve his
captain of a destroyer-minesweeper
Captain Queeg, the man he re
lieved, (played by Paul Douglas)
is treated in the play as a sometimes-cowardly
and often vindic
tive paranoid. He distrusts his
subordinate officers,4 exalts . his
own judgments, feels his officers
are plotting against him, and
abuses his crew with cruel pun
ishments for minor offenses.
In the equatorial region, Cap
tain Queeg finds a crewman hav
ing a drink during water ration
hour. So he turns off the water
for a whole day. He shakes down
the xrew and rifles the ship to
find a key that never existed
s simply because someone has eat
en strawberries from the icebox
Captain Queeg maintains his
composure in the court martial
until Act n. Then, Banry
Grenwald, the rebellious cap
tain's Jewish defender, . needles
him into a breakdown that re
veals the neurotic side of his
personality. The court martial
can only acquit the insubordinate
Lieutenant Maryck (Steve Bro
die) who, after a long chain of
weird events, took command of
the foundering Caine during the
Lieutenant Maryck, then, has
challenged military authority. A
court martial is satisfied that
the challenger was in the right
and that Captain- Queeg' s per
sonality was unstable. .. Military
authority, rightly used, is valua
ble. But, like any other authori
j, Jt jnust be subjected to con
stant reexamination. It is not
So end the first two acts.
The most penetrating analysis
of the issues is saved for a scene
after the acquital of Maryck that
brings all the principals involved
in the Caine mutiny together at
a party in San Francisco. This
scene surfaces ideas that have
been but undercurrents in the
first two acts.
Lt. Greenwald, Maryck's law
yer, is spokesman. The audience
has known from the beginning
of the play that his emotions are
mixed. Greenwald knows it is his
duty to defend the lieutenant
who has taken command of the
Caine and who is not at fault.
He hesitates, however, because
he has a view of the old regulars
like Captain Queeg that no one
else in the cast seems to have:
"Get on to old Yellowstain
(Captain Qqeeg)" the officers
shout at him as he begins his
speech at the party.
"Now I'm coming to Old Yel
lowstain. Coming to him," Green
wald says, drunkenly and pen
sively. "See, Mr. Keefer (an of
ficer on the Caine, novelist, and
the real protaginist for mutiny)
while I was studying law, and
you were writing your short stor
ies for national magadines, and
little Willie (also a Caine, offi
cer) was on the playing fields of
Pirinrieton, whyi, all tihat timel
these birds we call regulars were
. . . standing guard on this fat,
dumb, and happy country of ours.
"Course they were doing it for
dough, same as everybody does
what they do. . . ."
. And Greenwald is right about
Queeg. As a- member of a minor
ity' group that faced brutal dan
ger at the hands of . the Nazis,
he sees clearly what the officers
of the Caine do not. . ,
Captain Queeg, like so many
of the old regulars of the armed
services is full of the bad quali
ties, the hates and traumas and
petty complexes that can lead
a man to make his career mili
tary service. But at the same
time he represents the . last for
tifications of the Republic. Queeg
is one of those who,
.... in the day when heaven
The hour when earth's foun
Followed their mercenary calling
And took their wages and are
Their shoulders' held the sky
They stood on earth's founda
tions stay; ; -
WThat God abandoned, these de
fended, And saved the sum of things
Lt. Barry Greenwald under
stands exactly what A. E. Hous
man meant when he wrote this
poem. Housman wrote it in mem
ory of the old regulars the Cap
tain Queegs- who were the first
to go and "save the sum of
things for pay" when 1915
brought world war to France.
"Queeg deserved better at my
hands," says Lt. Grenwald with
real compassion. "I owed him a
favor, don't you see? He stopped
Herman from washing his fat
behind with my mother. . ."
Even mercenaries, realizes
Barry Gremvald, are not mer
cenaries when you talk in ul
timate terms. When war breaks
out, the blue chips are down,
and everyone else has yet to
turn from a novel or a college
play-field, someone has to step
into the breach. The breach fil
ler must be ready to die. ,
When heaven falls can we con
demn even the warped mercen
aryeven the fat, stupid Queeg?
That's what Mr. Wouk is asking.
That is the real message of the
Caine Mutiny Court Martial. A
message with edge.
PEACE OF MIND
The concept that peace of mind
in the great desideratum is clear
ly allied to the principle of non
activity which, as Schweitzer has
recently emphasized, flows di
rectly out of a negation of the
world.- What do YOU think
about peace of mind, Galileo and
Darwin? Are you in favor of it,
Luther and Cromwell? Is this
what .we learned from you,
Thoreau and Whitman? Is this
what you had in mind for our
own nation, Governor Bradford,
Roger Williams, Ben Franklin
and Thomas Jefferson?
Most specifically of all, peace
of mind is not what I ask from
religion. To pray for peace of
mind appeals to me as a rather
unpleasant insult to the God of
'the restless cell, of the blazing
novae, of the swirling nebulae.
The God, in short, of progress,
not of stagnption.
God pity me on the day when
I have lost my restlessness! God
forgive me when I am satisfied!
God forgive me if ever I am so
dull, insensitive, lazy, complac
ent, phlegmatic, and apathetic as
to have peace of mind! Warren
Weaver in The Saturday Review.
Of course, when after a lot of plowing and
harrowing officers did begin to thaw out and talk
guardedly, one of the things they frequently said
was that they assumed the Soviet military experts
knew pretty well what the United States was doing
except in the refinements of atomic weapons de
velopment. In air defense the assumption generally was
that there were virtually no secrets to which the
Russians hadn't deduced the right conclusions.
The secrets were kept only from ourselves.
Everything is on a "need-to-know" basis. If a
man doesn't "need" to know something, he never
learns. The assumption also seems to be that the
public, represented in such a case by the press,
doesn't "need to know" either.
Yet, nearly every officer I met, and there
were dozens, and specifically every general, com
plained that they can't get the support they want
for appropriations in Congress, "because the peo
ple aren't informed."
This was particularly true in air defense, which
has felt the heavy hand of economy in its three
struggling years to get started. Air defense people,
beginning with Lt. Gen. Ben Chidlaw, want sub
stantially large appropriations for air defense, in
the vicinity of three to four billion dollars over
the next few years.
They say they must have this to do the job.
At the same time one of them said to me, "But we
can't tell you a thing. You'll have to take our word
for it that we are doing a job to the best of our
Certainly on the offensive side of air-atomic
power, security and secrecy in new weapons and
in tactics and strategy is wise. But in the realm
of defense where, especially, public support is
needed, and where it might be smart to boast to
the Soviets and to the world what we could arid
would do to any attacker, secrecy and security
does not even seem to be working in favor of the
The fear which we. Americans have of each
other today is appalling. If you challenge this,
take the same trip this correspondent has been on.
So I returned to Washington and went straight
to an individual in this city who, knows a great
deal about all such matters. "I can sympathize
with you," he said, and then proceeded to give
I am certain that in the articles I wrote, the
Soviets will learn nothing new.
I did one other thing upon my return. I picked
up the text of a congressional hearing last summer
at which many of the scientists who work in air
defense testified. There were enough disclosures
to cause a security officer's hair to turn white,
all neatly printed and easy to read. Congressional
reports are without doubt the greatest source of
information to the world that exists.
Finally, I talked with two scientists who made
no breaches of security, but who asserted to me
and they are men who can be trusted the be
cause of security, many millions are wasted be
cause mistakes are made from insufficient public
discussion. . (
Worse, according to these men, the country
doesn't get the weapons for defense it could have,
because the public isn't informed. It it were, these
men claim, public opinion would insist upon things
being done that have not been done. And air de
fense would be two to three years further along.
Roland Sawyer In
The Christian Science Monitor
This correspondent has recently been on a trip
west to centers of air-atomic power: SAC, or Stra
tegic Air Command, at Omaha, ADC, or Air De
fense Command, at Colorado Springs; Los Alamos,
N. M., where nuclear explosions are created; Al
buquerque, where atomic weapons are assembled,
and White Sands Proving Ground, where guided
missiles are tested. But I had to return to Washing
ton to get the word on most essential questions.
I talked to generals and colonels, as well as
airmen and press officers, and for the most part
all I got from them was gobbledygook. A reporter
from a responsible newspaper goes out to get the
facts on air defense, but so tight are the security
restrictions imposed everywhere that almost no
one will talk even relatively freely.
It is a drastic state of affairs that Americans
cannot accept each other at face value any more,
whether an officer, or a correspondent, regardless
of his duty station or the reputation of his news
paper. A man must have a little ticket and a number
on his breast before he can get into the outer
gates of a single installation which I visited, even
Los Alamos town where all the people do is eat
and sleep. (There are separate and higher fences
around its technical area.))
Every military officer I talked to on this trip
with the exception of some people at SAC where
they live in a world all their own was under the
deadening hand of security.
,' V i
"PSYCHOLOGY IS about peo
ple, not mice running through
mazes," he said
that first day
n class. And
e all sat up
.traight in our
;eats to learn
i b o u t oursel
as Dr. Eng
lish B a g by ,
who taught Carolina students ab
but themselves until he died last
Dr. Bagby, who was as active
in community affairs as he was
in academic matters, knew stu
dents as well as knew psycho-
He learned his field at Prince
ton and Johns Hopkins, and he
learned students at Yale, Colum
bia, Johns Hopkins, and most
of all Carolina. He belonged to
the string of organizations that
(narked him as emminent in his
. field, scholarly groups that
spoke an academic language.
Dr. Bagby took the principles
psychologists learned by watch
ing the mice run through mazes
and translated them from the
language of scholars to that of
"There is so much insecurity
around, us today that I often mar
vel how you students survive,"
he remarked one day in his psy
chology of personality class.
"When I finished school, all a
young person had to worry ab
out was getting a start making
a living. But today it seems that
you can't count on anything.
"W'ith you Boys, it's the draft.
And this means you girls have to
wait and make your plans accordingly."
THE HONOR System wasn't
just a system with Dr. Bagby. "A
student's word is all I need.
Don't bring me any written ex
cuses," he would say.
Last spring, when Dr. Bagby's
health made the teaching he
loved difficult, he came to class
with a book of James Thurbcr's
"You students have been very
kind to me this term. Sometimes
it's been difficult to teach, and
you've been patient.
"That's why I brought this
book. It's something I like very
much. And since you've been
kind to me, I'd like to share it
with you." he said.
Then Dr. Bagby gave some of
the most delightful readings of
Thurbers keen humor that we'd
ever heard. The life that this
professor worked so hard to
learn, then teach, filled the room
in a way I'll never forget.
SOMEHOW ONE paragraph of
the stories about Dr. Bagby's
death seemed to epitomize the
way he looked at the students
who sat under him.
"He also rated students here
highly. Although a very small
percentage of them is trained in
prep schools, he compared them
favorably with the upper 20 per
cent of any college where he had
taught," the story said.
Actually, the students this pro
fessor thought so much of were
just as high in their estimation
of him. There was an unspoken
agreement in his class that both
you, the student, and he, the
teacher, were interested in the
same thing life.
Dr. Bagby thought enough of
life to learn why people acted
as they did. He thought enough
of it during the Depression to
personally pay for medicine for
. self-help students attending Car-
; olina. '
Life filled the classroom of
this kindly professor who admir
ed and understood, instead of
That's why these students are
going to miss the man who tau
ght them so much about themsel
vses Dr. English Bagby.
YOU Said It:
Insult To Rise
Granted that Rise Stevens was
sad; she had every rightlo be.
The view of that unpolished, de
crepit stage was enough-to de
press even the audience.
I wince to think of the im
pression we have made on the
singers, speakers, and musician.;
who have performed on that'
stage, in that oppressive atmos
phere, and to the rhythms of
those steam pipes. Memorial Hall
is (and I think you will' agree)
the sore spot of our campus.
How can a University consider
itself a cultural center when it
has not even a hall fit for visi
tors who to such a large extent
exemplify portions of tljat cul
ture? Ah, friend, we are in a sad
state and don't know it.
I hope Miss Stevens hurried
away from Chapel Hill. Because.,
to the insult of Memorial was
added the injury of being sat
irized in our campus newspaper
the next day. And not a sentence
was printed in that paper of the
merits of her performance.
While we continue to invite?
guests to sing, speak, and play
for us, Memorial Hall remauJ
in its uncomfortable condition.
Perhaps Miss Stevens was not
merely depressed; perhaps she
was worried that under a -sudden
burst of Bizet, the stage might
give way beneath her.
One For Egghead Ed
We have composed a pome in
honor of the Tarnation:
Alas for the Tarnation
Her jokes have grown poorer
She never was given to litera-
Ain't the Tarnation a silly?
They done gone in there high ly
literatte way (of which this
sentence is an example) and
censored Our Boy PZd, "The Egg
head Rebellionist" Yoder. "We
. 're to be more Pitied than Cen
sored." For this unique begin
ning we kiddies were surprised
because here on the fifth page,
in the right-hand column, the
Tarnation admits what we've
thought all along. But this time
they've overdone it. . ,,
Bad enough to have was,te pa
per on our hands; but the con
demnation of "Our Boy Ed" is
too much. This letter is not
meant in any to be malicious,
but only to serve as a warning
to those who connive to publish
aTrnation. Don't they realize
that, come the Revolution (the
Egghead Revolution we mean)
these swinish anti-Eggheads will
be the first to go. Ain't that a
Speaking seriously for a mo
ment (to the staff of the Tar
nation)) have you all ever
thought about humor"- And why
Lay off Our Boy Ed.
Nujnes Withheld By Ilcqust
& All That
The St. Louis
Grand is the history of the
Fifth Royal Inniskilling Dragoon
Guards. In case you are not up
on these things, a dragoon is a
ealvaryman; and in the last throe
centuries the Fifth Innif-,killins.
in scarlet, green and silver have
charged across many a battle
field as though it were no more
than a parade ground.
The regiment however has not
had a horse for almost 20 years.
These days its 700 men are sta
tioned on the Forkshire moors
with 45 Centurion tanks. But
time should not be allowed to
change things that way believes
its commander Col. Richard DeC.
Vigors. So he is urging his men
to devote their spare time to fox
hunting. Horse troops, you know,
must not forget horses.
But here's a bit of difficulty.
No matter how well it thinks of
them, the War Office does not
issue horses with tanks. A ne
glected polo fund, however, lias
ben used to buy eight handsome
steeds and a few more have been
borrowed. The 700 will have to
take their turn, but that's just a
bit of austerity which an English
man takes in his stride. Alsy
most of the men have, never
worn a scarlet packet, let-alone
a pink coat. But for the time
being they will make do with a .
tank man's overalls, even if a
bit grease-stained. The big.thin
is that regimental tradition is
being honored again. The Fifth
Inniskillings are mounted once
Ah, there will aluavs be ;m'